Viewing 1 to 30 of 41
Journal Article
Michael Peperhowe, Kusnadi Liem, Hagen Haupt
Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
Technical Paper
Andreas Himmler, Peter Waeltermann, Mina Khoee-Fard
Automotive technology is rapidly changing with electrification of vehicles, driver assistance systems, advanced safety systems etc. This advancement in technology is making the task of validation and verification of embedded software complex and challenging. In addition to the component testing, integration testing imposes even tougher requirements for software testing. To meet these challenges dSPACE is continuously evolving the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) technology to provide a systematic way to manage this task. The paper presents developments in the HIL hardware technology with latest quad-core processors, FPGA based I/O technology and communication bus systems such as Flexray. Also presented are developments of the software components such as advanced user interfaces, GPS information integration, real-time testing and simulation models. This paper provides a real-world example of implication of integration testing on HIL environment for Chassis Controls.
Technical Paper
Hagen Haupt, Joerg Bracker, Markus Ploeger
The essential task of a battery management system (BMS) is to consistently operate the high-voltage battery in an optimum range. Due to the safety-critical nature of its components, prior testing of a BMS is absolutely necessary. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is a cost-effective and efficient tool for this. Testing the BMS on a HIL test bench requires an electronics unit to simulate the cell voltages and a scalable real-time battery model. This paper describes a HIL system that enables comprehensive testing of BMS components. Hardware and software solutions are proposed for the high requirements of these tests. The individual components are combined to make a modular system, and safety-critical aspects are examined. The paper shows that the system as developed fulfills all the requirements derived from the different test scenarios for BMS systems.
Technical Paper
Susanne Köhl, Dirk Jegminat
Not only is the number of electronic control units (ECUs) in modern vehicles constantly increasing, the software of the ECUs is also becoming more complex. Both make testing a central task within the development of automotive electronics. Testing ECUs in real vehicles is time-consuming and costly, and comes very late in the automotive development process. It is therefore increasingly being replaced by laboratory tests using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. While new software functions are still being developed or optimized, other functions are already undergoing certain tests, mostly on module level but also on system and integration level. To achieve the highest quality, testing must be done as early as possible within the development process. This paper describes the various test phases during the development of automotive electronics (from single function testing to network testing of all the ECUs of a vehicle).
Technical Paper
Bernhard Heiming, Hagen Haupt
The number of electrical and electronic components in modern vehicles is constantly growing. Increasingly, functionalities are being distributed across several electronic control units (ECUs). While suppliers themselves are responsible for ensuring that individual ECUs function properly, only the OEM can test distributed functions. Moreover, with the volume of testing steadily growing, automated sequences are absolutely essential. To test electronic networks in the vehicle, Ford Europe is using platform-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation with integrated failure insertion. The company is setting up a uniform, project-independent procedure, from standardized test definition to automated test sequences on a virtual vehicle, right through to structured evaluation.
Technical Paper
Herbert Schuette, Peter Waeltermann
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test benches are indispensable for the development of modern vehicle dynamics controllers (VDCs). They can be regarded as a standard methodology today, because of the extremely safety-critical nature of the multi-sensor and multi-actuator systems used in vehicle dynamics control. The required high quality standards can only be ensured by systematic testing within a virtual HIL environment before going into a real car. This paper aims to provide a condensed technical over-view of state-of-the-art HIL test systems for VDCs, which are currently widely used in passenger cars, in the form of ABS and TCS, as well as ESP, or integrated chassis control, which is just coming onto the market. First, a short introduction to the basic functionality of these types of ECUs is given, and the reasons why HIL testing is necessary and especially useful for VDCs are discussed.
Technical Paper
Kusnadi Liem, Michael Peperhowe, Hagen Haupt
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation in the development and test process of vehicle dynamics controllers requires a real-time tractor-trailer simulation model. The hitch coupling must be numerically stable to ensure real-time simulation for various driving maneuvers, particularly at the vehicle's handling limits. This paper presents a robust implementation of tractor-trailer coupling. The equation of motion is formed using a novel formulation which is a combination of Jourdain's Principle and the Articulated Body Algorithm. The paper shows that a robust model for a real-time tractor-trailer simulation can be achieved with the proposed method. Moreover, the approach presented is suitable for modular modeling, is successfully implemented and can also be used as a basis for flexible system definition with an adjustable number of trailer axles.
Technical Paper
Andreas Himmler
Abstract To make the development of complex aircraft systems manageable and economical, tests must be performed as early as possible in the development process. The test goals are already set in advance before the first hardware for the ECUs exists, to be able to make statements about the system functions or possible malfunctions. This paper describes the requirements on and solutions for test systems for ECUs that arise from these goals. It especially focuses on how a seamless workflow and consistent use of test systems and necessary software tools can be achieved, from the virtual test of ECUs, which exist only as models, up to the test of real hardware. This will be shown in connection with a scalable, fully software-configurable hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) technology. The paper also covers the seamless use of software tools that are required for HIL testing throughout the different test phases, enabling the reuse of work products throughout the test phases.
Technical Paper
Andreas Himmler, Jace Allen, Vivek Moudgal
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing is an indispensable tool in the software development process for electronic control units (ECUs) and Logical Replaceable Units (LRUs) and is an integral part of the software validation process for many organizations. HIL simulation is regarded as the tried-and-tested method for function, component, integration and network tests for the entire system. Using the Model based design approach has further enabled improved and faster HIL implementations in recent years. This paper describes the changing requirements for HIL simulation, and how they need to be addressed by HIL technology. It also addresses the challenges faced while setting up a successful HIL system: namely the division of tasks, the total cost of ownership, budget constraints and tough competition and the adaptability of a HIL simulator to new demands. These requirements are discussed using a dSPACE HIL system architecture that was designed from the ground-up to address these needs.
Technical Paper
Torsten Kluge, Jace Allen, Amanjot Dhaliwal
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing is used by commercial vehicle original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in several fields of electronics development. HIL tests are a part of the standard development process for engine and machine control systems. For electronic control units (ECUs), not only the HIL test of the hardware but also the controller software validation is very important. For hardware diagnostics validation, a dynamic simulation of the real system could be omitted and an open-loop test of the controller is sufficient in most cases. For most controller software validation including OBD (on-board diagnosis) tests, detailed but real-time capable models have to be used. This article describes the needs and challenges of models in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) based testing, taking into account the wide range of commercial and off-highway vehicles.
Technical Paper
Kunal Patil, Sisay Kefyalew Molla, Tino Schulze
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is a real-time testing process that has been proven indispensable for the modern vehicle dynamics, powertrain, chassis and body systems electronic controls development. The high quality standards and robustness of the control algorithms can only be met by means of detailed vehicle plant simulation models. In the last few years, several efforts have been made to develop detailed plant models. Several tools for the vehicle modeling are available in the market and each tool has different and distinct advantages. This paper addresses ways that dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models (ASM) can support the model-based development processes. Additional modern software tools that were used in connection with the ASM are LMS AMESim and Mathworks SimDriveline (of Simscape). ASM is an open Matlab/Simulink model environment used for offline PC based simulation and online real-time platform HIL testing.
Technical Paper
Andreas Himmler, Klaus Lamberg, Michael Beine
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is now a standard component in the vehicle development process as a method for testing electronic control unit (ECU) software. HIL simulation is used for all aspects of development, naturally including safety-relevant functions and systems. This applies to all test tasks (from function testing to release tests, testing a single ECU or an ECU network, and so on) and also to different vehicle domains: The drivetrain, vehicle dynamics, driver assistance systems, interior/comfort systems and infotainment are all tested by HIL simulation. At the same time, modern vehicles feature more and more safety-related systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control, Electronic Stability Program, Power Assisted Steering, and Integrated Chassis Management.
Technical Paper
Herbert Hanselmann
Abstract Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation is a technology where the actual vehicles, engines or other components are replaced by a real-time simulation in a simulation computer, based on a mathematical model. That simulation reads ECU (Electronic Control Unit) output signals which would normally go to actuators. On the other hand the simulation must output the sensor signals which make the ECU ‘think’ it controls a real system. Generating these signals can be very difficult. Signals may be complex, depend on on-line computed variables, and be required to be output at high timing resolution. This paper describes the problems and presents a solution which employs high-performance Digital Signal Processors (DSP) to generate such signals on-line by Direct-Digital-Synthesis (DDS).
Technical Paper
Christian Wewetzer, Klaus Lamberg, Rainer Otterbach
The importance of electronics, especially software, has greatly increased over the last few years. Efforts to maintain a high level of software quality have made testing an important part of the development process. With the advent of model-based development, testing methods can be used not only on code level, but also on model level. Next to test execution itself, test development is seen as the most time- and cost-intensive part of the testing process. This paper outlines and classifies current approaches to model-based test development, with the aim of providing guidelines for test developers for choosing the method best suited to the type of system under test and the test objective.
Technical Paper
Andreas Wagener, Thomas Schulte, Peter Waeltermann, Herbert Schuette
Electric drives are growing in importance in automotive applications, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and in the vehicle dynamics area (steering systems, etc.). The challenges of real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation and testing of electric drives are addressed in this paper. In general, three different interface levels between the electric drive and the hardware-inthe-loop system can be distinguished: the signal level (1), the electrical level (2) and the mechanical level (3). These interface levels, as well as modeling and I/O-related aspects of electric drives and power electronics devices, are discussed in detail in the paper. Finally, different solutions based on dSPACE simulator technology are presented, for both hybrid vehicle and steering applications.
Technical Paper
Holger Krisp, Klaus Lamberg, Robert Leinfellner
Today, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is common practice as a testing methodology for electronic control units (ECUs). An essential criterion for the efficiency of an HIL system is the availability of powerful test automation having access to all of its hardware and software components (including I/O channels, failure insertion units, bus communication controllers and diagnostic interfaces). The growing complexity of vehicle embedded systems, which are interconnected by bus systems (like CAN, LIN or FlexRay), result in hundreds or even thousands of tests that have to be done to ensure the correct system functionality. This is best achieved by automated testing. Automated testing usually is performed by executing tests on a standard PC, which is interconnected to the HIL system. However, higher demands regarding timing precision are hard to accomplish. As an example, ECU interaction has to be captured and responded to in the range of milliseconds.
Technical Paper
Herbert Schuette, Markus Ploeger
Due to tougher legislation on exhaust emissions reduction and the consumer demand for more power and mobility and less fuel consumption, the functionality in today's engine management systems continues to grow. The electronic engine control units (ECUs) have to perform more control tasks using new sensors and actuators, along with the corresponding self-diagnostics (OBD, on-board diagnosis). All this leads to continuously increasing demands on automated hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems. HIL technology has advanced in parallel to the ECUs, and is today an indispensable tool for developing automotive electronics. This paper therefore aims to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art survey of HIL test systems for engine controllers. First of all, a brief introduction to the ECU's functionality is given.
Technical Paper
Mikael Adenmark, Matthias Deter, Thomas Schulte
Modern vehicles use Electronic Control Units (ECU), connected via Controller Area Network (CAN) to perform functions. Many of these functions are distributed across several ECUs. This network interconnection enables the sharing of sensors, calculated information and actuators. As new functionality is added, the number of ECUs and their complexity increase. This paper describes the values and possibilities of a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) based Integration Lab, which enables a wide range of automatic tests to be performed on networked ECUs. The Integration Lab is the complex rebuild of a Scania truck/bus, containing the ECU superset, for connecting and testing networked ECUs. It involves more than 30 ECUs and eleven CAN networks.
Technical Paper
Klaus Lamberg, Michael Beine, Mario Eschmann, Rainer Otterbach, Mirko Conrad, Ines Fey
Permanently increasing software complexity of today's electronic control units (ECUs) makes testing a central and significant task within embedded software development. While new software functions are still being developed or optimized, other functions already undergo certain tests, mostly on module level but also on system and integration level. Testing must be done as early as possible within the automotive development process. Typically ECU software developers test new function modules by stimulating the code with test data and capturing the modules' output behavior to compare it with reference data. This paper presents a new and systematic way of testing embedded software for automotive electronics, called MTest. MTest combines the classical module test with model-based development. The central element of MTest is the classification-tree method, which has originally been developed by the DaimlerChrysler research department.
Technical Paper
Frank Schuette, Dirk Berneck, Martin Eckmann, Shigeaki Kakizaki
The technological development in the field of automotive electronics is proceeding at almost break-neck speed. The functions being developed and integrated into cars are growing in complexity and volume. With the increasing number and variety of sensors and actuators, electronics have to handle a greater amount of data, and the acquisition and generation of I/O signals is also growing in complexity, for example, in engine management applications. Moreover, intelligent and complex algorithms need to be processed in a minimum of time. This all intensifies the need for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP), a proven method of decisively speeding up the model-based software development process of automotive electronic control units (ECUs) [1],[2]. All these demanding tasks, including connecting sensors and actuators to the RCP system, need to be performed within a standard prototyping environment.
Technical Paper
Björn Müller, Susanne Köhl
Validating control units with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulators is an established method for quality enhancements in automotive software. It is primarily used for testing applications, but in view of increased networking between electronic control units, it can also be used for testing communication scenarios. The testing of electronic control unit (ECU) communication often includes only positive testing. Simple communication nodes are used for this, and communication analyzers are used for verifying communication up to the physical level. However, it is not only an ECU's positive communication behavior that has to be tested, but also its correct behavior in the event of communication errors. In HIL communication scenarios, it is not only possible to emulate the missing bus nodes (restbus simulation) with a link to real-time signals; correct ECU behavior in the event of communication errors can also be tested.
Technical Paper
Oliver Niggemann, Rainer Otterbach, Dirk Fleischer, Santhosh Jogi
Over the last few years the introduction of explicit system and software architecture models (e.g. AUTOSAR models) has led to changes in the automotive development process. The ability to simulate these models on a PC will be decisive for the acceptance of such approaches. This would support the early verification of distributed ECU and software systems and could therefore lead to cost savings. This paper describes an implementation of such an approach which fits into current development processes.
Technical Paper
Dirk Stichling, Oliver Niggemann, Joachim Stroop, Dirk Fleischer
Function models have a well-established position in automotive software development. Formal system models, on the other hand, are rare. This article describes the various aspects of function and system models, focusing mainly on AUTOSAR-compatible models. It also depicts the challenges for future overall models that combine the function models and the system model, and the resulting benefits, such as early system verification via PC-based simulations.
Technical Paper
Heinrich Balzer, Oliver Niggemann, Dirk Fleischer, Matthias Kohlweyer, Valentin Adam
In modern vehicles the architecture of electronics is growing more and more complex because both the number of electronic functions – e.g. implemented as software modules – as well as the level of networking between electronic control units (ECUs) is steadily increasing. This complexity leads to greater propagation of failure symptoms, and diagnosing the causes of failure becomes a new challenge. Diagnostics aims at detecting failures such as defect sensors or faulty communication messages. It is subdivided into diagnosis algorithms on an ECU and algorithms running offboard, e.g. on a diagnostic tester. These algorithms have to complement each other in the best possible way. While in the past the diagnosis algorithm was developed late in the development process, nowadays there are efforts to start the development of such algorithms earlier – at least in parallel to developing a new feature itself. This would allow developers to verify the diagnosis algorithms in early design stages.
Journal Article
Dirk Fleischer, Michael Beine, Ulrich Eisemann
Model-based software development and automatic code generation have become increasingly established in recent years. The automotive industry has widely adopted and successfully deployed these methods in many different series production programs worldwide. This brought various benefits, such as a reduction in development times, improved quality due to more precise specifications, and early verification and validation by means of simulation. At the same time, more and more safety-related and safety-critical systems have been - and will be -introduced into modern vehicles. Common examples are active front steering, adaptive cruise-control, and integrated chassis control. This leads to the question, if and how model-based design and automatic production code generation can be applied to the development of safety-critical systems.
Journal Article
Andreas Himmler, Lars Stockmann, Dominik Holler
Abstract The application of a communication infrastructure for hybrid test systems is currently a topic in the aerospace industry, as also in other industries. One main reason is flexibility. Future laboratory tests means (LTMs) need to be easier to exchange and reuse than they are today. They may originate from different suppliers and parts of them may need to fulfill special requirements and thus be based on dedicated technologies. The desired exchangeability needs to be achieved although suppliers employ different technologies with regard to specific needs. To achieve interoperability, a standardized transport mechanism between test systems is required. Designing such a mechanism poses a challenge as there are several different types of data that have to be exchanged. Simulation data is a prominent example. It has to be handled differently than control data, for example. No one technique or technology fits perfectly for all types of data.
Technical Paper
Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley, Stefano Riverso, Parithi Govindaraju, Atiyah Elsheikh, Leonardo Mangeruca, Gilberto Burgio, Alberto Ferrari, Marcel Gottschall, Torsten Blochwitz, Serge Bloch, Danielle Taylor, Declan Hayes-McCoy, Andreas Himmler
Abstract This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modeling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the Aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multi-physics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
Technical Paper
Hans Christian Doering, Norbert Meyer, Markus Wiedemeier
Abstract Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
Journal Article
Michael Peperhowe, Markus Friedrich, Peter Schmitz-Valckenberg
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are becoming increasingly important for today's commercial vehicles. It is therefore crucial that different ADAS functionalities interact seamlessly with existing electronic control unit (ECU) networks. For example, autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems directly influence the brake ECU and engine control. It has already become impossible to reliably validate this growing interconnectedness of control interventions in vehicle behavior with prototype vehicles alone. The relevant tests must be brought into the lab at an earlier development stage to evaluate ECU interaction automatically. This paper presents an approach for using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to validate ECU networks for extremely diverse ADAS scenarios, while taking into account real sensor data. In a laboratory environment, the sensor systems based on radars, cameras, and maps are stimulated realistically with a combination of simulation and animation.
Technical Paper
Tino Schulze, Thomas Schulte, Joerg Sauer
This paper describes challenges and possible solution of hybrid electrical vehicles test systems with a special focus on hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench. The degree of novelty of this work can be seen in the fact that development and test of ECU for hybrid electrical powertrains can move more and more from mechanical test benches with real automotive components to HIL test systems. The challenging task in terms of electrical interface between an electric motor ECU and an HIL system and necessary real-time capable simulation models for electric machines have been investigated and partly solved. Even cell balancing strategies performed by battery management systems (BMU) can be developed and tested using HIL technology with battery simulation models and a precise cell voltage simulation on electrical level.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 41


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