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Technical Paper
Jeremy Lawrence, Harry C Watson
Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition (HAJI) is a novel method of maintaining combustion stability during ultra-lean operation of conventional, homogeneously charged, SI engines. When operating with HAJI above λ=2, CO and NOx emissions fall to low levels while HC emissions rise to approximately double their stoichiometric value. HC emissions were investigated by operating a HAJI equipped, optically accessible, four-valve single cylinder engine at 600 r/min, wide open throttle (WOT), and from λ=1 to λ=2.4. A fast flame ionisation detector was used to collect real time hydrocarbon concentration data from behind one of the exhaust valves, inside the HAJI pre-chamber, and from near the combustion chamber wall. Flame images were also obtained. Exhaust port sampling shows that the HC concentration during blowdown and early exhaust is increased, but the concentration at the end of exhaust is decreased.
Technical Paper
Chris Manzie, Harry C Watson
The variability of in-cylinder combustion of gasoline at idle has been investigated previously, culminating in the development of a model relating the past and future indicated torque deviations from the mean at given engine operating conditions of intake manifold pressure, engine speed and spark advance. The developed model has the potential to be used in an idle speed control algorithm to improve vehicle noise vibration and harshness (NVH) at low engine speeds and loads. While environmental considerations have spawned the development of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a viable alternative fuel, adaptation of the variability model to multipoint LPG injected automotive engines is complicated by the fact that the fuel mixture concentrations of propane and butane are subject to wide variations depending on a variety of factors including geographic location and local market pricing.
Technical Paper
Jeremy Lawrence, Harry C Watson
A fast flame ionisation detector (FID) is able to measure the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration at a single point in the exhaust port. However, when sampling is conducted near the plane of the exhaust valve, these measurements are not representative of the entire port cross-section. This paper describes a multi-point extension to a standard fast FID probe, enabling the instantaneous measurement of a more representative HC concentration near the plane of the exhaust valve. Construction and use of the multi-point probe is discussed, and results are compared with standard single-point measurements.
Technical Paper
Chris Manzie, Harry C Watson, Paul Baker
Combustion in the cylinder of a spark ignition engine, particularly under low load conditions, is subject to cycle-by-cycle variations due to factors such as mixture quality and quantity and internal exhaust gas recirculation. The major result of this phenomenon is an increase in the variability of indicated engine torque at a given engine operating point. Automotive control problems dealing with torque production at low engine loads, particularly the control of idle speed, rely on accurate information about the transfer functions of different engine subsystems, however combustion variability and the effect it has on torque production is often overlooked. In this paper we illustrate the effects that combustion variability at idle has on different transfer functions related to indicated torque, and propose new models for torque production at constant operating points.
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