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Viewing 1 to 30 of 38
2009-12-13
Technical Paper
2009-28-0018
Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Tarun Gupta
Environmental concerns have increased significantly world over in the past decade. Regulatory agencies are becoming increasingly concerned with particulate emissions as the health and environmental effects are getting understood better due to rapid development in instrumentation. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative diesel fuels, which is getting global acceptability among the automotive/ engine manufactures as well as users due to numerous benefits it offers over the conventional diesel. While much of literature is available on particulate emitted by diesel fuelled engine, little is known by particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine. This study concentrates on the characterization of particulate emissions from mineral diesel vis-à-vis biodiesel (B100) and its optimum blend (20%, B20) with mineral diesel.
2009-12-13
Technical Paper
2009-28-0039
Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Deepak Agarwal
The world energy demand has witnessed uncertainties in two dimensions. The scarcity and depletion of conventional petroleum sources are causes of great concern worldwide. Combustion of fossil fuels has led to unprecedented rise in the global CO2 level, leading to global warming. Therefore, efforts are underway in several countries to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. Vegetable oils of non-edible nature are such alternative fuels, which can form part of potential solution. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products In the present research, experiment were designed to study the effect of reducing Neem oil's high viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature and thereby its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1183
Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Due to the increasingly stricter emission legislations and growing demand for lower fuel consumption, there have been significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency, while satisfying the emission requirements. Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers significant efficiency improvements compared to conventional gasoline engines. However, due to the nature of HCCI, fully homogeneous charge HCCI combustion can be realized only in a limited operating range. Control of HCCI engines to obtain the desirable operation requires understanding of how different charge variables influence the cyclic variations in HCCI combustion. Under certain operating conditions, HCCI engines exhibit large cyclic variations in ignition timing. Cyclic variability ranging from stochastic to deterministic patterns can be observed. One important design goal for engine development is to minimize cyclic variability.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1730
Shailendra Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
This experimental study was undertaken to investigate the use of vegetable oil derivatives to substitute mineral diesel fuel. Straight vegetable oils pose some problems like injector coking, carbon deposits etc., when used as a fuel in an engine. These problems are due to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of vegetable oils. Transesterified vegetable oil derivative called “biodiesel” appear to be most convenient way of utilizing vegetable oil as a substitute fuel in diesel engines. In present investigation, rice bran oil (non-edible) was transesterified to methyl ester and reaction conditions for transeterifcation process for rice bran oil were optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point of the biodiesel thus prepared are comparable to diesel and found to be in acceptable range as per ASTM norms (ASTM D6751). Experimental investigations were carried out on a four stroke, four cylinders, transportation DI diesel engine.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1645
Anirudh Gautam, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
This paper deals with the evaluation of steel cap pistons for up-gradation of diesel electric locomotives for Indian Railways. These engines are four stroke, medium speed compression ignition engines (CR 12.5: 1) with output of 121 kW per cylinder on series 1 and 167 kW per cylinder on series 2. The series 1 engine uses single piece aluminum pistons, with rating of 0.295 kW/cm2 of piston crown area. A higher version of the series 1 engine with higher fuel efficiency and improvement in lube oil consumption was developed. As part of this improvement program, a composite steel cap piston with forged aluminum skirt was used. The whole engine up-gradation kit including the higher capacity turbocharger, higher fuel delivery pressure fuel pump, modified cam shaft, larger after-cooler along with the steel cap piston were evaluated for performance.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2014-04-15
Journal Article
2014-01-9076
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are attracting attention as next-generation internal combustion engines mainly because of very low NOx and PM emission potential and excellent thermal efficiency. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible however recent studies suggest that PM number emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected. This study is therefore conducted on a modified four cylinder diesel engine to investigate this aspect of HCCI technology. One cylinder of the engine is modified to operate in HCCI mode for the experiments and port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogenous charge in this cylinder. Experiments are conducted at 1200 and 2400 rpm engine speeds using gasoline, ethanol, methanol and butanol fuels. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the particulates emitted on a pre-conditioned filter paper.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1631
Dhananjay Srivastava, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Laser is emerging as a strong contender as an alternative ignition source for internal combustion (IC) engines. Short laser pulses of few nanoseconds duration delivered by a Q-switched laser are focused by a lens inside the engine cylinder containing combustible fuel-air mixture. If the peak intensity at the focal point exceeds threshold intensity level, breakdown of combustible gases occurs, which leads to plasma formation. If the energy of the spark generated by plasma is high enough, the mixture ignites. In this investigation, laser ignition (LI) was performed in a single cylinder engine at constant speed and wide open throttle conditions using CNG as fuel. Combustion behavior was recorded using a high speed data acquisition system. For laser ignition of the engine, a laser spark plug was designed and manufactured. Laser spark plug consists of combination of lenses and optical windows.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1675
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) offers great promise for excellent fuel economy and extremely low emissions of NOx and PM. HCCI combustion lacks direct control on the "start of combustion" such as spark timing in SI engines and fuel injection timing in CI engines. Auto ignition of a homogeneous mixture is very sensitive to operating conditions of the engine. Even small variations of the load can change the timing from "too early" to "too late" combustion. Thus a fast combustion phasing control is required since it sets the performance limitation of the load control. Crank angle position for 50% heat release is used as combustion phasing feedback parameter. In this study, a dual-fuel approach is used to control combustion in a HCCI engine. This approach involves controlling the combustion heat release rate by adjusting fuel reactivity according to the conditions inside the cylinder. Two different octane fuels (methanol and n-heptane) are used for the study.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0930
Anirudh Gautam, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Indian Railways have a fleet of high-horsepower diesel-electric locomotives rated at 2310 kW. These high horsepower diesel-electric locomotives have evolved from original design of 1940 kW locomotives. Adoption of new design turbochargers was essential for this upgrading efforts and a series of new design turbochargers were evaluated on the engine test-bed before their use on the diesel locomotives. The objective was to increase engine power output, improve fuel efficiency and limit thermal loading. Test-bed evaluation of different turbochargers was carried out for comparing five different turbochargers. Each turbocharger had different size nozzle ring, diffuser, turbine blade assembly, impeller and inducer. The compressor maps of turbochargers were used to plot the engine load lines and to calculate surge margins. The tests involved measuring critical parameters for various combinations of engine speed and load for every turbocharger.
2012-01-09
Technical Paper
2012-28-0012
Jitendra Gangwar, Tarun Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust are largely attributed to the complex chemical composition of the exhaust species. This study was set out to characterize particulate emissions from a Euro-III-compliant modern automotive common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) diesel engine operated at different loads at rated engine speed (1800 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. This study is mainly divided into two main sections, first one includes the gravimetric analysis in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPOES). The second section includes real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).
2012-01-09
Technical Paper
2012-28-0005
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an advanced combustion concept that is developed as an alternative to diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency along with ultralow NOx and PM emissions. To study the performance of this novel technique, experiments were performed in a two cylinder engine, in which one cylinder is modified to operate in HCCI mode while other cylinder operates in conventional CI mode. The quality of homogeneous mixture of air and fuel is the key feature of HCCI combustion. Low volatility of diesel is a major hurdle in achieving HCCI combustion because it is difficult to make a homogeneous mixture of air and fuel. This problem is resolved by external mixture preparation technique in uses a dedicated diesel vaporizer with an electronic control system. All the injection parameters such as fuel quantity, fuel injection timing, injection delay etc., are controlled by the injection driver circuit.
2012-01-09
Technical Paper
2012-28-0028
Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Vipul Chaudhury, Pravesh Chandra Shukla
Diesel engines are very efficient prime movers in their power range. Fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines are highly influenced by the fuel spray parameters and atomization of the injected fuel. As the emission regulations become stringent, it is very important to optimize the combustion in internal combustion engines for different fuels including alternative fuels. Spray visualization using optical techniques play a very important role to analyze macroscopic spray parameters and fuel atomization behavior. In the present experimental study, an important alternative CI engine fuel, Karanja oil and its blends with diesel have been investigated for their spray parameters and fuel atomization relative to mineral diesel. These parameters are different for the two fuels because of difference in the viscosity and density of the fuels.
2005-10-23
Technical Paper
2005-26-348
K V L Bharathi, Dipankar Dwivedi, Mukesh Sharma, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
This study was set out to characterize particulate emissions from diesel engines in terms of poly aromatic hydrocarbon emissions and Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction. The characteristics of DPM vary with engine operating conditions, quality of fuel and lubricants being used. Hence the diesel exhaust for the purpose of toxicity characterization needs to be studied for Organic Matter in terms of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Benzene Soluble Fraction (BSF). Therefore, the objectives of the present research are to characterize the diesel exhaust particulate matter for the above parameters under varying engine operating conditions/loads. Six PAHs, namely Chrysene, Benzo (k) Flouranthene, Benzo (a) Pyrene, Dibenzo (a, h) Anthracene, Benzo (g,h,i) Perylene and Indenopyrene were analyzed on High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). PAH concentrations in the particulates of Mahindra DI engine were affected by engine loads.
2005-10-23
Technical Paper
2005-26-354
Shailendra Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine and they would not require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Methyl ester of rice bran oil (ROME) is derived through transesterification process. Previous research has shown that ROME has comparable performance, lower bsfc in comparison to diesel. There was reduction in the emissions of CO, HC, and smoke but NOx emissions increased. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine the combustion characteristics in a direct injection transportation diesel engine running with diesel, and 20% blend of rice bran methyl ester with diesel.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1382
Mani Bijoy Varghese, Sandeep Kumar Goyal, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Thermal loading of diesel engine pistons has increased dramatically in recent years due to applications of various advanced technologies to meet low emission and high power requirements. Control of piston temperatures by cooling of pistons has become one of the determining factors in a successful engine design. The pistons are cooled by oil jets fired at the underside from the crankcase. Any undesirable piston temperature rise may lead to engine seizure because of piston warping. However, if the temperature at the underside of the piston, where oil jet strikes the piston, is above the boiling point of the oil being used, it may contribute to the mist generation. This mist significantly contribute to the non-tail pipe emissions in the form of unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC's), which has unfortunately not been looked into so seriously, as the current stress of all the automobile manufacturers is on meeting the tail pipe emission legislative limits.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0605
Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Several experimental studies have been conducted for evaluating coefficient of friction and wear in simulated engine conditions using a piston ring segment and a liner piece rubbing against each other in reciprocating mode under load and lubricated conditions. In the present experimental investigation, a non-firing engine simulator has been developed in order to simulate engine conditions to a much closer extent. This machine can operate at similar linear speed, stroke, and load and can simulate almost similar engine operating conditions except firing pressures. This machine can also be used for comparing liners with different surface properties and the effects of surface texture on wear and oil consumption. One cylinder liner has been used for experimentation and the wear and surface properties behaviour were evaluated at several locations in the liner. Surface profile, roughness parameters are evaluated at several locations in the liner and at the top compression ring.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1383
Harish Kumar Gangwar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines are reported in the literature, caused by of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by blending it with mineral diesel and thereby eliminating the effect of high viscosity and poor volatility on combustion characteristics of the engine. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine the combustion characteristics of an indirect injection transportation diesel engine running with diesel, and jatropha oil blends with diesel.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1384
Bhaskar Mazumdar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) is a non-toxic and biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources. A major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel from virgin oil, in comparison to petroleum-based diesel, is its cost of production, primarily the raw material cost. Used cooking oils or waste cooking oils are economical sources for biodiesel production, which can help in commercialization of biodiesel. However, the products formed during cooking/frying (such as free fatty acids and various polymerized triglycerides) affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. In present experimental investigations, wastecooking oil obtained from restaurant was used to produce biodiesel through transesterification process and the chemical kinetics of biodiesel production was studied. Biodiesel was blended with petroleum diesel in different proportions.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1385
Shailendra Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Biodiesel is mono alkyl ester derived from vegetable oils through transesterification reaction and can be used as an alternative to mineral diesel. In the present research, methyl ester of rice-bran oil (ROME) is produced through transesterification of rice-bran oil using methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalyst. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value of the biodiesel thus prepared are characterized and found comparable to diesel. On the basis of previous research for performance, emission and combustion characteristics, a 20% blend of ROME (B20) was selected as optimum biodiesel blend for endurance test. Endurance test of 100 hours was conducted on a medium duty direct injection transportation diesel engine. Tests were conducted under predetermined loading cycles in two phases: engine operating on mineral diesel and engine fuelled with 20% biodiesel blend.
2008-01-09
Technical Paper
2008-28-0077
Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava, Gayatri Dwivedi, Gaurav Kawatra, M. R. Prem Kumar, O.P. Bhardwaj, Mathew Abraham, Arun Jaura
Biodiesel is being explored as a sustainable renewable fuel for vehicles in India due to mounting foreign exchange expenditure to import crude petroleum. Significant amount of research and development work is being undertaken in India to investigate various aspects of biodiesel utilisation in different types of engines. This study is an effort to jointly investigate the use of biodiesel (B100) in an unmodified BS-III compliant sports utility vehicle (SUV) by a consortium of academia (IIT Kanpur) and Industry (M&M) to realistically assess whether biodiesel is compatible with modern engine technology vehicles. Two identical vehicles were operated in tandem using biodiesel (B100) and mineral diesel (B00) respectively for 30,000 kilometers in field conditions. The lubricating oil samples were collected and detailed analysis for assessing the comparative effect of new fuel (B100) vis-à-vis mineral diesel was carried out.
2008-01-09
Technical Paper
2008-28-0066
Shailendra Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop alternative fuels that are environmentally more acceptable. Fatty acids esters (biodiesel) are known to be good alternative fuels. Due to economic reasons, the use of cheap raw materials for biodiesel production is preferred. In this case, ricebran oil, non-edible grade is used. Base catalyzed transesterification of ricebran oil is investigated and process parameters for ricebran biodiesel production are optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value of biodiesel thus prepared are characterized as per ASTM D6751 and found comparable to mineral diesel. Steady state engine dynamometer test at 1800 rpm has been carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a medium duty transportation DI diesel engine. Emission tests with all the fuel blends have also been carried out using European 13 MODE test (ECE R49).
2008-01-09
Technical Paper
2008-28-0071
Atul Dhar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Vishal Saxena
The interface between the piston rings and cylinder liner play an important role in total frictional losses and mechanical wear of internal combustion engine and is increasingly coming under scrutiny as legislated particulate emission standards are getting more and more stringent. The capacitance method is used for measurement of minimum oil film thickness between piston ring and liner interface. Measurement of capacitance formed between the piston ring and a probe mounted flush in the liner provides an accurate means of determining the oil film thickness provided that the region between the probe and liner is flooded with oil and dielectric constant of the oil is known. This paper presents detailed design and measurement of lubricating oil film thickness using capacitive micro sensor in a non-firing engine simulator. Lubricating oil film thickness was found to vary between 0.2μm to 8μm in the non firing engine simulator.
2008-01-09
Technical Paper
2008-28-0064
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
The Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for the combustion in the reciprocating engine. HCCI a hybrid of well-known spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engine concepts and has potential of combining the best features of both. A two cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine was modified to operate one cylinder on the compression ignition by detonation of homogeneous mixture of ethanol and air. The homogeneous mixture of the charge is prepared by port injection of ethanol in the preheated Intake air. This study presents results of experimental investigations of HCCI combustion of ethanol at intake air temperature of 120°C and at different air-fuel ratios. In this paper, the combustion parameters, pressure time history, rate of pressure rise, rate of heat release, mean temperature history in the combustion chamber is analyzed and discussed.
2008-01-09
Technical Paper
2008-28-0034
Harish Kumar Gangwar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from vegetable oils present promising “greener” substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils due to their agricultural origin are able to reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by blending with mineral diesel, thereby eliminating its effect on combustion characteristics of the engine. In the present experimental research, vegetable oil (Jatropha Curcus) was used as substitute fuel.
2008-01-09
Technical Paper
2008-28-0033
Dhananjay Kumar Srivastva, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Ernst Wintner
Due to the demands of the market to increase efficiency and power density of large MW size gas engines, existing ignition schemes are gradually reaching their limits. These limitations initially triggered the development of laser ignition as an effective alternative, first only for gas engines and now for a much wider range of internal combustion engines revealing a number of immediate advantages like no electrode erosion or flame kernel quenching. Within this broad range investigation, laser plasmas were generated by ns Nd-YAG laser pulses and characterized by emission and Schlieren diagnostic methods. High-pressure chamber experiments with lean hydrogen- air mixtures were successfully performed and allowed the determination of essential parameters like minimum pulse energies at different ignition pressures and temperatures as well as at variable fuel air compositions. In this way, relevant parameters were acquired allowing estimation/ development of future laser ignition systems.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0763
Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Sandeep Kumar Goyal
The development of more efficient and powerful internal combustion engines requires the use of new and advanced engine technologies. These advanced engine technologies and emission requirements for meeting stringent global emission norms have increased the power densities of engine leading to downsizing. In all these engines, cylinder head and liner are normally cooled but the piston is not cooled, making it susceptible to disintegration/ thermal damage. Material constraints restrict the increase in thermal loading of piston. High piston temperature rise may lead to engine seizure because of piston warping. So pistons are additionally cooled by oil jet impingement from the underside of the piston in heavy duty diesel engines. However, if the temperature at the underside of the piston, where the oil jet strikes the piston, is above the boiling point of the oil, it may contribute to the mist generation.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1345
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
The development of vehicles continues to be determined by increasingly stringent emissions standards including CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. To fulfill the simultaneous emission requirements for near zero pollutant and low CO2 levels, which are the challenges of future powertrains, many research studies are currently being carried out world over on new engine combustion process, such as Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) for gasoline engines and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) for diesel engines. In HCCI combustion engine, ignition timing and combustion rates are dominated by physical and chemical properties of fuel/air/residual gas mixtures, boundary conditions including ambient temperature, pressure, and humidity and engine operating conditions such as load, speed etc.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0947
Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Atul Dhar
Vegetable oils have energy content suitable to be used as compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in CI engines are reported in the literature, which are primarily caused by their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. The viscosity can be brought in acceptable range by (i) chemical process of transesterification, (ii) blending of oil with mineral diesel or (iii) by heating the vegetable oil using exhaust gas waste heat. Reduction of viscosity by blending or exhaust gas heating saves the chemical processing cost of transesterification. Present experimental investigations were carried out for evaluating combustion, performance and emission behavior of Jatropha oil blends in unheated conditions in a direct injection CI engine at different load and constant engine speed (1500 rpm).
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0023
Pravesh Chandra Shukla, Tarun Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Diesel particulates are mainly composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with traces of metals, sulfates and ash content. Organic fraction of the particulate are considered responsible for its carcinogenic effects. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an important after-treatment device for reduction of organic fraction of particulates. In this study, two non-noble metal based DOCs (with different configurations) were prepared and evaluated for their performance. Lanthanum based perovskite (LaMnO3) catalyst was used for the preparation of DOCs. One of the DOC was coated with support material ceria (5%, w/w), while the other was coated without any support material. Prepared DOCs were retrofitted in a four cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Various emission parameters such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, regulated and unregulated emissions, EC/OC etc., were measured and compared with the raw exhaust gas emissions from the prepared DOCs.
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