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Viewing 1 to 16 of 16
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1049
Danielle Zeng, Cedric Xia, Jeffrey Webb, Li Lu, Yuan Gan, Xianjun Sun, John Lasecki
Abstract Long glass fiber reinforced (LGFR) composites have been widely used in automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight and maintain relatively high mechanical performances. Due to the injection molding process, the distribution of fiber orientations varies at different locations and through the panel thickness, resulting in anisotropic and non-uniform mechanical properties. The current practice of computer modeling of these materials is generally using isotropic properties adjusted by a certain scale factor. The effect of fiber orientation is not carefully considered due to the complexity of fiber orientation distribution in the LGFR parts. The purpose of this paper is to identify key factors affecting vehicle attribute performances where LGFR composites are used; and provide an efficient way for accurate CAE modeling of LGFR composites. In this study, tensile coupons cut from a simple geometric injection molded plaque are tested.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0351
Danielle Zeng, Z. Cedric Xia
Flanging is a secondary operation in sheet metal forming processes. Traditionally, the design of flange shape and trim line is based on an engineer's experience. It takes several iterations to achieve the desired flange geometry because of potential splits. In this paper, an efficient CAE-based tool is developed to quickly predict the formability of a given flange design and enable the optimization of trim lines. A numerical algorithm is formulated in this CAE tool to convert the 3D flanging process into an equivalent in-plane deformation problem. The developed CAE tool is also integrated with the optimization software LS-OPT for trim line design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0698
Danielle Zeng, Li Lu, Jin Zhou, Yang Li, Z. Xia, Paul Hoke, Kurt Danielson, Dustin Souza
Abstract Long fiber reinforced plastics (LFRP) have exhibited superior mechanical performance and outstanding design flexibility, bringing them with increasing popularity in the automotive structural design. Due to the injection molding process, the distribution of long fibers varies at different locations throughout the part, resulting in anisotropic and non-uniform mechanical properties of the final LFRP parts. Images from X-ray CT scan of the materials show that local volume fraction of the long fibers tends to be higher at core than at skin layer. Also fibers are bundled and tangled to form clusters. Most of the current micromechanical material models used for LFRP are extended from those for short fibers without adequate validation. The effect of the complexity of long fibers on the material properties is not appropriately considered.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0089
Danielle Zeng, Z. Cedric Xia
Dent resistance is an important attribute in the automotive panel design, and the ability to accurately predict a panel's dentability requires careful considerations of sheet metal properties, including property changes from stamping process. The material is often work-hardened significantly during forming, and its thickness is reduced somewhat. With increased demand for weight reduction, vehicle designers are seriously pushing to use thinner-gauged advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) as outer body panels such as fenders, hoods and decklids, with the expectation that its higher strength will offset reduced thickness in its dentability. A comparative study is conducted in this paper for a BH210 steel fender as baseline design and thinner DP500 steel as the new design.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1445
Danielle Zeng, Laurent Chappuis, Z. Cedric Xia, Xinhai Zhu
Abstract A new strain-based forming limit criterion is proposed to assess the localized necking failure for sheet metal forming simulations when deformation paths deviate significantly from linearity. Different from the traditional strain-based Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) in terms of major and minor strains, the new FLD is constructed based on effective strains and material flow direction at the end of forming. This new criterion combines the advantages of stress-based FLD for its path-independence and the traditional linear strain path FLD for its easy interpretation. The proposed FLD is validated through both theoretical prediction with Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) model and available experimental data in literature, and its relationship with stress-based FLDs is discussed.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1172
Danielle Zeng, Z. Cedric Xia, Hua-Chu Shih, Ming F. Shi
Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) have been widely and successfully used in sheet metal stamping as a failure criterion to detect localized necking, which is the most common failure mechanism for conventional steels during forming. However, recent experience from stamping Dual-Phase steels found that, under certain circumstances such as stretching-bend over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails earlier than that predicted by the FLD based on the initiation of a localized neck. It appears that a different failure mechanism and mode are in effect, commonly referred to as “shear fracture” in the sheet metal stamping community. In this paper, experimental and numerical analysis is used to investigate the shear fracture mechanism. Numerical models are established for a stretch-bend test on DP780 steel with a wide range of bend radii for various failure modes. The occurrences of shear fracture are identified by correlating numerical simulation results with test data.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0498
Yang Li, Qiangsheng Zhao, Mansour Mirdamadi, Danielle Zeng, Xuming Su
Abstract Woven fabric carbon fiber/epoxy composites made through compression molding are one of the promising choices of material for the vehicle light-weighting strategy. Previous studies have shown that the processing conditions can have substantial influence on the performance of this type of the material. Therefore the optimization of the compression molding process is of great importance to the manufacturing practice. An efficient way to achieve the optimized design of this process would be through conducting finite element (FE) simulations of compression molding for woven fabric carbon fiber/epoxy composites. However, performing such simulation remains a challenging task for FE as multiple types of physics are involved during the compression molding process, including the epoxy resin curing and the complex mechanical behavior of woven fabric structure.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0418
Xin Xie, Danielle Zeng, Junrui Li, Jeffrey Dahl, Qiancheng Zhao, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain. This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large elongation measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under hundreds percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0481
Xian Jun Sun, Patricia Tibbenham, Jin Zhou, Danielle Zeng, Shiyao Huang, Li Lu, Xuming Su
Abstract Weld lines occur when melt flow fronts meet during the injection molding of plastic parts. It is important to investigate the weld line because the weld line area can induce potential failure of structural application. In this paper, a weld line factor (W-L factor) was adopted to describe the strength reduction to the ultimate strength due to the appearance of weld line. There were two engineering thermoplastics involved in this study, including one neat PP and one of talc filled PP plastics. The experimental design was used to investigate four main injection molding parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure). Both the tensile bar samples with/without weld lines were molded at each process settings. The sample strength was obtained by the tensile tests under two levels of testing speed (5mm/min and 200mm/min) and testing temperatures (room temperature and -30°C).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0332
Zhengpan Qi, Li Lu, Linh Doan, Bhavani Thota, Danielle Zeng, Xuming Su
Abstract High density polyethylene (HDPE) is widely used in automotive industry applications. When a specimen made of HDPE tested under cyclic loading, the inelastic deformation causes heat generated within the material, resulting in a temperature rise. The specimen temperature would stabilize if heat transfer from specimen surface can balance with the heat generated. Otherwise, the temperature will continue to rise, leading to a thermo assist failure. It is shown in this study that both frequencies and stress levels contribute to the temperature rise. Under service conditions, most of the automotive components experience low cyclic load frequency much less than 1 Hz. However, the frequency is usually set to a higher constant number for different stress levels in current standard fatigue life tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0224
Zhangxing Chen, Yi Li, Yimin Shao, Tianyu Huang, Hongyi Xu, Yang Li, Wei Chen, Danielle Zeng, Katherine Avery, HongTae Kang, Xuming Su
Abstract To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0228
Yang Li, Zhangxing Chen, Hongyi Xu, Jeffrey Dahl, Danielle Zeng, Mansour Mirdamadi, Xuming Su
Abstract Compression molded SMC composed of chopped carbon fiber and resin polymer which balances the mechanical performance and manufacturing cost presents a promising solution for vehicle lightweight strategy. However, the performance of the SMC molded parts highly depends on the compression molding process and local microstructure, which greatly increases the cost for the part level performance testing and elongates the design cycle. ICME (Integrated Computational Material Engineering) approaches are thus necessary tools to reduce the number of experiments required during part design and speed up the deployment of the SMC materials. As the fundamental stage of the ICME workflow, commercial software packages for SMC compression molding exist yet remain not fully validated especially for chopped fiber systems. In the present study, SMC plaques are prepared through compression molding process.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0229
Hongyi Xu, Yang Li, Danielle Zeng
Abstract Process integration and optimization is the key enabler of the Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) of carbon fiber composites. In this work, automated workflows are developed for two types of composites: Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) short fiber composites, and multi-layer unidirectional (UD) composites. For SMC, the proposed workflow integrates material processing simulation, microstructure representation volume element (RVE) models, material property prediction and structure preformation simulation to enable multiscale, multidisciplinary analysis and design. Processing parameters, microstructure parameters and vehicle subframe geometry parameters are defined as the design variables; the stiffness and weight of the structure are defined as the responses. For multi-layer UD structure, this work focuses on the discussion of different design representation methods and their impacts on the optimization performance.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0147
Z. Cedric Xia, Danielle Zeng
The “adequate” number of integration points (NIP) required to achieve accurate springback simulation results is studied in this paper in an effort to clarify confusions reported in the literature and shed light on the origin of the confusion. A bending-under-tension model is adopted where springback solution can be obtained with analytical integration through metal thickness. Numerical integrations are then performed and compared with analytical solution to assess associated errors. A crucial distinction is made in the paper that, the model can be posed either as a displacement-value problem where both tension strain and bending radius are prescribed or as a mixed-value problem where the tension force and bending radius are prescribed. Although they are physically equivalent due to the uniqueness of solution, the numerical solutions are different. The associated errors in springback respond differently to the number of integration points employed.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0977
Hua-Chu Shih, Ming F. Shi, Danielle Zeng, Z. Cedric Xia
The conventional forming limit curve (FLC) has been widely and successfully used as a failure criterion to detect localized necking in stamping. However, in stamping advanced high strength steels (AHSS), under certain circumstances such as stretching-bending over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails much earlier than predicted by the FLC. This type of failure on the die radius is commonly called “shear fracture.” In this paper, the laboratory Stretch-Forming Simulator (SFS) and the Bending under Tension (BUT) tester are used to study shear fracture occurring during both early and later stages of stamping. Results demonstrate that the occurrence of shear fracture depends on the combination of the radius-to-thickness (R/T) ratio and the tension/stretch level applied to the sheet during stretching or drawing. Based on numerous experimental results, an empirical shear fracture limit curve or criterion is obtained.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0983
Jixian Sun, Xinhai Zhu, Danielle Zeng, Z. Cedric Xia
A detailed investigation of the influence of anisotropic hardening models on drawbead restraining force is presented in this paper. The recently modified Yoshida model is adopted to characterize the anisotropic hardening behavior for steels. A two-dimensional drawbead model is used and the restraining forces corresponding to several different bead penetrations are obtained and compared against experimental results. The comparison of the predicted results for the Modified Yoshida Model with isotropic hardening models indicates that the anisotropic hardening gives lower drawbead restraining forces in general. The impact of hardening models on springback is also presented, and it's demonstrated that the springback amount predicted by the modified Yoshida model is much closer to the experimental data than that predicted by conventional isotropic hardening model.
Viewing 1 to 16 of 16

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