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20090615
Technical Paper
2009011898
This paper explains the principle and advantages of the Ignition Progress Variable Library (IPVLibrary) approach and its use in predicting engine related premixed, nonpremixed and compression ignited combustion events. The implementation of IPVLibrary model in the enginefocused CFD code VECTIS is described. To demonstrate the application of the model in predicting various types of combustion, computational results from a 2stroke HCCI engine, a premixed spark ignition engine and an HSDI diesel engine are presented, together with some comparisons with engine test data.
20110830
Technical Paper
2011011781
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engines have demonstrated a potential for high efficiency and low emissions operation. To be able to study the combustion in detail but also to perform parametric studies on the potential of the PPC concept a one dimensional (1D) engine simulation tool was used with 1; a prescribed burn rate 2; predictive combustion tool with reduced chemical model and 3; predictive combustion tool with detailed chemical models. Results indicate that fast executing reduced chemistry work reasonably well in predicting PPC performance and that ndecane is possibly a suitable diesel substitute in PPC modeling while nheptane is not.
20091102
Journal Article
2009012679
The subject of this work is 3D numerical simulations of combustion and soot emissions for a passenger car diesel engine. The CFD code STARCD version 3.26 [1] is used to resolve the flowfield. Soot is modeled using a detailed kinetic soot model described by Mauss [2]. The model includes a detailed description of the formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The coupling between the turbulent flowfield and the soot model is achieved through a flamelet library approach, with transport of the moments of the soot particle size distribution function as outlined by Wenzel et al. [3]. In this work we extended this approach by considering acetylene feedback between the soot model and the combustion model. The model was further improved by using new gasphase kinetics and new fitting procedures for the flamelet soot library.
20100412
Technical Paper
2010011085
The solution mapping method Adaptive Polynomial Tabulation (APT) for complex chemistry is presented. The method has the potential of reducing the computational time required for stochastic reactor model simulations of the HCCI combustion process. In this method the solution of the initial value chemical rate equation system is approximated in realtime with zero, first and second order polynomial expressions. These polynomials are algebraic functions of a progress variable, pressure and total enthalpy. The chemical composition space is divided a priori into blockshaped regions (hypercubes) of the same size. Each hypercube may be divided in realtime into adaptive hypercubes of different sizes. During computations, initial conditions are stored in the adaptive hypercubes. Two concentric Ellipsoids of Accuracy (EOA) are drawn around each stored initial condition.
20131014
Technical Paper
2013012621
The relatively new combustion concept known as partially premixed combustion (PPC) has high efficiency and low emissions. However, there are still challenges when it comes to fully understanding and implementing PPC. Thus a predictive combustion tool was used to gain further insight into the combustion process in late cycle mixing. The modeling tool is a stochastic reactor model (SRM) based on probability density functions (PDF). The model requires less computational time than a similar study using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A novel approach with a twozone SRM was used to capture the behavior of the partially premixed or stratified zones prior to ignition. This study focuses on PPC mixing conditions and the use of an efficient analysis approach.
20120910
Journal Article
2012011680
This paper reports on a turbulent flame propagation model combined with a zerodimensional twozone stochastic reactor model (SRM) for efficient predictive SI incylinder combustion calculations. The SRM is a probability density function based model utilizing detailed chemistry, which allows for accurate knock prediction. The new model makes it possible to  in addition  study the effects of fuel chemistry on flame propagation, yielding a predictive tool for efficient SI incylinder calculations with all benefits of detailed kinetics. The turbulent flame propagation model is based on a recent analytically derived formula by Kolla et al. It was simplified to better suit SI engine modelling, while retaining the features allowing for general application. Parameters which could be assumed constant for a large spectrum of situations were replaced with a small number of user parameters, for which assumed default values were found to provide a good fit to a range of cases.
20120416
Technical Paper
2012011074
This paper reports on a fast predictive combustion tool employing detailed chemistry. The model is a stochastic reactor based, discretised probability density function model, without spatial resolution. Employing detailed chemistry has the potential of predicting emissions, but generally results in very high CPU costs. Here it is shown that CPU times of a couple of minutes per cycle can be reached when applying detailed chemistry, and CPU times below 10 seconds per cycle can be reached when using reduced chemistry while still catching incylinder inhomogeneities. This makes the tool usable for efficient engine performance mapping and optimisation. To meet CPU time requirements, automatically load balancing parallelisation was included in the model. This allowed for an almost linear CPU speedup with number of cores available.
20120416
Technical Paper
2012011072
A selfcalibrating model for Diesel engine simulations is presented. The overall model consists of a zerodimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model (DISRM) for engine incylinder processes simulations and a package of optimization algorithms (OPAL) suitable for solving various optimization, automatization and search problems. In the DISRM, based on an extensive model parameters study, the mixing time history that affects the level of incylinder turbulence was selected as a main calibration parameter. As targets during calibration against the experimental data, incylinder pressure history and engineout emissions, including nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbons were chosen. The calibration task was solved using DISRM and OPAL working as an integrated tool. Within OPAL, genetic algorithms (GA) were used to determine model constants necessary for calibrating. Engineout emissions in DISRM were calculated based on the reduced mechanism of nheptane.
19980223
Technical Paper
980787
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for combustion in the reciprocating engine. Here, a homogeneous charge is used as in a spark ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to autoignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine, HCCI has a homogeneous charge and hence no problems associated with soot and NOX formation. Earlier research on HCCI showed high efficiency and very low amounts of NOX, but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP values with HCCI, the limit being 5 bar. Supercharging is one way to dramatically increase IMEP. The influence of supercharging on HCCI was therefore experimentally investigated. Three different fuels were used during the experiments: isooctane, ethanol and natural gas.
19970501
Technical Paper
971669
Cycleresolved endgas temperatures were measured using dualbroadband rotational CARS in a singlecylinder sparkignition engine. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements were used as an indicator for knock and as input data to numerical calculations. The chemical processes in the endgas have been analysed with a detailed kinetic mechanism for mixtures of isooctane and nheptane at different Research Octane Numbers (RON'S). The endgas is modelled as a homogeneous reactor that is compressed or expanded by the piston movement and the flame propagation in the cylinder. The calculated temperatures are in agreement with the temperatures evaluated from CARS measurements. It is found that calculations with different RON'S of the fuel lead to different levels of radical concentrations in the endgas. The apperance of the first stage of the autoignition process is marginally influenced by the RON, while the ignition delay of the second stage is increased with increasing RON.
19970501
Technical Paper
971671
A detailed analysis of the endgas temperature and pressure in gasoline engines has been performed. This analysis leads to a simplified zerodimensional model, that considers both, the compression and the expansion of the endgas by the piston movement, and the compression by the flame front. If autoignition occurs in the endgas the sudden rise of the pressure and the heat release is calculated. The rate form of the first law of thermodynamics for a control volume combined with the mass conservation equation for an unsteady and a uniformflow process are applied. The heat of formation in the endgas due to the chemical activity has been taken into account. In addition, a chemical kinetic model has been applied in order to study the occurrence of autoignition and prediction of knock.
20060403
Technical Paper
2006011362
We numerically simulate a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with a blend of ethanol and diethyl ether by means of a stochastic reactor model (SRM). A 1D CFD code is employed to calculate gas flow through the engine, whilst the SRM accounts for combustion and convective heat transfer. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental measurements obtained using a Caterpillar CAT3401 singlecylinder Diesel engine modified for HCCI operation. We consider emissions of CO, CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons as functions of the crank angle at 50% heat release. In addition, we establish the dependence of ignition timing, combustion duration, and emissions on the mixture ratio of the two fuel components. Good qualitative agreement is found between our computations and the available experimental data.
20070123
Technical Paper
2007010049
Concentrations of hydroxyl radicals and formaldehyde were calculated using homogeneous (HRM) and stochastic reactor models (SRM), and the result was compared to LIFmeasurements from an optically accessed isooctane / nheptane fuelled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The comparison was at first conducted from averaged total concentrations / signal strengths over the entire combustion volume, which showed a good qualitative agreement between experiments and calculations. Time and the calculation inlet temperature resolved concentrations of formaldehyde and hydroxyl radicals obtained through HRM are presented. Probability density plots (PDPs) through SRM calculations and LIFmeasurements are presented and compared, showing a very good agreement considering their delicate and sensitive nature.
20051024
Technical Paper
2005013813
By dividing the combustion process into several phases with phase optimized skeletal mechanisms (POSM), gains in calculation speed were realized with virtually no loss in accuracy. A skeletal mechanism is a reduced mechanism where only the significant species, determined through a set of parameters (one for each species), remain with respect to a detailed mechanism. The parameter is based on a combination of sensitivity and flow analysis. Within the POSM method machine learning algorithms are used to automatically determine and recognize the major phases. Reduction is achieved by keeping only the significant species with respect to each phase. Each phase has a different mechanism, derived from the original and each is smaller than the original.
20051024
Technical Paper
2005013855
In this work, we present an unsteady flamelet progress variable approach for diesel engine CFD combustion modeling. The progress variable is based on sensible enthalpy integrated over the flamelet and describes the transient flamelet ignition process. By using an unsteady flamelet library for the progress variable, the impact of local effects, for example variations in the turbulence field, effects of wall heat transfer etc. on the autoignition chemistry can be considered on a cell level. The coupling between the unsteady flamelet library and the transport equation for total enthalpy follows the ideas of the representative interactive flamelet approach. Since the progress variable gives a direct description of the state in the flamelet, the method can be compared to having a flamelet in each computational cell in the CFD grid.
20050411
Technical Paper
2005010161
We present a computational tool to develop an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)  airfuel ratio (AFR) operating range for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. A single cylinder Ricardo E6 engine running in HCCI mode, with external EGR is simulated using an improved probability density function (PDF) based engine cycle model. For a base case, the incylinder temperature and unburned hydrocarbon emissions predicted by the model show a satisfactory agreement with measurements [Oakley et al., SAE Paper 2001013606]. Furthermore, the model is applied to develop the operating range for various combustion parameters, emissions and engine parameters with respect to the airfuel ratio and the amount of EGR used. The model predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results for various parameters over the entire EGRAFR operating range thus proving the robustness of the PDF based model.
20050411
Technical Paper
2005010126
Calculations using homogeneous and stochastic reactor models were performed in order to find an explanation to observed properties of NOx HCCI engines. It was found that for moderate NOx levels, N2O reactions play an important role in the NOx formation. Further, the high proportions of NO2 found in from some HCCI engines is due to high temperature inhomogeneities, poor mixing and slow overall combustion. N2O is often emitted from HCCI combustion. The levels of NOx in the exhausts are highly sensitive to temperature; however N2O has a weak negative dependence on temperature. While fuel rich operation naturally leads to high temperatures and thus high NOx levels; once the temperature effects are decoupled the fuel rich conditions themselves has a favorable effect on lowNOx engine operation.
20040308
Technical Paper
2004010561
Operating the HCCI engine with dual fuels with a large difference in autoignition characteristics (octane number) is one way to control the HCCI operation. The effect of octane number on combustion, emissions and engine performance in a 6 cylinder SCANIA truck engine, fuelled with nheptane and isooctane, and running in HCCI mode, are investigated numerically and compared with measurements taken from Olsson et al. [SAE 2000012867]. To correctly simulate the HCCI engine operation, we implement a probability density function (PDF) based stochastic reactor model (including detailed chemical kinetics and accounting for inhomogeneities in composition and temperature) coupled with GTPOWER, a 1D fluid dynamics based engine cycle simulator. Such a coupling proves to be ideal for the understanding of the combustion phenomenon as well as the gas dynamics processes intrinsic to the engine cycle.
20080414
Technical Paper
2008010957
A transient interactive flamelet model and a transient flamelet library based model are used to model a mediumduty diesel fueled engine operating in PCCI mode. The simulations are performed with and without the source term accounting for evaporation in the mixture fraction variance equation. Reasonable agreement is found with the experiments with both models. The effect of the evaporation source term in the mixture fraction variance equation is different for the different transient flamelet approaches. For the transient interactive flamelet model the ignition onset is delayed as a consequence of the higher mixture fraction variance, which leads to a higher scalar dissipation rate. The evaporation source term does not affect the global characteristics of the ignition event for the transient flamelet progress variable model, but locally the initial combustion is occurring differently.
20080623
Technical Paper
2008011606
In onedimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation  CO, HC, NO, soot  simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the incylinder combustionflow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter  the mixing time  to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
20090420
Technical Paper
2009010667
The ability to predict cyclic variations is certainly useful in studying engine operating regimes, especially under unstable operating conditions where one single cycle may differ from another substantially and a single simulation may give rather misleading results. PDF based models such as Stochastic Reactor Models (SRM) are able to model cyclic variations, but these may be overpredicted if discretization is too coarse. The range of cyclic variations and the dependence of the ability to correctly assess their mean values on the number of cycles simulated were investigated. In most cases, the average values were assessed correctly on the basis of as few as 10 cycles, but assessing the complete range of cyclic variations could require a greater number of cycles. In studying average values, variations due too coarse discretization being employed are smaller than variations originating from changes in physical parameters, such as heat transfer and mixing parameters.
20090420
Technical Paper
2009010676
An investigation on reducing the set of modeling parameters for engine cycle simulation is presented. The investigation considers a detailed kinetic model for combustion and emissions predictions coupled to a complete cycle simulation tool applied to a modern Diesel engine. The analysis is based on a previously developed method that combines a 1D gas dynamics model with a stochastic reactor model for direct injection engines (SRMDI). Initially, the global and instantaneous performance parameters of a Diesel engine were simulated at different operating conditions. The model was validated and the simulated results were compared to experimental data to assess the quality of the model. Afterwards, the influence of the chosen modeling parameters on engine performance, such as incylinder pressure, emissions and global performances, were analyzed. The mixing time proved to be the most important modeling parameter for the stochastic reactor model.
20090420
Journal Article
2009010503
Today’s car manufactures inevitably have to focus on the reduction of fuel consumption while maintaining high performance standards. In this respect, the downsized turbocharged DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engine represents an appealing solution. However, downsizing is limited because of knocking phenomena occurring at high and fullload conditions due to autoignition of the unburned mixture ahead the flame front. A common way of reducing knock tendencies is provided by Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). However, EGR modifies the chemical composition of the cylinder charge and recirculated species like nitric oxide (NO) or unburned Hydrocarbons (HC) particularly increase the reactivity of the unburned mixture. In other words, the EGR influences the Octane Number (ON) of the incylinder gases.
20090420
Technical Paper
2009010131
The formation of exothermic centers was modeled with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) to investigate their impact on HCCI combustion. By varying the exhaust valve temperature, and thus assigning more realistic wall temperatures, the formation of exothermic centers and the ignition timing was shifted in time. To be able to study the exothermic centers, their formation and their distribution, Scatter plots, standard deviation plots and Probability Density Function (PDF) plots were constructed on the basis of the data the SRM calculations provided. The standard deviation for the particle temperatures was found to be an useful indicator of the degree of homogeneity within the combustion chamber, and thus of how efficient the combustion process was. It was observed that when the standard deviation of the temperature was higher, the emissions of CO and of hydrocarbons present at the end of the closed cycle were higher.
20160405
Technical Paper
2016010566
Stringent exhaust emission limits and new vehicle test cycles require sophisticated operating strategies for future diesel engines. Therefore, a methodology for predictive combustion simulation, focused on multiple injection operating points is proposed in this paper. The model is designated for engine performance map simulations, to improve prediction of NOx, CO and HC emissions. The combustion process is calculated using a zero dimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model based on a probability density function approach. Further, the formation of exhaust emissions is described using a detailed reaction mechanism for nheptane, which involves 56 Species and 206 reactions. The model includes the interaction between turbulence and chemistry effects by using a variable mixing time profile. Thus, one is able to capture the effects of mixture inhomogeneities on NOx, CO and HC emission formation.
20160405
Technical Paper
2016010592
Abstract Several models for ignition, combustion and emission formation under diesel engine conditions for multidimensional computational fluid dynamics have been proposed in the past. It has been recognized that the use of a reasonably detailed chemistry model improves the combustion and emission prediction especially under low temperature and high exhaust gas recirculation conditions. The coupling of the combustion chemistry and the turbulent flow can be achieved with different assumptions. In this paper we investigate a selection of nheptane spray experiments published by the Engine Combustion Network (ECN spray H) with three different combustion models: wellstirred reactor model, transient interactive flamelet model and progress variable based conditional moment closure. All models cater for the use of detailed chemistry, while the turbulencechemistry interaction modeling and the ability to consider local effects differ.
Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model
20170328
Technical Paper
2017010516
Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
20170328
Technical Paper
2017010512
Abstract A novel 0D Probability Density Function (PDF) based approach for the modelling of Diesel combustion using tabulated chemistry is presented. The Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DISRM) by Pasternak et al. has been extended with a progress variable based framework allowing the use of a precalculated autoignition table. Autoignition is tabulated through adiabatic constant pressure reactor calculations. The tabulated chemistry based implementation has been assessed against the previously presented DISRM version by Pasternak et al. where chemical reactions are solved online. The chemical mechanism used in this work for both, online chemistry run and table generation, is an extended version of the scheme presented by Nawdial et al. The main fuel species are ndecane, αmethylnaphthalene and methyldecanoate giving a size of 463 species and 7600 reactions.
20150414
Technical Paper
2015011243
Abstract A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zerodimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SISRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SISRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a threedimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
20170904
Technical Paper
2017240031
Abstract Large twostroke marine Diesel engines have special injector geometries, which differ substantially from the configurations used in most other Diesel engine applications. One of the major differences is that injector orifices are distributed in a highly nonsymmetric fashion affecting the spray characteristics. Earlier investigations demonstrated the dependency of the spray morphology on the location of the spray orifice and therefore on the resulting flow conditions at the nozzle tip. Thus, spray structure is directly influenced by the flow formation within the orifice. Following recent Large Eddy Simulation resolved spray primary breakup studies, the present paper focuses on spray secondary breakup modelling of asymmetric spray structures in EulerLagrangian framework based on previously obtained droplet distributions of primary breakup.
Filter

Automotive
38

Power and Propulsion
38

Engines
38

Design Engineering and Styling
26

Diesel / Compression Ignition engines
25

Simulation and modeling
22

Spark ignition engines
19

Fuels and Energy Sources
13

Onboard energy sources
13

Environment
12

Emissions
11

Gasoline
10

Engine components
9

Knock
8

Vehicles and Performance
7

Aerodynamics
7

Turbulence
7

Computational fluid dynamics
6

Mathematical models
6

Emissions control
6

Combustion and combustion processes
6

Alternative fuels
5

Ignition systems
5

HCCI engines
5

Ignition timing
5

Analysis methodologies
4

Mathematical analysis
4

Exhaust emissions
4

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
4

Engine mechanical components
4

Fuel systems
4

Fuel injection
4

Computer simulation
3

Diesel exhaust emissions control
2

Diesel fuels
2

Combustion chambers
2

Tests and Testing
2

Performance tests
2

CAD, CAM, and CAE
1

Downsizing
1

Hydrocarbons
1

Nitrogen oxides
1

Life cycle analysis
1

Particulate matter (PM)
1

Fuel additives
1

Natural gas
1

Interiors, Cabins, and Cockpits
1

Thermodynamics
1

Materials
1

Gases
1

Parts and Components
1

Parts
1

Nozzles
1

Engine cylinders
1

Superchargers
1

Turbochargers
1

Dual fuel engines
1

Lean burn engines
1

Marine engines
1

Single cylinder engines
1

Fabian Mauss
38

Harry Lehtiniemi
9

Anders Borg
5

Bengt Johansson
5

Cathleen Perlman
5

Markus Kraft
5

Per Amnéus
5

Amit Bhave
4

Andrea Matrisciano
4

Bengt Sundén
4

Karin Frojd
4

Martin Tuner
4

Martin Tunér
4

Michal Pasternak
3

Shahrokh Hajireza
3

Tim Franken
3

Cem Sorusbay
2

Henry Bensler
2

Ingemar Denbratt
2

Joakim Bood
2

Lars Seidel
2

Michał Pasternak
2

PerErik Bengtsson
2

Rajesh Rawat
2

Simon Bjerkborn
2

Terese Løvås
2

Yongzhe Zhang
2

Aaron Oakley
1

Adina Gogan
1

Andreas Benz
1

Andreas Schmid
1

Andreas Vressner
1

Arnd Sommerhoff
1

Arne Andersson
1

Bincheng Jiang
1

Börje Grandin
1

Christian Brackmann
1

Christian Hasse
1

Christian Krüger
1

Corinna Netzer
1

Daniel Nilsson
1

Dominique Thévenin
1

Edward S. Blurock
1

Emanuela Montefrancesco
1

Fabio Xavier
1

Florian Ziebart
1

Galin Nakov
1

Gábor Janiga
1

Hakan Serhad Soyhan
1

Hakan Soyhan
1

Henrik Hoffmeyer
1

Hua Zhao
1

Imre Gergely Nagy
1

Ingemar Magnusson
1

J. Hunter Mack
1

Jenny Nygren
1

Jürgen Willand
1

Karin Fröjd
1

Klaas Burgdorf
1

Leif Hildingsson
1

Linda Beck
1

Linda M. Beck
1

Luca Montorsi
1

Magnus Christensen
1

Marc Sens
1

Marcus Aldén
1

Marcus Lundgren
1

Mattias Karlsson
1

Mattias Richter
1

Michael Balthasar
1

Michael Rieß
1

Ngozi Ebenezer
1

Norbert Peters
1

Olof Erlandsson
1

Patrik Einewall
1

Paul Wenzel
1

Per Amneus
1

Peter Maigaard
1

Robert Collin
1

Robert W. Dibble
1

Rüdiger Steiner
1

Sebastian Mosbach
1

Tao Bo
1

Werner Willems
1

LOGE AB
13

Brandenburg University of Technology
7

Lund Institute of Technology
7

BTU Cottbus
6

Chalmers University of Technology
5

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge
3

Division of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology
3

CDadapco
2

Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University
2

Ford Motor Company
2

* (former) Volkswagen AG † BTU Cottbus
1

Brandenburg Univ. of Technology
1

Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus
1

Cambridge University
1

Chalmers Univ. of Technology
1

Chemical Kinetics Group, Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University
1

Daimler AG
1

Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology
1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brunel University
1

Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
1

Div. of Combustion Physics, Lund University
1

Division of Combustion Engines, Lund Institute of Technology
1

Division of Combustion Engines, Lund University
1

Division of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden
1

Division of Heat Transfer, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden
1

Ford Werke GmbH
1

IAV GmbH
1

Institut für Technische Mechanik, RWTH Aachen
1

Istanbul Technical Univ.
1

Istanbul Technical University
1

Laser Diagnostics Group, Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University
1

Loge GmbH
1

Lund Combustion Engineering, LOGE AB
1

Lund Institute of Technology, Division of Combustion Engines
1

Lund Institute of Technology, Division of Combustion Physics
1

Lund Univ
1

Lund Univ.
1

Lund University
1

Reaction Engineering Solution Ltd.
1

University of California at Berkeley
1

University of Cambridge
1

University of Cottbus
1

University of Magdeburg
1

Universität Cottbus
1

Volkswagen AG
1

Volvo AB
1

Volvo Technology Corporation
1

Winterthur Gas & Diesel Ltd.
1

Winterthur Gas & Diesel Ltd. / NTUADME
1