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Viewing 1 to 22 of 22
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0823
Siddhartha Banerjee, Christopher Rutland
Numerical investigation is carried out in order to explore diesel combustion using advanced turbulence and combustion models. Turbulence is modeled by one-equation non-viscosity dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. Sub-grid fuel-air mixing is calculated using a dynamic scale similarity sub-grid scalar dissipation model to represent the local state of combustion. Fuel-air mixing time scale is used in order to determine the local in-homogeneity and rate of mixing of fuel and air. Diesel combustion is studied and compared with experimental results for high power diesel engine setup at different conditions representing both low temperature combustion and traditional high temperature combustion regimes. Further studies are carried out in diesel engine to investigate in-cylinder fuel air mixing and the onset of ignition.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1595
Sarangarajan Vijayraghavan Iyengar, Chi-Wei Tsang, Christopher Rutland
In this work non-reacting spray simulations are performed using two Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes, KIVA and OpenFoam. The metric used is the liquid tip penetration which is compared with experimental data from the Engine Combustion Network at Sandia National Laboratories. Some important spray sub-models, available in KIVA, are implemented in OpenFOAM so that the two codes have more common models. In addition, model coefficients and computations cells used in the simulations are the same in both codes. The differences in spray source terms formulations and other spray sub models between the codes and their effect on liquid penetration are discussed.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1572
Jian Gong, Christopher Rutland
A Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) model with global TWC kinetics for lean burn DISI engines were developed and validated. The model incorporates kinetics of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide oxidations, NOx reduction, water-gas and steam reforming and oxygen storage. Ammonia (NH₃) and new nitrous oxide (N₂O) kinetics were added into the model to study NH₃ and N₂O formation in TWC systems. The model was validated over a wide range of engine operating conditions using various types of experimental data from a lean burn automotive SIDI engine. First, well-controlled time-resolved steady state data were used for calibration and initial model tests. In these steady state operations, the engine was switched between lean and rich conditions for NOx emission control. Then, the model was further validated using a large set of time-averaged steady state data. Temperature dependencies of NH₃ and N₂O kinetics in the TWC model were examined and well captured by the model.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1221
Jiankun Shao, Christopher Rutland
Knock in a Rotax-914 engine was modeled and investigated using an improved version of the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model, together with a reduced chemical kinetics model. The ERC-PRF mechanism with 47 species and 132 reactions [1] was adopted to model the end gas auto-ignition in front of the flame front. The model was validated by a Caterpillar SI engine and a Rotax-914 engine in different operating conditions. The simulation results agree well with available experimental results. A new engineering quantified knock criterion based on chemical mechanism was then proposed. Hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) shows obvious accumulation before auto-ignition and a sudden decrease after auto-ignition. These properties are considered to be a good capability for HO2 to investigate engine knock problems.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1074
Johannes Ulrich Eichmeier, Rolf D. Reitz, Christopher Rutland
Homogeneous low temperature combustion is believed to be a promising approach to resolve the conflict of goals between high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Disadvantageously for this kind of combustion, the whole process depends on chemical kinetics and thus is hard to control. Reactivity controlled combustion can help to overcome this difficulty. In the so-called RCCI (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion concept a small amount of pilot diesel that is injected directly into the combustion chamber ignites a highly diluted gasoline-air mixture. As the gasoline does not ignite without the diesel, the pilot injection timing and the ratio between diesel and gasoline can be used to control the combustion process. A phenomenological multi-zone model to predict RCCI combustion has been developed and validated against experimental and 3D-CFD data. The model captures the main physics governing ignition and combustion.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0031
Stefano Fontanesi, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Paltrinieri, Giuseppe Cantore, Christopher Rutland
The paper reports the application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to LES calculations for the analysis of combustion and knock tendency in a highly downsized turbocharged GDI engine that is currently under production. In order to qualitatively match the cyclic variability of the combustion process, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the closed-valve portion of the cycle is used with cycle-dependent initial conditions from a previous multi-cycle analysis [1, 2, 3]. Detailed chemical modelling of fuel's auto-ignition quality is considered through an ad-hoc implemented look-up table approach, as a trade-off between the need for a reasonable representation of the chemistry and that of limiting the computational cost of the LES simulations. Experimental tests were conducted operating the engine at knock-limited spark advance (KLSA) and the proposed knock model was previously validated for such engine setup [3].
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0361
Siddhartha Banerjee, Ting Liang, Christopher Rutland, Bing Hu
Diesel engine combustion is simulated using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a multi-mode combustion (MMC) model. The MMC model is based on the combination of chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and quasi-steady flamelet calculations in different local combustion regimes. The local combustion regime is identified by two combustion indices based on the local temperature and the extent of mixture homogeneity. The LES turbulence model uses the dynamic structure model (DSM) for sub-grid stresses. A new spray model in the LES context is used, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based wall model is retained with the LES derived scales. These models are incorporated in the KIVA3V-ERC-Release 2 code for engine combustion simulations. A wide range of diesel engine operating conditions were chosen to validate the combustion model.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0178
Long Liang, Chitralkumar V. Naik, Karthik Puduppakkam, Cheng Wang, Abhijit Modak, Ellen Meeks, Hai-Wen Ge, Rolf D. Reitz, Christopher Rutland
Detailed knowledge of hydrocarbon fuel combustion chemistry has grown tremendously in recent years. However, the gap between detailed chemistry and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) remains, because of the high cost of solving detailed chemistry in a large number of computational cells. This paper presents the results of applying a suite of techniques aimed at closing this gap. The techniques include use of a surrogate blend optimizer and a guided mechanism reduction methodology, as well as advanced methods for efficiently and accurately coupling the pre-reduced kinetic models with the multidimensional transport equations. The advanced methods include dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) and dynamic cell clustering (DCC) algorithms.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0625
Yuxin Zhang, Jaal Ghandhi, Benjamin Petersen, Christopher Rutland
A novel algebraic similarity model for subgrid scalar dissipation rate has been developed as part of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) package KIVA3V-LES for diesel engine study. The model is proposed from an a priori study using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of forced isotropic turbulence. In the a posteriori test, fully resolved turbulent passive scalar field measurements are used to validate the model in actual engine flows. For reason of the length limit by SAE and the specific interest in engine applications, only a prior test and a posteriori test in engine flows are included in this paper. A posteriori tests in isotropic cube flow, turbulent round jet and flame cases will be presented in separate papers. An engine LES simulation of multi consecutive cycles was performed in this study.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1601
Sarangarajan Vijayraghavan Iyengar, Christopher Rutland
In this work the modeling aspects of fuel vaporization are studied. To start with, the effects of vaporization model on engine simulations are studied. This is done by using two different fuel surrogates. Next a set of non-reacting spray simulations were performed under different ambient and operating conditions and for two different fuels. This was done for spray model validation and to look at the effect of vaporization model on liquid penetration length. Following an observed discrepancy in one of the spray cases, effect of ambient temperature on liquid length, two sensitivity analyses were performed. These analyses take into account the effects of each spray-sub model on vaporization and effects of spray breakup constants on liquid penetration. Using the results from the sensitivity analyses and linearized stability theory an empirical correction factor was developed to correct the spray behavior at low ambient temperatures.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1082
Stefano Fontanesi, Stefano Paltrinieri, Alessandro D'Adamo, Giuseppe Cantore, Christopher Rutland
The paper reports the application of a look-up table approach within a LES combustion modelling framework for the prediction of knock limit in a highly downsized turbocharged DISI engine. During experimental investigations at the engine test bed, high cycle-to-cycle variability was detected even for relatively stable peak power / full load operations of the engine, where knock onset severely limited the overall engine performance. In order to overcome the excessive computational cost of a direct chemical solution within a LES framework, the use of look-up tables for auto-ignition modelling perfectly fits with the strict mesh requirements of a LES simulation, with an acceptable approximation of the actual chemical kinetics. The model here presented is a totally stand-alone tool for autoignition analysis integrated with look-up table reading from detailed chemical kinetic schemes for gasoline.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1097
Chalearmpol Plengsaard, Christopher Rutland
Improved wall models for LES are presented in this paper. The classical Werner-Wengle (WW) wall shear stress model was used along with the eddy viscosity near walls. A sub-grid scale turbulent kinetic energy was employed in a model for the eddy viscosity. To provide heat flux results, a modified classical variable-density wall heat transfer model, which includes the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the boundary layer, was also employed. The fully turbulent developed flow in a square duct with constant wall temperature was used to validate the model and the friction factor and Nusselt number predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. The resulting time and spatially averaged velocity and temperature wall functions from the new wall models match well with the law-of-the-wall experimental data. Additionally, the model was validated using experimental data from a Caterpillar engine operated with conventional diesel combustion.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1311
Jian Gong, Christopher Rutland
A fundamentally based quasi-dimensional NOx emission model for spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) gasoline engines was developed. The NOx model consists of a chemical mechanism and three sub-models. The classical extended Zeldovich mechanism and N₂O pathway for NOx formation mechanism were employed as the chemical mechanism in the model. A characteristic time model for the radical species H, O and OH was incorporated to account for non-equilibrium of radical species during combustion. A model of homogeneity which correlates fundamental dimensionless numbers and mixing time was developed to model the air-fuel mixing and inhomogeneity of the charge. Since temperature has a dominant effect on NOx emission, a flame temperature correlation was developed to model the flame temperature during the combustion for NOx calculation. Measured NOx emission data from a single-cylinder SIDI research engine at different operating conditions was used to validate the NOx model.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0141
Siddhartha Banerjee, Christopher Rutland
Using non-viscosity dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulations (LES) turbulence model, spray=induced turbulence is investigated on a number of different Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) grids of varying mesh sizes (from 0.5 to 2 mm mesh). Turbulent flow is induced inside a quiescent chamber by liquid fuel spray and then left to decay after end of injection by virtue of its molecular viscosity and turbulent dissipation. Coherent structures (CS) of this turbulent flow are constructed and visualized using λ2 definition. Using CS, analysis is performed on the turbulent flow around the liquid spray jet. These CS from LES are then compared against the results from RANS calculations as well. The visualization of CS helps to explain the mechanism of fuel-air mixing obtained from LES results and its difference with RANS calculations.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960635
Andrew McLandress, Roy Emerson, Philip McDowell, Christopher Rutland
A modified version of the three dimensional CFD code KIVA-3, which accommodates moving valves and a moving piston crown, has been applied to a heavy-duty, four cycle, dual intake valve, direct injection, diesel engine The fluid domain encompasses an intake runner, two valved ports and a cylinder with a Mexican hat bowl-in-piston configuration In the first part of the study, the modified KIVA-3 code was used to simulate the flow through the port and cylinder of the engine without a piston The intake valves were cycled (300 rpm at the camshaft) Two turbulence models were compared in this part of the study, standard k - ε and the RNG modified k - ε as discussed in [11] The results were compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) images Large scale flow features of the computer simulations agreed moderately well with the ensemble averaged flow bench results There was very little difference between the results from the two turbulence models Motored engine simulations including a piston were conducted to characterize the in-cylinder gas flow and mixing during the intake and compression strokes Characterization methods were developed which yield insight into the in-cylinder gas motion and mixing during both strokes Intake and residual gases are tracked separately, both large scale convection and turbulent mixing are investigated, flow critical points are examined to provide information about flow topology and turbulence production is correlated with the evolution of flow structures Results show that mixing of the intake and residual gases is very non-uniform Many complex flow structures develop during intake and are destroyed during compression However, several structures survive through compression and contribute to enhanced mixing near top dead center These significant structures have been identified and tracked back to intake The flow field near top dead center exhibits spatial inhomogeneities in temperature and small scale mixing parameters such as turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0951
Seshasai Srinivasan, Christopher Rutland
Abstract Fundamental simulations in a quiescent cell under adiabatic conditions were made to understand the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the components of the recirculated exhaust gas, viz., CO2 and H2O, on the combustion of n-Heptane. Simulations were made in single phase in which evaporated n-Heptane was uniformly distributed in the domain. Computations were made for two different temperatures and four different EGR levels. CO2 or H2O or N2was used as EGR. It was found that the initiation of the main combustion process was primarily determined by two competing factors, i.e., the amount of initial OH concentration in the domain and the specific heat of the mixture. Further, initial OH concentration can be controlled by the manipulating the ambient temperature in the domain, and the specific heat capacity of the mixture via the mixture composition.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4136
Seshasai Srinivasan, Christopher Rutland
Abstract Fundamental simulations using DNS type procedures were used to investigate the ignition, combustion characteristics and the lift-off trends of a spatially evolving turbulent liquid fuel jet. In particular, the spatially evolving n-Heptane spray injected in a two-dimensional rectangular domain with an engine like environment was investigated. The computational results were compared to the experimental observations from an optical engine as reported in the literature. It was found that an initial fuel rich combustion downstream of the spray tip is followed by diffusion combustion. Investigations were also made to understand the effects of injection velocity, ambient temperature and the droplet radius on the lift-off length. For each of these parameters three different values in a given range were chosen. For both injection velocity and droplet radius, an increase resulted in a near linear increase in the lift-off length.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0866
Chi-Wei Tsang, Christopher Rutland
Abstract Three time integration schemes and four finite volume interpolation schemes for the convection term in momentum equation were tested under turbulent planar gas jet and Sandia non-reacting vaporizing Spray-H cases. The three time integration schemes are the first-order Euler implicit scheme, the second-order backward scheme, and the second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme. The four spatial interpolation schemes are cubic central, linear central, upwind, and vanLeer schemes. Velocity magnitude contour, centerline and radial mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles for the planar turbulent gas jet case, and fuel vapor contour and liquid and vapor penetrations for the Diesel spray case predicted by the different numerical schemes were compared. The sensitivity of the numerical schemes to mesh resolution was also investigated. The non-viscosity based dynamic structure subgrid model was used. The numerical tool used in this study was OpenFOAM.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0582
Federico Perini, Youngchul Ra, Kenji Hiraoka, Kazutoshi Nomura, Akihiro Yuuki, Yuji Oda, Christopher Rutland, Rolf Reitz
Abstract Computational fluid dynamics of gas-fueled large-bore spark ignition engines with pre-chamber ignition can speed up the design process of these engines provided that 1) the reliability of the results is not affected by poor meshing and 2) the time cost of the meshing process does not negatively compensate for the advantages of running a computer simulation. In this work a flame propagation model that runs with arbitrary hybrid meshes was developed and coupled with the KIVA4-MHI CFD solver, in order to address these aims. The solver follows the G-Equation level-set method for turbulent flame propagation by Tan and Reitz, and employs improved numerics to handle meshes featuring different cell types such as hexahedra, tetrahedra, square pyramids and triangular prisms. Detailed reaction kinetics from the SpeedCHEM solver are used to compute the non-equilibrium composition evolution downstream and upstream of the flame surface, where chemical equilibrium is instead assumed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0756
Zhenkuo Wu, Christopher Rutland, Zhiyu Han
Abstract Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its rich reserves and low price, as well as good physical and chemical properties. Its low carbon structure and high octane number are beneficial for CO2 reduction and knock mitigation, respectively. Diesel and natural gas dual fuel combustion is a viable pathway to utilize natural gas in diesel engines. To achieve high efficiency and low emission combustion in a practical diesel engine over a wide range of operating conditions, understanding the performance responses to engine system parameter variations is needed. The controllability of two combustion strategies, diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and single injection reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), were evaluated using the multi-dimension CFD simulation in this paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0844
Chi-Wei Tsang, Yue Wang, Cheng Wang, Anthony Shelburn, Long Liang, Karthik Puduppakkam, Abhijit Modak, Chitralkumar Naik, Ellen Meeks, Christopher Rutland
Abstract Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a useful approach for the simulation of turbulent flow and combustion processes in internal combustion engines. This study employs the ANSYS Forte CFD package and explores several key and fundamental components of LES, namely, the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models, the numerical schemes used to discretize the transport equations, and the computational mesh. The SGS turbulence models considered include the classic Smagorinsky model and a dynamic structure model. Two numerical schemes for momentum convection, quasi-second-order upwind (QSOU) and central difference (CD), were evaluated. The effects of different computational mesh sizes controlled by both fixed mesh refinement and a solution-adaptive mesh-refinement approach were studied and compared. The LES models are evaluated and validated against several flow configurations that are critical to engine flows, in particular, to fuel injection processes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0836
Hongjiang Li, Christopher Rutland
Abstract In this paper, large eddy simulation (LES) coupled with two uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods, namely latin-hypercube sampling (LHS) and polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), have been used to quantify the effects of model parameters and spray boundary conditions on diesel and gasoline spray simulations. Evaporating, non-reacting spray data was used to compare penetration, mixture fraction and spray probability contour. Two different sets of four uncertain variables were used for diesel and gasoline sprays, respectively. UQ results showed good agreement between experiments and predictions. UQ statistics indicated that discharge coefficient has stronger impact on gasoline than diesel sprays, and spray cone angle is important for vapor penetration of both types of sprays.
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