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2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1381
Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Claudio Ciaravino, Alberto Vassallo
The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the impact of both fresh and highly oxidized RME at two levels of blending on spray formation and combustion in modern automotive diesel engines. The tests were performed on an optical single-cylinder engine sharing combustion system configuration with the 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application. Two blends (B50 and B100) blending were tested for both fresh and aged RME and compared with commercial diesel fuel in two different operating points typical of NEDC (1500rpm/2bar BMEP and 2000rpm/5bar BMEP). The experimental activity was devoted to an in-depth investigation of the spray density, breakup and penetration, mixture formation, combustion and soot formation, by means of optical techniques.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1414
Ferdinando Taglialatela-Scafati, Nicola Cesario, Mario Lavorgna, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Increasing demands on emissions reduction and efficiency encouraged a progressive introduction of cleaner combustion concepts. "Advanced" diesel combustions offer a high potential for simultaneous reduction of both NOx and soot within the engine through high inlet charge dilution and mixture homogenization. However, the potential benefits of these combustions in terms of emissions are counterbalanced by their high sensitivity to in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions. This sensitivity makes the engines require closed loop combustion control with real-time information about combustion quality. The parameter widely considered as the most important for the evaluation of the combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the cylinder pressure. However, this kind of measure involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder, expensive sensors and a special mounting process.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0628
Silvana Di Iorio, Maurizio Lazzaro, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Francesco Catapano
The use of oxygenated and renewable fuels is nowadays a widespread means to reduce regulated pollutant emissions produced by internal combustion engines, as well as to reduce the greenhouse impact of transportation. Besides PM, NOx and HC emissions, also the size distribution of particles emitted at the engine exhaust represent meaningful information, considering its adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this work, the results of a comprehensive investigation on the combustion characteristics and the exhaust emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with pure bio-ethanol and European gasoline, are shown. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at different speed/load conditions and two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge mode and stratified charge mode.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1591
Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
This study was conducted to determine the effects of the fouling process on the piezoelectric injectors in a transparent common-rail diesel engine. Piezoelectric injectors are characterized by a ceramic actuator that can dilate or retract when it receives a pulse of current. The piezo element controls a valve, which creates an imbalance in the pressure that is exerted at each end of the needle, causing the needle rising or closing. Two same model injectors were tested; one was new and the other one was fouled on a vehicle. The aim of the experimental investigation was to evaluate the performance of a new and a fouled piezoelectric injector in terms of injection and flame evolution. It was evaluated how the nozzle carbon deposits affect the injection quantity and combustion. The experimental apparatus was a single-cylinder research engine equipped with a Euro 5 multi-cylinder head. A second-generation common rail injection system and 6-hole piezoelectric injectors were used too.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0039
Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Claudio Ciaravino
Interest on the issue of diesel injector nozzle deposits is rising in the last years due to its effects on engine performance. The alteration of nozzles geometry can cause a difference in fuel mass flow and influence smoke emission. Investigation on the effects of nozzle coking in a diesel injector has been the topic of this paper. The experiments have been carried out in a single cylinder optical engine operating in premixed mode. The head of a Euro 5 production engine has been mounted on an elongated cylinder and the production CR injection system has been used. A sapphire window has been set in the piston head in order to have visible access to phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber. Three injectors with decreasing flow number (FN) have been tested. Engine has been fed with commercial diesel fuel. High spatial and temporal resolution camera has been used for the acquisition of in-cylinder injection and combustion images.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0042
Simone Lombardi, Katarzyna Bizon, Gaetano Continillo, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
This work reports on the application of spectroscopic measurements coupled with data processing techniques in order to study, in terms of spectral emissions, the dynamic of the HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion that occurs inside the combustion chamber of an optically accessible direct injection Diesel engine. A pre-processing of the recorded spectra is required for a correct analysis. The procedure of pre-processing consists of two main steps, that is: noise filtering with a technique based on the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition); estimate and subtraction of the baseline. The analysis of the dynamics of the recorded spectra was carried out by the estimates of the synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0044
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
An innovative quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model for the spray formation, combustion and emission formation analysis in DI diesel engines was assessed and applied to an optical single cylinder engine. The model, which has been recently presented by the authors, integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model. The 1D spray model is capable of predicting the equivalence ratio of the fuel during the mixing process, as well as the spray penetration. The multizone approach is based on the application of the mass and energy conservation laws to several homogeneous zones identified in the combustion chamber. A specific submodel is also implemented to simulate the dilution of the burned gases. Soot formation is modeled by an expression which derives from Kitamura et al.'s results, in which an explicit dependence on the local equivalence ratio is considered.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0024
Tommaso Lucchini, Marco Fiocco, Angelo Onorati, Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Francesco Catapano
This paper is focused on the development and application of a CFD methodology that can be applied to predict the fuel-air mixing process in stratified charge, sparkignition engines. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used to model the spray evolution together with a liquid film model that properly takes into account its effects on the fuel-air mixing process into account. However, numerical simulation of stratified combustion in SI engines is a very challenging task for CFD modeling, due to the complex interaction of different physical phenomena involving turbulent, reacting and multiphase flows evolving inside a moving geometry. Hence, for a proper assessment of the different sub-models involved a detailed set of experimental optical data is required. To this end, a large experimental database was built by the authors.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0045
Katarzyna Bizon, Gaetano Continillo, Simone Lombardi, Ezio Mancaruso, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Flame luminosity fields can nowadays be collected from optically accessible engines, with high spatial and temporal resolution, and constitute a very powerful investigation means for the transient combustion phenomena taking place in the engine chamber. Interpretation of the impressive amount of collected data can be quite challenging, mainly due to the variety of coupled phenomena involved. Application of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) aims here at separating spatial structures related to different combustion events, and is coupled with the analysis of the statistics of the coefficients of the independent components, and of the measured in-cylinder parameters. This paper reports on the comparison of the application of ICA to 2D images of combustion-related luminosity collected from two different optically accessible engines: Diesel and spark ignition.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0046
Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
In this paper the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion was investigated. Gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel), while methane was injected in the combustion chamber (DI fuel), in order to reproduce a stratified combustion. The combustion process and the related engine performance and pollutant emissions were analyzed. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe. Optical measurements were performed to analyze the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the flame front propagation and the soot and temperature concentration in the combustion chamber.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0062
Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Gianmarco Gioco, Elena Rebesco
The aim of this study is to investigate how the fouling that injectors undergo after several operating hours on a vehicle can affect the injection and combustion phases. The impact of the injector fouling on the pollutant formation has been also investigated. Moreover, the effects of the injector cleaning by deposits through the top quality diesel fuel commercialized by eni that is FAME free and contains multi performance additives have been investigated. The experimentation has been carried out on transparent compression ignition engine. It is a single cylinder equipped with a Euro 5 multi-cylinder head and a second-generation common rail injection system. Three indirect-acting piezoelectric injectors have been tested. The first one has been fouled with European commercial diesel fuel through the CEC DW10 injector-coking test. The second one has been fouled in the same way and, then, it has been cleaned with eni top quality diesel fuel. This fuel has fed the third injector too.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1329
Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Francesco Catapano
Abstract The use of methane as supplement to liquid fuel is one of the solution proposed for the reduction of the internal combustion engine pollutant emissions. Its intrinsic properties as the high knocking resistance and the low carbon content makes methane the most promising clean fuel. The dual fuel combustion mode allows improving the methane combustion acting mainly on the methane slow burning velocity and allowing lean burn combustion mode. An experimental investigation was carried out to study the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion. Methane was injected in combustion chamber (DI fuel) while gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel). The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0135
Silvana Di Iorio, Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Luigi Arnone, Lorenzo Dal Bello
Abstract The present paper describes the results of an experimental activity performed on a small diesel engine for quadricycles, a category of vehicles that is spreading in Europe and is recently spreading over Indian countries. The engine is a prototype three-cylinder with 1000 cc of displacement and it is equipped with a direct common-rail injection system that reaches a maximum pressure of 1400 bar. The engine was designed to comply with Euro 4 emission standard that is a future regulation for quadricycles. It is worth underlining that the engine can meet emission limits just with EGR system and a DOC, without DPF. Various diesel/RME blends were tested; pure diesel and biodiesel fuels were also used. The investigation was carried out at the engine speeds of 1400, 2000 and 3400 rpm and full load. Combustion characteristics of both blended and pure RME were analyzed by means of in-cylinder pressure and heat released histories.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0848
Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The aim of the paper is the comparison of the performance, gaseous and particle emissions from different injection configurations and fuels. The engine was operated in port fuel injection (PFI), direct injection (DI) and dual fuel (DF). For DF, ethanol DI-gasoline PFI and gasoline DI-gasoline PFI strategies were performed to discern the effect of injection strategy from the effect of the fuel. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000 rpm, 4000 rpm and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the homologation urban driving cycle. The gaseous and particle emissions were measured at the exhaust by means of a gas analyzer and a smoke meter.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0397
Francesco Catapano, Michela Costa, Guido Marseglia, Paolo Sementa, Ugo Sorge, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The present paper deals with a comprehensive analysis of the knocking phenomenon through experiments and numerical simulations. Conventional and non-conventional measurements are performed on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, turbocharged GDI engine. The engine exhibits optical accesses to the combustion chamber. Imaging in the UV-visible range is carried out by means of a high spatial and temporal resolution camera through an endoscopic system and a transparent window in the piston head. This last is modified to allow the view of the whole combustion chamber almost until the cylinder walls, to include the so-called eng-gas zones. Optical data are correlated to in-cylinder pressure-based indicated analyses in a cycle resolved approach.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0038
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
Abstract Great efforts have been paid to improve engine efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. Oxygenated compounds allow increasing gasoline's octane number and play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol and ethers content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. Two operating conditions, representative of the typical EUDC cycle, were investigated. Both the engine performance and the exhaust emissions were evaluated. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0093
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Marcello Fiaccavento, Francesco Giari, Antonio Marchetti
Abstract This paper investigates abnormal combustion during the cranking phase of spark-ignition small engines, specifically the occurrence of backfire at the release of the starter motor during kickback. The research focusses on the influence of fuel composition, mainly in terms of ethanol percentage, on backfire occurrence. Interest in this abnormal combustion is growing due to the increased use of fuels with different chemical-physical properties with respect to gasoline. Moreover, this issue will become even more topical due to the implementation of simple control and fuel supply systems on low cost-engines, which are widely used in developing countries. Experimentation was carried out in an optically accessible engine derived from a 4-stroke spark ignition engine for two-wheel vehicles.
2009-09-13
Journal Article
2009-24-0088
Carlo Beatrice, Silvana Di Iorio, Chiara Guido, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Alberto Vassallo
The present paper describes the first results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori of CNR aimed at studying the impact of Fatty-Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel blends on the performance, emissions and fuel consumption of modern automotive diesel engines. The tests were performed on the architecture of GM 1.9L Euro4 diesel engine for passenger car application, both on optical single-cylinder and on production four-cylinder engines, sharing the same combustion system configuration. Various blends of biodiesels as well as reference diesel fuel were tested. The experimental activity on the single-cylinder engine was devoted to an in-depth investigation of the combustion process and pollutant formation, by means of different optical diagnostics techniques, based on imaging multiwavelength spectroscopy.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2649
Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the combustion process and pollutant formation in a small compression ignition engine. The engine is a prototype for quadricycles. It was designed to comply with Euro 4 emission standard that is a future regulation for this type of vehicles. Two optical accesses for endoscopes were realized in the first cylinder to investigate the combustion process. Two-color pyrometry method was applied to combustion images in order to detect the flame temperature and the soot concentration. The engine ran with a biodiesel, the rapeseed methyl ester, and a conventional diesel fuel. Operating conditions at the engine speed of 2000 rpm at full and medium load were tested. NOx emissions were measured at exhaust. A smoke meter was used to determine the particulate matter concentration. The sizing and the counting of the particles were performed by means of an engine exhaust particle sizer spectrometer.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2620
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
The growing concerns over the pollutant emissions as well as the depletion of fossil fuel led to the research of advanced combustion mode and alternative fuels for the reduction both of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The dual-fuel injection system can be used to improve the engine performance and reduce the fossil fuel consumption performing simultaneously a direct-injection (DI) and a port-fuel-injection (PFI) of different fuels. Ethanol is one of the most promising alternative fuels for SI engines. It offers high anti-knock quality because of the high octane number; moreover, being an oxygenated fuel is very effective in particle emissions reduction. On the other hand, it is characterized by lower energy density mainly because of the low lower heating value (LHV). The aim of the paper is the investigation of the ethanol-gasoline dual fuel combustion on engine performance and emissions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1424
Ezio Mancaruso, Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract In recent years, several studies on the efficiency of modern diesel engines have focused on the modeling of combustion process in its different phases. Here, analytical equations are used to describe the physical phenomena that occur in the cylinder. The good agreement between the experimental and simulated data could improve the predictive capabilities of the computational code and reduce the cost of experimental activities. For the modeling of a diesel spray, the first step has been to investigate its behavior in a non-combusting environment; in particular, Musculus and Kattke proposed a model for the simulation of the injection of fuel in non-reacting still environment. Starting from that knowledge, the authors apply the injection model to a compression ignition research engine. By means of an optical engine, injection phase has been investigated via 2D digital imaging. The main jet characteristics like penetration and dispersion angle have been measured.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1602
Silvana Di Iorio, Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract This paper deals with the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with conventional diesel fuel and a biodiesel blend, in particular a 20% v/v concentration of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) mixed with diesel fuel. The investigation was carried out on a prototype three-cylinder engine with 1000 cc of displacement for quadricycle applications. The engine is equipped with a direct common-rail injection system that reaches a maximum pressure of 1400 bar. The engine was designed to comply with Euro 4 and BS IV exhaust emission regulations without a diesel particulate filter. Both in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release traces were analyzed at different engine speeds and loads. Gaseous emissions were measured at the exhaust. A smoke meter was used to measure the particulate matter concentration. The sizing and the counting of the particles were performed by means of an engine exhaust particle sizer spectrometer.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0137
Katarzyna Bizon, Gaetano Continillo, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
This study aims at building efficient and robust artificial neural networks (ANN) able to reconstruct the in-cylinder pressure of Diesel engines and to identify engine conditions starting from the signal of a low-cost accelerometer placed on the engine block. The accelerometer is a perfect non-intrusive replacement for expensive probes and is prospectively suitable for production vehicles. In this view, the artificial neural network is meant to be efficient in terms of response time, i.e. fast enough for on-line use. In addition, robustness is sought in order to provide flexibility in terms of operation parameters. Here we consider a feed-forward neural network based on radial basis functions (RBF) for signal reconstruction, and a feed-forward multi-layer perceptron network with tan-sigmoid transfer function for signal classification. The networks are trained using measurements from a three-cylinder real engine for various operating conditions.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0131
Francesco Catapano, Luigi De Simio, Michele Gambino, Sabato Iannaccone, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Stefano Bernardi, Dario Catanese, Marco Ferrari
The improvement in engines efficiency and reduction of emissions is the permanent aim of engine industry in order to meet European standards regulation. To optimize small internal combustion engines it is necessary to improve the basic knowledge of thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion. This paper describes the combustion process in an optically accessible two-stroke spark-ignition engine used in a commercial 43 cm3 chainsaw. Two different feeding systems were tested: standard and CWI one. The engine head was modified in order to allow the visualization of the combustion using endoscopic system coupled with a high spatial resolution ICCD camera. Flame front propagation was evaluated through an image processing procedure. The image visualization and chemiluminence allowed to follow the combustion process from the spark ignition to the exhaust phase at high engine speed. All the optical data were correlated with engine parameters and exhaust emissions.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0852
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
In the last years, even more attention was paid to the alternative fuels which can allow both reducing the fuel consumption and the pollutant emissions. Among gaseous fuels, methane is considered one of the most interesting in terms of engine application. It represents an immediate advantage over other hydrocarbon fuels leading to lower CO₂ emissions; if compared to gasoline, CH₄ has wider flammable limits and better anti-knock properties, but lower flame speed. The addition of H₂ to CH₄ can improve the already good qualities of methane and compensate its weak points. In this paper a comparison was carried out between CH₄ and different CH₄/H₂ mixtures. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder, Port Fuel Injection spark ignition (PFI SI), four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycle engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1672
Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
This paper reports experiments on a single-cylinder direct-injection compression ignition engine operating in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The engine was fuelled with pure rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and bio-ethanol. RME was injected in the combustion chamber by common rail (CR) injection system at 800 bar and bio-ethanol in the intake manifold by commercial port fuel injection system at 3.5 bar. The effects of different percentage of bio-ethanol were studied by means of both the in-cylinder heat release analysis and the high-speed UV-visible chemiluminescence visualization. The pollutant formation and exhaust emissions of the engine operating in dual fuel mode were evaluated. The increase of the bio-ethanol content improved the brake thermal efficiency slightly even if the brake fuel consumption increased. However, the choice to inject two biofuels decreases both the smoke opacity and NOx concentration.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1316
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Maurizio Lazzaro, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
This paper deals with the evaluation of the effect of fuel properties on soot formation in a GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in an optical 4-stroke small single cylinder engine for two-wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with an elongated piston with a wide sapphire window in the head and a quartz cylinder liner. The engine was fuelled with pure gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 20% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. Optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the combustion process and soot formation. Spectroscopic measurements were carried out in order to assess the soot evolution. Radical species such as OH and CH, related to fuel quality and to soot formation/oxidation process, were detected. Measurements were carried out at various engine speeds and loads in order to allow optical measurements and to test the engine in real conditions.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0140
Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Francesco Catapano
The aim of this paper is the experimental investigation of the effect of direct fuel injection on the combustion process and pollutant formation in a spark ignition (SI) two-wheel engine. The engine is a 250cc single cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignition firstly equipped with a four-valve PFI head and then with GDI one operating with European commercial gasoline and Bio-ethanol. It is equipped with a wide sapphire window in the bottom of the chamber and quartz cylinder. In the combustion chamber, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the injection and flame propagation and spectroscopic measurements were carried out in order to evaluate the main radical species. Radical species such as OH and CH were detected and used to follow the chemical phenomena related to the fuel quality. Measurements were carried out at different engine speeds and combustion strategies based on different injection pressures.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0249
Luigi Allocca, Francesco Catapano, Alessandro Montanaro, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
The aim of the present work is the study of the combustion process in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine fuelled with ethanol mixed with gasoline at percentages of 10 and 85. The characterization has been made in terms of performance and emission for different injection pressure conditions and the results correlated to the unperturbed non-evaporating evolution of the fuel injected in a pressurized quiescent vessel. Measurements were performed in the optically accessible combustion chamber made by modifying a real 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, high performance GDI engine. The cylinder head was instrumented by using an endoscopic system coupled to high spatial and temporal resolution camera in order to allow the visualization of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The engine is equipped with solenoid-actuated six-hole GDI injectors, 0.14 mm hole diameter, 9.0 g/s @ 10 MPa static flow.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0701
Luigi Allocca, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Alessandro Montanaro, Ezio Mancaruso, Claudio Ciaravino, Giovanni Avolio
The present paper describes an experimental investigation over the impact of diesel injector nozzle flow number on spray formation and combustion evolution for a modern EURO5 light-duty diesel engine. The analysis has been carried out by coupling the investigations in non evaporative spray bomb to tests in optical single cylinder engine in firing conditions. The research activity, which is the result of a collaborative project between Istituto Motori Napoli - CNR and GM Powertrain Europe, is devoted to understanding the basic operating behaviour of low flow number nozzles which are showing promising improvements in diesel engine behaviour at partial load. In fact, because of the compelling need to push further emission, efficiency, combustion noise and power density capabilities of the last-generation diesel engines, the combination of high injection pressure fuel pumps and low flow number nozzles is general trend among major OEMs.
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