Viewing 1 to 24 of 24
Technical Paper
Mohammed Moore Ojapah, Yan Zhang, Hua Zhao
Direct injection gasoline engines have the potential for improved fuel economy through principally the engine down-sizing, stratified charge combustion, and Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI). However, due to the limited time available for complete fuel evaporation and the mixing of fuel and air mixture, locally fuel rich mixture or even liquid fuel can be present during the combustion process of a direct injection gasoline engine. This can result in significant increase in UHC, CO and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from direct injection gasoline engines which are of major concerns because of the environmental and health implications. In order to investigate and develop a more efficient DI gasoline engine, a camless single cylinder DI gasoline engine has been developed. Fully flexible electro-hydraulically controlled valve train was used to achieve spark ignition (SI) and Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion in both 4-stroke and 2-stroke cycles.
Technical Paper
Bang-Quan He, Hui Xie, Yan Zhang, Jing Qin, Hua Zhao
To achieve homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in the range of low speeds and loads, special camshafts with low intake/exhaust cam lift and short intake/exhaust cam duration were designed. The camshafts were mounted in a Ricardo Hydra four-stroke single cylinder port fuel injection gasoline engine. HCCI combustion was achieved by controlling the amount of trapped residuals from previous cycle through negative valve overlap. The results show that indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) depends on valve timings, engine speeds and lambda. Early exhaust valve closing (EVC) timings result in high residual fractions in the cylinder and low air mass sucked into the cylinder. As a result, combustion duration increases, IMEP and peak pressure decrease. However, pumping losses decrease. High engine speed has the similar effect on HCCI combustion characteristics as early EVC timings do. But inlet valve opening timings have slight effect on IMEP compared to EVC timings.
Journal Article
Jun Ma, Hua Zhao, Paul Freeland, Martyn Hawley, Jun Xia
In order to optimize the 2-stroke uniflow engine performance on vehicle applications, numerical analysis has been introduced, 3D CFD model has been built for the optimization of intake charge organization. The scavenging process was investigated and the intake port design details were improved. Then the output data from 3D CFD calculation were applied to a 1D engine model to process the analysis on engine performance. The boost system optimization of the engine has been carried out also. Furthermore, a vehicle model was also set up to investigate the engine in-vehicle performance.
Technical Paper
Peter Calnan, Hua Zhao, Nicos Ladommatos, Tom Ma Ford
This paper presents the development of an engine simulation program for SI engines and its application to a two-stage expansion cycle. The two-stage expansion analysis is performed using the engine simulation, where a sudden expansion much faster than the normal expansion takes place during the expansion stroke. The changes in NO emissions and knock tolerance of the resulting new engine cycle are investigated for the same compression ratio. The changes in NO emissions and specific fuel consumption through increasing the compression ratio in order to return to the same amount of work done within the cycle are also studied.
Technical Paper
Li Cao, Hua Zhao, Xi Jiang, Navin Kalian
The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) can be achieved by the negative valve overlap method in conjunction with direct injection in a four-stroke gasoline engine. A multi-cycle 3D engine simulation program has been developed and applied to study the effect of injection timing on CAI operations with lean and stoichiometric mixtures. The combustion models used in the present study are based on the modified Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. Based on the parametric studies on injection timing and equivalence ratio, the major difference between stoichiometric and lean-burn CAI operations is due to the fact that fuel injections take place during the negative valve overlap period.
Technical Paper
N. Sterno, G. Greeves, S. Tullis, X. Jiang, Hua Zhao
A numerical study has been performed to investigate the soot emission from a high-speed single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine. It was shown that the current KIVA CFD code with the standard evaporation model could predict the experimental trend, where at a low speed running condition a higher smoke reading is reached when increasing the injector protrusion into the piston chamber and conversely a lower smoke reading was recorded for the same change in injector protrusion at a high running speed condition. Evidence of inappropriate air/fuel mixing was seen via rates of heat release analyses, especially in the high-speed conditions. Efforts to reduce this discrepancy by way of improvements to the KIVA breakup and evaporation models were made. Results of the modified models showed improvements in the vapor dispersion of the atomizing liquid jet, thus affecting the mixing rates and predicted smoke emissions.
Technical Paper
Pierre Duret, Bertrand Gatellier, Luis Monteiro, Marjorie Miche, Peter Zima, Damien Maroteaux, Jacky Guezet, David Blundell, Fritz Spinnler, Hua Zhao, Matteo Perotti, Lucio Araneo
The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
Technical Paper
Jing Qin, Hui Xie, Yan Zhang, Hua Zhao
One-dimensional engine simulation programmes are often used in the engine design and optimization studies. One of the key requirements of such a simulation programme is its ability to predict the heat release process during combustion. Such simulation software has built in it the heat release models for spark ignited premixed flame and compression ignited diesel combustion. The recent emergence of Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has generated the need for a third type of heat release models for this new combustion process. In this paper, a heat release correlation for CAI combustion has been derived from extensive in-cylinder pressure data obtained from a Ricardo E6 single cylinder research engine and a multi-cylinder Port Fuel Injection (PFI) gasoline engine running with CAI combustion. The experimental data covered a wide range of air/fuel ratios, speed and percentage of residual gas.
Technical Paper
Li Cao, Hua Zhao, Xi Jiang, Navin Kalian
The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings, in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes.
Technical Paper
Amit Bhave, Markus Kraft, Fabian Mauss, Aaron Oakley, Hua Zhao
We present a computational tool to develop an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) - air-fuel ratio (AFR) operating range for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. A single cylinder Ricardo E-6 engine running in HCCI mode, with external EGR is simulated using an improved probability density function (PDF) based engine cycle model. For a base case, the in-cylinder temperature and unburned hydrocarbon emissions predicted by the model show a satisfactory agreement with measurements [Oakley et al., SAE Paper 2001-01-3606]. Furthermore, the model is applied to develop the operating range for various combustion parameters, emissions and engine parameters with respect to the air-fuel ratio and the amount of EGR used. The model predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results for various parameters over the entire EGR-AFR operating range thus proving the robustness of the PDF based model.
Technical Paper
Li Cao, Hua Zhao, Xi Jiang, Navin Kalian
3D multi-cycle simulations were carried out to better understand the effects of variable intake valve timings on gas exchange processes, mixing quality and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are shell ignition model and laminar-and- turbulent characteristic time model, which were modified to take the high level EGR into account. After the validation of the model against experimental data, the investigations of the effects of variable intake valve timing strategies on CAI combustion process were carried out. These analyses showed the amount of backflow and flow patterns were dependent on IVO. Late backflow played an important role in improving the mixing quality. Early backflow decreased the mixture temperature at IVC, due to heat loss.
Technical Paper
Y. Zhu, Hua Zhao, D. A. Melas, N. Ladommatos
The piston bowl design is one of the most important factors that affect the air/fuel mixing and the subsequent combustion and pollutant formation processes in a direct injection diesel engine. The bowl geometry and dimensions, such as pip region, bowl lip area, and torus radius are all known to have an effect on the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. In order to understand better the effect of torus radius, three piston bowls with different torus radius and lip shapes designs but with the same lip area and pip inclination were investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) engine modelling. KIVA3V with improved sub-models was used to model the in-cylinder flows and combustion process, and it was validated on a High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) engine with a 2nd generation common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper
Nenghui Zhou, Hui Xie, Nan Li, Tao Chen, Hua Zhao
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has the potential of reducing fuel consumption as well as NOx emissions. However, it is still confronted with problems in real-time control system and control strategy for the application of HCCI, which are studied in detail in this paper. A CAN-bus-based distributed HCCI control system was designed to implement a layered close loop control for HCCI gasoline engine equipped with 4VVAS. Meanwhile, a layered management strategy was developed to achieve high real-time control as well as to simplify the couplings between the inputs and the outputs. The entire control system was stratified into three layers, which are responsible for load (IMEP) management; combustion phase (CA50) control and mechanical system control respectively, each with its own specified close loop control strategy. The system is outstanding for its explicit configuration, easy actualization and robust performance.
Technical Paper
Zhihua Li, Hui Xie, Hua Zhao
In this research, numerical simulation using Star-CD is performed to investigate the mixing process of a single-cylinder experimental gasoline engine equipped with 4VVAS (4 Variable Valve System). Different engine operating conditions are studied with respect to valve parameters, including EVC (Exhaust Valve Closing), IVO (Intake Valve Opening), and IVL (Intake Valve Lift). The definitions of RGF (Residual Gas Fraction)/temperature statistical distribution and inhomogeneity are proposed and quantified, on which the influences of the aforementioned valve parameters are analyzed. Results reveal that, the distribution of in-cylinder residuals varies with valve parameter combinations. Intake valve timing has a greater effect on the in-cylinder distribution and inhomogeneity of residuals than intake valve lift. Earlier IVO leads to lower RGF inhomogeneity around TDC.
Technical Paper
Cho-Yu Lee, Hua Zhao, Tom Ma
The air hybrid engine absorbs the vehicle kinetic energy during braking, stores it in an air tank in the form of compressed air, and reuses it to propel a vehicle during cruising and acceleration. Capturing, storing and reusing this braking energy to give additional power can therefore improve fuel economy, particularly in cities and urban areas where the traffic conditions involve many stops and starts. In order to reuse the residual kinetic energy, the vehicle operation consists of 3 basic modes, i.e. Compression Mode (CM), Expander Mode (EM) and normal firing mode. Unlike previous works, a low cost air hybrid engine has been proposed and studied. The hybrid engine operation can be realised by means of production technologies, such as VVT and valve deactivation. In this work, systematic investigation has been carried out on the performance of the hybrid engine concept through detailed gas dynamic modelling using Ricardo WAVE software.
Technical Paper
Xue-Qing Fu, Bang-Quan He, Hua Zhao
Abstract Engine downsizing can effectively improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, but extreme downsizing is limited by knocking combustion and low-speed pre-ignition at higher loads. A 2-stroke SI engine can produce higher upper load compared to its naturally aspirated 4-stroke counterpart with the same displacement due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. To determine the potential of a downsized two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve SI gasoline engine with 0.7 L displacement in place of a naturally aspirated 1.6 L gasoline (NA4SG) engine, one-dimensional models for the 2-stroke gasoline engine with a single turbocharger and a two-stage supercharger-turbocharger boosting system were set up and validated by experimental results.
Technical Paper
Reza Golzari, Yuanping Li, Hua Zhao
Abstract As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process.
Technical Paper
Xinyan Wang, Jun Ma, Hua Zhao
Abstract The 2-stroke engine has great potential for aggressive engine downsizing due to its double firing frequency which allows lower indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and peak in-cylinder pressure with the same output toque compared to the 4-stroke engine. With the aid of new engine technologies, e.g. direct injection, boost and variable valve trains, the drawbacks of traditional 2-stroke engine, e.g. low durability and high emissions, can be resolved in a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) engine. Compared to the loop-flow or cross-flow engines, the BUSDIG engine, where intake ports are integrated to the cylinder liner and controlled by the movement of piston top while exhaust valves are placed in the cylinder head, can achieve excellent scavenging performance and be operated with high boost.
Technical Paper
Macklini Dalla Nora, Thompson Lanzanova, Yan Zhang, Hua Zhao
Abstract With the introduction of CO2 emissions legislation in Europe and many countries, there has been extensive research on developing high efficiency gasoline engines by means of the downsizing technology. Under this approach the engine operation is shifted towards higher load regions where pumping and friction losses have a reduced effect, so improved efficiency is achieved with smaller displacement engines. However, to ensure the same full load performance of larger engines the charge density needs to be increased, which raises concerns about abnormal combustion and excessive in-cylinder pressure. In order to overcome these drawbacks a four-valve direct injection gasoline engine was modified to operate in the two-stroke cycle. Hence, the same torque achieved in an equivalent four-stroke engine could be obtained with one half of the mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper
Yan Zhang, Macklini DallaNora, Hua Zhao
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. In order to take advantage of the inherent ability to retain a large and varied amount of residual at part-load condition and its potential to achieve extreme engine downsizing of a poppet valve engine running in the 2-stroke cycle, a single cylinder 4-valves camless direct injection gasoline engine has been developed and employed to investigate the CAI combustion process in the 2-stroke cycle mode. The CAI combustion is initiated by trapped residual gases from the adjustable scavenging process enabled by the variable intake and exhaust valve timings. In addition, the boosted intake air is used to provide the in-cylinder air/fuel mixture for maximum combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper
Jun Ma, Hua Zhao
Engine downsizing of the spark ignition gasoline engine is recognized as one of the most effective approaches to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. However, further engine downsizing beyond 50% in a 4-stroke gasoline engine is limited by the occurrence of abnormal combustion events as well as much greater thermal and mechanical loads. In order to achieve aggressive engine downsizing, a boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine concept has been proposed and researched by means of CFD simulation and demonstration in a single cylinder engine. In this paper, the intake port design on the in-cylinder flow field and gas exchange characteristics of the uniflow 2-stroke cycle was investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In particular, the port orientation on the in-cylinder swirl, the trapping efficiency, charging efficiency and scavenging efficiency was analyzed in details.
Technical Paper
Yuanping Li, Hua Zhao, Phil Stansfield, Paul Freeland
Abstract Gasoline engine downsizing has become a popular and effective approach to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars. This is typically achieved in the form of a boosted direct injection gasoline engine, which are typically equipped with variable valve timing (VVT) devices on the intake and/or exhaust valves. This paper describes the synergies between valve timings and boost based on experimental investigations in a single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine with variable cam phasing on both the intake and exhaust cams. Two cam profiles have been tested to realize Miller cycle and compared with the standard camshaft. One cam features a long opening duration and standard valve lift for Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) and the other cam has a short opening duration and low valve lift for Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC).
Technical Paper
Xinyan Wang, Hua Zhao
Abstract The spark ignition (SI) - controlled auto-ignition (CAI) hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is achieved by utilizing the temperature and pressure rise from the early flame propagation induced by the spark-ignition to trigger the auto-ignition of the remaining unburned mixture. This hybrid combustion concept can be used to effectively extend the operating range of gasoline CAI combustion and achieve smooth transitions between SI and CAI combustion mode in gasoline engines. However, the significant cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of the SI-CAI hybrid combustion hinders the practical application of the hybrid combustion. In order to understand the cause of its high CCVs, the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process in a gasoline engine was studied in this study by the large eddy simulations (LES). The turbulence is modelled by the sub-grid k model. The spark ignition and subsequent flame propagation were modelled by the ECFM-3Z LES model.
Technical Paper
Peter Calnan, Hua Zhao, Nicos Ladomattos, Tom Ma
A thermodynamic model has been utilised in the analysis of a SI engine operating with a divided charge stratification system. Such a charge stratification system divides the cylinder charge into two distinct regions: a combustible charge around the spark plug and a dilution charge beyond this. The model has been utilised to reveal differing effects of both dilution charge composition (EGR or air) and temperature upon the performance and emissions of such a stratified charge engine.
Viewing 1 to 24 of 24


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