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Viewing 1 to 30 of 36
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930612
Takuo Yoshizaki, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
A phenomenological spray-combustion model of a D.I. Diesel engine was applied to study the engine parameters with potential for reducing NOx and smoke emissions. The spray-combustion model, first developed at the University of Hiroshima in 1976, has been sophisticated by incorporating new knowledge of diesel combustion. The model was verified using data from an experimental, single cylinder, D.I. diesel engine with a bore of 135mm and a stroke of 130mm. After the verification process, calculations were made under a wide range of the engine parameters, such as intake air temperature, intake air pressure, intake swirl ratio, nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure, air entrainment rate into the spray, and injection rate profile. These calculations estimated the effects of the engine parameters on NOx, smoke and specific fuel consumption. As a result of the calculations, an approach for the low NOx and smoke emission engine was found.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930863
Mamoru Suzuki, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
A new technique was proposed for the simultaneous measurement of the concentration of fuel vapor and liquid in an evaporating diesel spray injected into a high temperature and high pressure environment. This technique was based on the principle of the absorption of ultraviolet laser light by fuel vapor and the scattering of visible laser light by fuel droplets in the diesel spray. For this principle, α-methylnaphthalene was used as a test fuel. Measuring the transmissivity of ultraviolet and visible laser lights absorbed and scattered by β-methylnaphthalene spray made it possible to analyze the fuel vapor concentration, droplets density and the mixture temperature in the diesel spray. A computerized tomographic transfer technique was also adopted to analyze three-dimensional fuel concentration distribution in the spray.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972942
Jang-Heon Kim, Keiya Nishida, Takuo Yoshizaki, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
The internal flow of a diesel injection nozzle was studied by using transparent model nozzles to clarify the effects of the flows in the sac chamber and the discharge hole on the spray behaviors. The geometry of the model nozzle was scaled up 10 times the actual nozzle and the injection pressure for the model nozzle was adjusted so as to achieve a Reynolds number at the discharge hole which was the same as an actual nozzle. Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) tracers were used to visualize the flow patterns in the sac chamber. Sequential photographs of the internal flow and the issuing spray plume during the opening process of the needle valve were taken by a high-speed video camera. By locating the discharge hole on the upper side of the sac chamber, the turbulence intensity in the sac chamber increases and the spread angle of the spray plume becomes large.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972943
Jianguang Zhou, Takuo Yoshizaki, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Although mixture formation is considered important in actual spark ignition engines, A full understanding of the combustion characteristics of a heterogeneous mixture has not yet been achieved. In this study, in order to clarify the effects of a heterogeneous concentration distribution of the fuel-air mixture on the flame propagation process, different degrees of heterogeneously distributed mixtures were created by the motion of a pair of perforated plates in a constant volume combustion chamber. The laser Rayleigh scattering method was applied for quantitative visualizations of these mixture distributions. To control the distribution of the mixture concentration and the turbulence intensity independently, the flow in the chamber and its turbulence intensity were also measured by a laser sheet method and the LDV technique.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972867
Hirofumi Imanishi, Takuo Yoshizaki, Taka'aki Satoh, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Hideo Yamashita, Kazufumi Kaneda
Three-Dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate a calculated result of diesel combustion simulation into an realistically spray and flame image. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three-dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962059
Hirofumi Imanishi, Takuo Yoshizaki, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
A calculative investigation was performed in order to examine the effects of injection rate profile and air entrainment characteristics on exhaust emission using a phenomenological spray combustion model. The calculations were made of an engine with a bore of 114 mm and a stroke of 130 min while changing the injection rate profile and the air entrainment characteristics. As a result of the calculations, effective measures were found for simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke emissions.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962054
Takuo Yoshizaki, Keiichiro Yuzaki, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Hideo Yamashita, Kazufumi Kaneda, Mamoru Suzuki
Evaporating diesel spray distributions in the combustion chamber of a direct injection diesel engine were calculated using a phenomenological simulation model, and the calculated results were described three dimensionally using a 3-D volume rendering application which has been developed by the authors. The evaporating diesel spray distributions in the combustion chamber were measured using a technique based on the extinction of ultraviolet (wavelength of 280nm) and visible (wavelength of 560nm) laser lights. The measured results were compared with the predicted spray distributions in order to verify the simulation model. The calculated results show reasonably good agreement with the experimental results, and the validity of this spray model as a practical computational tool for estimating diesel spray behavior is confirmed by this comparison.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922389
Fu-Quan Zhao, Tooru Takemoto, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
An experimental study was made of the two-dimensional distributions of the fuel vapor concentration simulated by Freon-12 in the combustion chamber of a SI engine. Laser Rayleigh scattering was applied for this remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-microchannel plate image intensifier. The results showed that the fuel vapor concentration was highly heterogeneous during the intake stroke and the inhomogeneity decreased in the compression stroke. But, even at the end of the compression stroke, a number of small lumps of inhomogeneous mixture still existed randomly in the engine combustion chamber, which is assumed to cause the heterogeneity of the mixture strength field at the spark discharge.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920624
Min Xu, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Spray penetration for Diesel injectors, where injection pressure varies with time during the injection period, was calculated. In order to carry out this calculation, the discharge coefficients of the needle-seat opening passage and discharge hole in orifice-type Diesel nozzles were investigated separately. Simple empirical correlations were obtained between these coefficients and needle lift. Then, by introducing these correlations, the injection pressure, which is defined as the pressure in the sac chamber just upstream of the discharge hole, was either derived from measured fuel supply line pressure, or predicted by means of an injection system simulation. Finally, based on the transient injection pressure, spray tip penetration was calculated by taking the overall line which covers the trajectories of all fuel elements ejected during the injection period.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941693
Takuo Yoshizaki, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Kyu-Keun Song
Experiments and modeling of a spray impinged onto a cavity wall of a simulated piston were performed under simulated diesel engine conditions (pressure and density) at an ambient temperature. The diesel fuel was delivered from a Bosch-type injection pump to a single-hole nozzle, the hole being drilled in the same direction as the original five-hole nozzle. The fuel was injected into a high-pressure bomb in which an engine combustion chamber, composed of a piston, a cylinder head and a cylinder liner, was installed. Distributions of the spray impinged on the simulated combustion chamber were observed from various directions while changing some of the experimental parameters, such as combustion chamber shape, nozzle projection and top-clearance. High-speed photography was used in the constant volume bomb to examine the effect of these parameters on the spray distributions.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950461
Takuo Yoshizaki, Takeshi Funahashi, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Cross-sectional distributions of the liquid phase temperatures in fuel sprays were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane or squalane) was doped with pyrene(C16H10). The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions has temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the fuel sprays. The measurements were performed on two kinds of sprays. One was performed on pre-heated fuel sprays injected into surrounding gas at atmospheric conditions. The other was performed on fuel sprays exposed to hot gas flow. The spray was excited by laser radiation at 266nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence image by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932641
Fu-Quan Zhao, Masahiko Taketomi, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Quantitative imaging of the fuel concentration distribution was made in the combustion chamber of a propane-fueled spark ignition (SI) engine with the employment of laser-sheet-induced Rayleigh scattering technique for realizing the remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-micro- channel plate image intensifier. The measurements were done at the crank angle of 270°ATDC in the combustion chamber of the engine motored at 200rpm with an air fuel ratio of 13 for various injection timing, injection direction and intake flow. The results show that with an appropriate matching of fuel injection timing, injection direction and intake flow, a stratified distribution of the fuel concentration can be realized.
1996-05-01
Technical Paper
961202
Takuo Yoshizaki, Yuji Takemura, Toshifumi Hisaeda, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
The two-dimensional distributions of the liquid phase temperatures in diesel sprays injected into high-pressure and high-temperature environments were measured using the laser-induced fluorescence technique. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane) was doped with pyrene(C16H10). The fuel spray doped with pyrene was injected under a high-pressure of 3.1MPa and a high-Temperature of 773K. The evaporating diesel spray was excited by laser radiation at 266nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions have temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the diesel sprays. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence images by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961820
Takuo Yoshizaki, Keiichiro Yuzaki, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Hideo Yamashita, Kazufumi Kaneda
Distributions of non-evaporating diesel sprays impinging on a simulated combustion chamber wall were observed from various directions while changing some of the experimental parameters, such as nozzle projection and top-clearance. High-speed photography was used in this study to examine the effects of these parameters on the spray distributions. Moreover, the spray distributions were predicted by using a spray model based on a multi-package model. The calculated distributions were displayed three-dimensionally using a volume rendering application developed by the authors. The predicted spray distributions were compared with the experimental results observed from various directions in order to evaluate the spray model.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952412
Masahiko Fujimoto, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Michihiko Tabata
A pancake-type constant-volume combustion chamber was used to investigate the combustion and NOx emission characteristics of propane-air and hydrogen-air mixtures under various charge stratification patterns, which were obtained by variations of the initial charge and injected mixture concentrations and the ignition spark timing. A planar laser-induced fluorescence from nitrogen dioxide as gas fuel tracer was applied to measure the mixture distribution in the test chamber. The second harmonic output of pulsed Nd; YAG laser was used as a light source for fluorescence excitation. The fluorescence images were corrected by a gated image-intensified CCD camera. The quantitative analysis of fuel concentration was made possible by the application of linearity between fluorescence intensity and NO2 concentration at low trace level.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982563
Jianguang Zhou, Keiya Nishida, Takuo Yoshizaki, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the flame propagation characteristics in the presence of a heterogeneous concentration distribution of a fuel-air mixture in order to provide fundamental knowledge of the effects of gaseous mixture concentration heterogeneity on the combustion process. Different propane-air mixture distributions were produced by the reciprocating movements of a pair of perforated plates in a constant volume combustion chamber. The mean equivalence ratio of the fuel-air mixture was varied from 0.7 on the lean side to 1.6 on the rich side, the turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber was also varied at levels of 0.185 m/s, 0.130 m/s, 0.100 m/s, and 0.0 m/s. By an independent control of the mixture distribution and the turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, the flame structure and flame propagation speed at various heterogeneous levels of the mixture distribution were investigated in detail.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1949
Tie Li, Keiya Nishida, Yuyin Zhang, Masahisa Yamakawa, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
In the previous study of the authors, it was found that some benefits for the mixture preparation of DI gasoline engines can be offered by splitting the fuel injection, such as the phenomenon of high density liquid phase fuel piling up at the leading edge of the spray can be circumvented. In a further analysis, the vapor quantity in the “stable operating” range (equivalence ratio of vapor ϕv in a range of 0.7≤ϕv≤1.3) was significantly increased by the split injection compared to the single injection. In this work, the mechanism of the effect of the split injection on the mixture formation process was studied by combining the laser-sheet imaging, LIF-PIV and the LAS (Laser Absorption Scattering) technique. As a result, it is found that the spray-induced ambient air motion can help the formation of the more combustible mixture of the split injection whereas it played a minus role of diluting the spray by the single injection.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3161
Tie Li, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Yuyin Zhang, Keiya Nishida
In order to investigate the effect of split injections on mixture formation processes in Direct Injection (DI) gasoline engine sprays, an experimental study was conducted applying the laser absorption and scattering (LAS) technique to the sprays using double pulse injections with various dwells and mass ratios. The effects of various dwells and mass ratios between the pulsed injections on the spatial concentration distributions in the spray, the penetration of vapor and liquid phases, and the mean equivalence ratios of the vapor phase and overall spray, were clarified. It was found that the phenomenon of high concentration liquid spray piling up at the leading edge of the spray is avoided by the double injections with enough dwell or appropriate mass ratio. The maximum penetration length of the spray significantly decreases, especially for the liquid phase with high concentration.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1811
Tie Li, Masahisa Yamakawa, Daisuke Takaki, Keiya Nishida, Yuyin Zhang, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Mixture formation processes play a vital role on the performance of a D.I. Gasoline engine. Quantitative measurement of liquid and vapor phase concentration distribution in a D.I. gasoline spray is very important in understanding the mixture formation processes. In this paper, an unique laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was employed to investigate the mixture formation processes of a fuel spray injected by a D.I. gasoline injector into a high pressure and temperature constant volume vessel. P-xylene, which is quite suitable for the application of the LAS technique, was selected as the test fuel. The temporal variations of the concentration distribution of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were quantitatively clarified. Then the effects of injection pressure and quantity on the concentration distributions of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were analyzed.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3600
Kensuke Wakai, Keiya Nishida, Takuo Yoshizaki, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Among the alternative fuels, dimethyl ether (DME), one of the oxygenated fuels, attracts attention as an alternative fuel for the Diesel engine since the properties of the DME are fitted to the Diesel engine combustion and the know-how development has been made of the mass production of the DME from a natural gas. In this study, experiments were performed of ignition characteristics of the DME and Diesel fuel sprays injected by a D.I. Diesel injector into a high-pressure, high-temperature vessel. The fuel injection was made by a Bosch type injection system. A schlieren optical system was adopted for visualizing the ignition process as well as the vaporization process of the DME and Diesel fuel sprays. The ignition delay was measured by using a photo-sensor which had a sensitivity in the wavelength range from visible to ultraviolet. Pressure and temperature of the ambient air and the oxygen concentration of the ambient air were changed as experimental parameters.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1122
Kensuke Wakai, Takuo Yoshizaki, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Yuji Kawaguchi
The fuel injection characteristics of Dimethyl Ether(DME) were calculated and compared with the calculated results of diesel fuel using a simulation model of an in-line diesel injection system in order to clarify the differences between the injection characteristics of the two fuels. Moreover, numerical analyses for the DME injection were performed while changing the fuel parameters and the injection system parameters in order to estimate the effects of these parameters on the fuel injection characteristics. The effects of some of these parameters were evaluated by experimental results conducted in a constant volume vessel. Furthermore, the spray tip penetration was calculated using the computed results of the injection pressure. As a result of this study, the injection characteristics of the DME fuel are basically confirmed. By the macroscopic analyses of these spray characteristics, the DME spray behavior in a combustion chamber can be estimated.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890464
Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Masataka Arai, Michihiko Tabata
New empirical equations to represent the Sauter mean diameter of a spray injected by a diesel nozzle are presented in this paper. In order to determine the new equations, drop sizes of a diesel spray were analyzed by a laser diffraction technique. Liquids with different viscosities and different surface tensions were tested to obtain the generalized empirical equations. The maximum injection and maximum ambient pressures were 90 MPa and 3.0 MPa respectively. Both the minimum value of the injection pressure to produce a fine spray and the Sauter mean diameter increase the greater the viscosity and the surface tension of the liquid. At a high injection velocity, the Sauter mean diameter increases with an increase in ambient pressure, but it decreases when ambient pressure is increased at a low injection velocity.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890463
Shigeru Yoshikawa, Ryunosuke Furusawa, Masataka Arai, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
The effects of engine parameters, such as spray characteristics and combustion chamber geometry on performance and exhaust emissions in a small D.I. diesel engine were investigated to find out the optimum way of improving the engine. Diesel spray injected into a high-pressure vessel was photographically analyzed to guess the spray behavior in a firing diesel engine. The ratio of hole length to the diameter of a nozzle (L/D) was varied from 3 to 7 as the main parameter of the nozzle. Piston cavity diameter and intake swirl were chosen as the other parameters. The effect of the above parameters was investigated in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), exhaust smoke, nitric oxides (NOx) and total hydrocarbon (THC). The L/D of the nozzle is concluded to be of major importance in terms of BSFC and THC emission. Smaller piston cavity diameters lead to lower exhaust smoke, but to a higher level of NOx emission.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890462
Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Keiya Nishida
Experiments and modeling of the fuel spray trajectory and dispersion influenced by both a swirling gas flow and wall impingement were performed under simulated direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine conditions at a high pressure and high temperature. A spray was injected into the steady swirling gas flow and impinged on the simulated piston cavity wall in a constant-volume bomb. High-speed Schlieren photographs provided the informative data on the behavior of the spray vaporizing in such diesel-like circumstances. A simplified computational model was developed to describe the spray trajectory and the fuel vapor dispersion in the D.I. diesel combustion chamber. The model includes the effects of the breakup on the trajectory and the vaporization of the spray, and the effects of the swirling gas flow and the wall impingement on the dispersion of the fuel vapor.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890269
Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
This paper describes a simplified three-dimensional modeling of the mixture formation and combustion processes in a direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. The fuel-air mixing and combustion processes in the D.I. diesel engine can be characterized by the combined effects of some processes, such as spray trajectory, fuel vaporization, gas motion, combustion, and dispersion of gaseous components and enthalpy. Each process was computed by a simple sub-model based on the experimental results and empirical equations. The dispersion process was, however, computed by solving the conservation equations of the gaseous components and enthalpy by the finite difference technique. The sub-models were combined for predicting the three-dimensional distributions of the gaseous components and the temperature in the combustion chamber, and finally the cylinder pressure, heat release rate, engine performance and pollutant emissions (NO and soot).
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940988
Fu-Quan Zhao, Masahiko Taketomi, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was employed to perform the quantitative measurements of the cyclic variation of mixture concentration in the combustion chamber of a spark ignition (SI) engine. Nitrogen dioxide was used as the fluorescence tracer to simulate the fuel vapor. A Nd:YAG laser operated at its second harmonic wavelength was employed as the light source. The original engine was modified to introduce laser sheet light into the combustion chamber and the induced fluorescence was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated image intensifier. The measurements were done at the engine crank angles of 180° ∼ 300° ATDC with the engine speeds of 200 ∼ 400 rpm and the injection timings of -70 °, 50° and 100° ATDC. A theoretical analysis was made to describe the cyclically varying characteristics of the mixture concentration.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900061
Akira Murakami, Masatsugu Sakimoto, Masataka Arai, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
This paper presents the experimental analysis for the turbulence in the combustion chamber of a direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. A dual beam mode, forward-scattering laser doppler velocimeter was applied to the flow measurement in a four-stroke, single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine of 110 mm bore and 125 mm stroke. The turbulence component was separated from instantaneous velocity using a high-pass filter. As a result, the difference in turbulent intensity between the intake and compression processes was discussed. Also, the effect of intake port and piston cavity shapes, the compression ratio and the engine speed on the turbulent intensity were clarified. In addition, the empirical equation for the decay of turbulent intensity in the compression process was expressed by a function of the Reynolds number based on the mean swirling flow.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891880
Soon-Ik Kwon, Masataka Arai, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Effects of fumigated fuel on the initial combustion stage of a diesel spray were studied by measuring an ignition delay period and rate of heat release, clarifying a self-ignition limit of a fumigated fuel. Combustion experiments on both fumigated diesel fuel and methanol in a direct injection diesel engine gave the following results; a rapid combustion occurs with the methanol fumigation, while, the diesel fuel fumigation slightly changes the combustion of the main spray of diesel fuel injected directly into the combustion chamber. Regarding the rate of heat release, the maximum rate in the initial combustion stage increases rapidly with an increase in methanol fumigation, while for the fumigated diesel fuel, the maximum rate changes only slightly. The ignition delay period affected by fumigated diesel fuel is shorter than that affected by methanol at the same fumigation equivalence ratio and intake temperature.
1990-10-01
Technical Paper
902077
Min Xu, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
A new optical measuring technique of tip penetration of a diesel fuel spray was developed by detecting the arrival times of the spray tip at several light sheets which were preset at various axial locations downstream. Verified by the instantaneous photographic technique, it was confirmed that this technique is effective, with sufficient accuracy, for measuring the spray tip penetration much more easily than the conventional photographic technique. The tip penetrations of diesel sprays injected through single-hole nozzles with various orifice lengths and diameters has been investigated over a wide range of the operating conditions by this technique. The spray injected through two multihole nozzles, either with or without a sac volume, has also been characterized. The results showed that the spray tip penetration is affected somewhat by the operating conditions. Eventually it is affected by the injected fuel momentum flowrate, nozzle geometry and ambient gas density.
1990-10-01
Technical Paper
902062
Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Keiya Nishida, Mamoru Suzuki, Harumi Oda, Shigeru Yoshikawa, Masataka Arai
An experimental study on emission formation processes, such as these of nitric oxide, particulate and total hydrocarbon in a small direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was carried out by using a newly developed total in-cylinder sampling technique. The sampling method consisted of rapidly opening a blowdown valve attached to the bottom of the piston bowl, and quickly transferring most of the in-cylinder contents into a large sampling chamber below the piston. No modification of the intake and exhaust ports in a cylinder head was required for the installation of the blowdown apparatus. The sampling experiment gave a history of spatially-averaged emission concentrations in the cylinder. The effects of several engine variables, such as the length-to-diameter ratio of the nozzle hole, the ratio of the piston bowl diameter to the cylinder bore and the intake swirl ratio, on the emission formation processes were investigated.
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