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Viewing 1 to 30 of 37
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0610
Jan Macek, David Fuente, Miloslav Emrich
The current state-of-the-art offers two extremes of engine mechanical loss models: pure empirical models, using, e.g., regression models based on experimental results, and full-sized 3-D hydrodynamic friction models, solving Reynolds-like lubrication equations for complicated geometry of piston ring/cylinder liner or load-distorted shapes of crankshaft/connecting rod bearings and journals. Obviously, the former method cannot be reliably extrapolated while the latter is too complicated, especially for the early stage of design. The aim of the current paper is describing the development and experimental calibration of the physical cranktrain model for FMEP prediction, based on simplified phenomenological model of mixed friction. The model uses simply defined shapes of Stribeck curves (friction coefficient) in dependence on Sommerfeld number, i.e., on effective sliding velocity, oil viscosity, dimension scaling factor and the normal force load.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1143
Ludek Pohorelsky, Zdenek Zak, Jan Macek, Oldrich Vitek
The objective of this paper is to complete a thorough investigation of the pressure wave supercharger (PWS) to explore the potential of this technology in engine applications. The PWS is a non-steady flow device that uses shock waves to pressurize fluids by transferring energy from a high-pressure flow to a low-pressure flow without separation by physical walls. The paper introduces a 1-D model of PWS in GT-SUITE calibrated by experiments on steady flow test rig. The 1-D model respects both exhaust and fresh air in each of the cells, friction and heat transfer in the cells as well as the continual opening and closing of the cells. Moreover, the cell wall temperature is computed and the leakage flow between the cells and housings modeled. The limits of PWS operation regarding pressures, temperatures and mass flows are first mapped on the virtual test rig utilizing the calibrated 1-D code based on the Mazda Comprex device.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1098
Sergii Bogomolov, Vit Dolecek, Jan Macek, Antonin Mikulec, Oldrich Vitek
Abstract The mass and overall dimensions of massively downsized engines for very high bmep (up to 35 bar) cannot be estimated by scaling of designs already available. Simulation methods coupling different levels of method profoundness, as 1-D methods, e.g., GT Suite/GT Power with in-house codes for engine mechanical efficiency assessment and preliminary design of boosting devices (a virtual compressor and a turbine), were used together with optimization codes based on genetic algorithms. Simultaneously, the impact of optimum cycle on cranktrain components dimensions (especially cylinder bore spacing), mass and inertia force loads were estimated since the results were systematically stored and analyzed in Design Assistance System DASY, developed by the authors for purposes of early-stage conceptual design. General thermodynamic cycles were defined by limiting parameters (bmep, burning duration, engine speed and turbocharger efficiency only).
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0059
Seshasai Srinivasan, Franz X. Tanner, Jan Macek, Milos Polacek
The objective of this study is the development of a computationally efficient CFD-based tool for finding optimal engine operating conditions with respect to fuel consumption and emissions. The optimization algorithm employed is based on the steepest descent method where an adaptive cost function is minimized along each line search using an effective backtracking strategy. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space. The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for the Sulzer S20, a central-injection, non-road DI diesel engine. The optimization parameters are the start of injection of the two pulses, the duration of each pulse, the duration of the dwell, the exhaust gas recirculation rate and the boost pressure.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0783
Jan Macek, Vit Dolecek, Seshasai Srinivasan, Franz Tanner, Oldrich Vitek
One-dimensional simulation methods for unsteady (transient) engine operations have been developed and published in previous studies. These 1-D methods utilize heat release and emissions results obtained from 3-D CFD simulations which are stored in a data library. The goal of this study is to improve the 1-D methodology by optimizing the control strategies. Also, additional independent parameters are introduced to extend the 3-D data library, while, as in the previous studies, the number of interpolation points for each parameter remains small. The data points for the 3-D simulations are selected in the vicinity of the expected trajectories obtained from the independent parameter changes, as predicted by the transient 1-D simulations. By this approach, the number of time-consuming 3-D simulations is limited to a reasonable amount.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1084
Reinhard Tatschl, Michael Bogensperger, Zoran Pavlovic, Peter Priesching, Henrik Schuemie, Oldrich Vitek, Jan Macek
A Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) approach is applied to the calculation of multiple SI-engine cycles in order to study the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. The single-cylinder research engine adopted in the present study is equipped with direct fuel-injection and variable valve timing for both the intake and exhaust side. Operating conditions representing cases with considerably different scatter of the in-cylinder pressure traces are selected to investigate the causes of the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. In the simulation the engine is represented by a coupled 1D/3D-CFD model, with the combustion chamber and the intake/exhaust ports modeled in 3D-CFD, and the intake/exhaust pipework set-up adopting a 1D-CFD approach. The adopted LES flow model is based upon the well-established Smagorinsky approach. Simulation of the fuel spray propagation process is based upon the discrete droplet model.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0927
Pavel Brynych, Jan Macek, Oldrich Vitek, Libor Cervenka
This paper introduces research work on 1-D model of Roots type supercharger with helical gears using 1-D simulation tool. Today, passenger car engine design follows approach of downsizing and the reduction of number of engine cylinders. Superchargers alone or their combination with turbochargers can fulfill low-end demands on engine torque for such engines. Moreover, low temperature combustion of lean mixture at low engine loads becomes popular (HCCI, PCCI) requiring high boost pressure of EGR/fresh air mixture at low exhaust gas temperature, which poses too high demands on turbocharger efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to describe Roots charger features and to amend Roots charger design.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1314
Oldrich Vitek, Jan Macek, Christoph Poetsch, Reinhard Tatschl
The presented paper deals with a methodology to model cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) in 0-D/1-D simulation tools. This is achieved by introducing perturbations of combustion model parameters. To enable that, crank angle resolved data of individual cycles (pressure traces) have to be available for a reasonable number of engine cycles. Either experimental data or 3-D CFD results can be applied. In the presented work, experimental data of a single-cylinder research engine were considered while predicted LES 3-D CFD results will be tested in the future. Different engine operating points were selected - both stable ones (low CCV) and unstable ones (high CCV). The proposed methodology consists of two major steps. First, individual cycle data have to be matched with the 0-D/1-D model, i.e., combustion model parameters are varied to achieve the best possible match of pressure traces - an automated optimization approach is applied to achieve that.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0916
Sergii Bogomolov, Jan Macek, Antonin Mikulec, Michael Valasek
This article presents results of the Design Assistance System (DASY, will be referred to as a tool in this paper) development and examples of its application for engine concept modeling. The software tool for creating and maintaining knowledge database is being developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. This tool is targeted to simplify and speed up the concept design process. The targets were met by providing the high level of flexibility along with a simple user interface. Two examples that show interaction of this tool with computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) software are presented. One example includes an optimization using implemented genetic algorithm. By using this tool, one can create templates for conserving the knowledge acquired during engine design in the past. It provides hints for the future design tasks by offering a data of similar designs, based on experiments and simulations at different levels of complexity and profoundness.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0831
Ludek Pohorelsky, Pavel Brynych, Jan Macek, Pierre-Yves Vallaude, Jean-Charles Ricaud, Philippe Obernesser, Pascal Tribotté
This paper introduces a research work on the air loop system for a downsized two-stroke two-cylinder diesel engine conducted in framework of the European project dealing with the POWERtrain for Future Light-duty vehicles - POWERFUL. The main objective was to determine requirements on the air management including the engine intake and exhaust system, boosting devices and the EGR system and to select the best possible technical solution. With respect to the power target of 45 kW and scavenging demands of the two-cylinder two-stroke engine with a displacement of 0.73 l, a two-stage boosting architecture was required. Further, to allow engine scavenging at any operation, supercharger had to be integrated in the air loop. Various air loop system layouts and concepts were assessed based on the 1-D steady state simulation at full and part load with respect to the fuel consumption.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0138
Oldrich Vitek, Jan Macek, Reinhard Tatschl, Zoran Pavlovic, Peter Priesching
The present paper deals with the application of the LES approach to in-cylinder flow modeling. The main target is to study cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) using 3D-CFD simulation. The engine model is based on a spark-ignited single-cylinder research engine. The results presented in this paper cover the motored regime aiming at analysis of the cycle-resolved local flow properties at the spark plug close to firing top dead center. The results presented in this paper suggest that the LES approach adopted in the present study is working well and that it predicts CCV and that the qualitative trends are in-line with established knowledge of internal combustion engine (ICE) in-cylinder flow. The results are evaluated from a statistical point of view based on calculations of many consecutive cycles (at least 10).
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0438
Oldřich Vítek, Jan Macek, Miloš Polášek
The paper deals with the investigation of turbocharger optimization procedures using amended 1-D simulation tools. The proposed method uses scaled flow rate/effficiency maps for different sizes of a radial turbine together with a fictitious compressor map. The compressor pressure ratio/efficiency map depends on compressor circumference velocity only and predicts the both compressor specific power and achievable efficiency. At the first stage of optimization, it avoids the problems of reaching choking/surge limits. It enables the designer to find a suitable turbine type under realistic unsteady conditions (pressure pulses in exhaust manifold) concerning turbine flow area. Once the optimization of turbine/compressor impeller diameters is finished, the specific compressor map is selected. The proposed method provides the fast way to the best solution even for the case of a VGT turbine. Additional features have been developed for the representation of scaled turbine and compressor maps.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0168
Seshasai Srinivasan, Jan Macek, Milos Polacek, Franz X. Tanner
A previously developed CFD-based optimization tool is utilized to find optimal engine operating conditions with respect to fuel consumption and emissions. The optimization algorithm employed is based on the steepest descent method where an adaptive cost function is minimized along each line search using an effective backtracking strategy. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space. The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for the Sulzer S20, a central-injection, non-road DI diesel engine. The optimization parameters are the start of injection of the two pulses of a split injection system, the duration of each pulse, the exhaust gas recirculation rate, the boost pressure and the compression ratio.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1000
Ludìk Pohořelský, Jan Macek, Miloš Polášek, Oldřich Vítek
The paper describes techniques used for optimization of timing, shaping and control of pressure wave exchangers including the prediction of pressure-flow rate characteristics of these devices. BBC Baden and ETH Zürich originally proposed them in 60's using the direct pressure exchange between exhaust gas and fresh air in a narrow channel (the COMPREX® device). A technique allowing COMPREX® pressure exchanger to be simulated in detail in a commercially available 1-D cycle simulation tool has been developed. Before the design of a specific exchanger is started the layout must be carefully optimized concerning distribution gear for both fresh air and exhaust gas. Simulation facilities provided by advanced 1-D codes like GT-Power from Gamma Technologies create a valuable tool to do this task and to find alternative design solutions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0995
Jiří Navrátil, Jan Macek, Miloš Polášek
The paper describes experience obtained with a GT-Power code used for a downsized turbocharged gasoline engine modeling. The steady-performance model, calibrated by preliminary experiments, has been modified to the transient response one. Knock limit prediction has been used for compression ratio and boost pressure optimization. New authors′ models have been developed for extrapolation of compressor and turbine maps to cover the field of operation modes during a typical transient response. GT-Power control elements ensured a realistic engine response to accelerator, brake or clutch positions. The Driver element could drive various speed schedules such as maximum acceleration mode, engine braking mode or the European fuel-consumption/emission test.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0537
Marcel Diviš, Jan Macek, Karel Kozel
An Eulerian multidimensional model has been developed for computing the behavior of fuel sprays in direct injection internal combustion engines. The model involves a description of all basic processes that take place in two-phase flow with inter-phase exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy. Both the multi-component compressible gas-phase flow as well as the droplet-phase flow equations are solved in Eulerian coordinates. Basic laws of conservation are formulated on finite volumes with arbitrarily movable boundaries to facilitate the modeling of movable boundary problems. The model features a detailed description of droplet-phase accounting for droplet mass change due to evaporation and with possibility of incorporation of potential droplet breakup, collisions, and coalescence. The application chosen to demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the developed model is the injection of hollow-cone spray into high-density air in a cylindrical chamber with moving boundary.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0357
Jan Macek, Oldřich Vítek, Seshasai Srinivasan, Franz. X. Tanner
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0206
Oldřich Vítek, Jan Macek, Miloš Polášek, Stefan Schmerbeck, Thomas Kammerdiener
This paper compares 4 different EGR systems by means of simulation in GT-Power. The demands of optimum massive EGR and fresh air rates were based on experimental results. The experimental data were used to calibrate the model and ROHR, in particular. The main aim was to investigate the influence of pumping work on engine and vehicle fuel consumption (thus CO2 production) in different EGR layouts using optimum VG turbine control. These EGR systems differ in the source of pressure drop between the exhaust and intake pipes. Firstly, the engine settings were optimized under steady operation - BSFC was minimized while taking into account both the required EGR rate and fresh air mass flow. Secondly, transient simulations (NEDC cycle) were carried out - a full engine model was used to obtain detailed information on important parameters. The study shows the necessity to use natural pressure differences or renewable pressure losses if reasonable fuel consumption is to be achieved.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0209
Zbynìk Šika, Michael Valášek, Martin Florián, Jan Macek, Miloš Polášek
The paper deals with model based predictive control of combustion engines. Nonlinear black-box predictive models based on neuro-fuzzy approach are utilized. The structure of the models is optimized within an identification process. The nonlinear models are locally linearized and consequently used for the efficient on-line computation of forthcoming control actions. In desire to respect a fact that the speed of input-output response may vary significantly for different input/output groups, multilevel predictive models are proposed. Predictive control is again applied to approximate the desired behavior of chosen output variables. Potential algebraical constraints between different prediction layers are involved in the control algorithm using quadratic programming. The control scheme is optimized using simplified fast simulation model.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0295
Jan Macek, Oldřich Vítek
The aim of the current contribution is to develop a tool for the improvement of accuracy of turbocharger turbine simulation during matching of a turbocharger to an engine. The paper demonstrates the possibility of unsteady turbine simulation in pulsating flow caused by an internal combustion engine using the basic modules of generalized 1-D manifold solver with entities (pipes, channels) under centrifugal acceleration in general direction and under non-uniform angular speed, which has not yet been explored. The developed model extrapolates steady operation turbine maps by this way. It uses 1-D model parameters identified from steady flow experiments. Unlike the lumped-parameter standard models of turbocharger turbines, the model takes into account complete 1-D features of a turbine flow path including arbitrary shape of turbine impeller vanes.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0659
Jan Macek, Miloš Polášek, Zbyňk Šika, Michael Valášek, Martin Florián, Oldřich Vítek
The paper describes the tool of ICE transient response simulation suitable for incorporation into a predictive engine controller. The model is simplified, thus enhancing the simulation speed but keeping its predictive capability at a reasonable level. The main modules of a code suitable for the near-real-time simulation of engine thermodynamics are described in the paper. They include engine cylinder (incl. simplified pressure trace prediction), fuel injection system, main controllers, both inlet and exhaust manifolds, turbocharger and engine dynamics. The laws of conservation are used to describe any of the thermodynamic/hydrodynamic modules of a model. The method of algebraic re-construction of a pressure trace inside a cylinder has been developed and tested for prediction of engine speed variation. The modular structure of a model allows for the implementation of the current operating principles of ICEs.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1299
Jiří Vávra, Jan Macek, Oldřich Vítek, Michal Takáts
The paper deals with the investigation of pressure, flow and temperature sensor performance under unsteady conditions using advanced 1-D codes for simulation of engine operation. Approach of internal combustion engine (ICE) sensor modeling in an engine simulation code is described. Some new external modules have been developed to couple engine-and-pipe model to sensors. Sensor dynamic and engine dynamic effects are separated by combining a sensor model with an engine model. The models were tuned to match real data with the goal of uncovering the transfer function between the measured signal and the actual signal. Procedure for estimation of the in-cylinder pressure pattern from distorted pattern at sensor location using empirical transfer function is presented. The developed model seems to have a wide application, e.g. for investigation of dynamical characteristics of lambda sensors or gas analyzer probes.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1109
Jan Macek, Oldřich Vítek, Vít Doleček, Seshasai Srinivasan, Franz X. Tanner
The new simulation tool consists of an iterative loop of a 3-D code in parallel to a 1-D code that is employed to simulate transient engine cycles. The 1-D code yields the basic pattern of initial and boundary conditions and the 3-D simulations at several typical engine operating points are used to crosscheck the performance as well as aid in the model calibration. A flexible regression model of the fuel burn rate and the associated ROHR has been developed in conjunction with the 3-D simulations using a combination of three added Vibe functions. The emissions at the end of the expansion stroke are also predicted. The parameters of the Vibe functions and emissions are found via nonlinear regression based on state parameters such as engine speed, relative A/F ratio, EGR/rest gas contents, injection timings, etc. Additional 3-D simulations that are made at specific engine operating points complement this compact burn rate parameter library.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0311
Jiří Vávra, Jan Macek, Oldřich Vítek, Michal Takáts
The paper deals with investigation of flow characteristics of turbocharger turbine under real operating conditions on engine by means of combination of experimental data and advanced 1-D code for combustion engine simulation. Coupling simulations tools with the results of measurements provides the engineers with data which are difficult or impossible to measure. For instance by means of a three pressure analysis (TPA) applicable on engine cylinder the engineers can obtain burn rate, valve flow and residual gas compound from measured pressure traces in cylinder and at inlet and outlet ports. A method for turbocharger turbine on engine identification similar in principle to the three pressure analysis has been applied on radial turbine with variable geometry. A new computational module has been developed to allow identification of instantaneous flow and efficiency characteristics of the turbine.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0303
Jan Macek, Oldřich Vítek, Ján Burič, Vít Doleček
The physical 1-D model of a radial turbine consists of a set of gas ducts featuring total pressure and/or temperature changes and losses. Therefore, the wave propagation and filling/emptying plays a significant role if a turbine is subjected to unsteady gas flow. The results of unsteady turbine simulation using the basic modules of generalized 1-D manifold solver in GT Power are demonstrated. The turbine model calibration parameters can be identified by means of 1-D steady model used in optimization code loop. The examples of model results are compared to steady flow map predictions of turbine efficiency and engine pumping loop work. The model may be used for prediction of turbine data in out-of-design points as presented in the paper. The other important role of a model, however, is an accurate evaluation of turbine parameters from pressure and speed measurements at an engine in operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0770
Filip Cernik, Jan Macek, Christoph Dahnz, Sebastian Hensel
A quasi-dimensional dual fuel combustion model is proposed for a large 2-stroke marine engine. The introduced concept accounts for both diffusion combustion of the liquid pilot fuel and the flame front propagation throughout the gaseous premixed charge. For the pilot fuel case a common integral formulation defines the ignition delay whereas a time scale approach is incorporated for the combustion progress modeling. In order to capture spatial differences given by the scavenging process and the admission of the gaseous fuel, the cylinder volume is discretized into a number of zones. The laws of conservation are applied to calculate the thermodynamic conditions and the fuel concentration distribution. Subsequently, the ignition delay of the gaseous fuel-air mixture is determined by the use of tabulated kinetics and the ensuing oxidation is described by a flame velocity correlation.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1243
Marcel Diviš, Jan Macek
Diesel fuel injection process calculations have been performed by means of in-house developed mathematical models. An Eulerian multidimensional code for in-cylinder two-phase flow computations is used in conjunction with a hydrodynamic one-dimensional model of a fuel injection system. The multidimensional model comprehends all basic processes, which play a role in spray formation. The compressible gaseous flow with transport of species is solved together with the flow of dispersed liquid phase using the Eulerian reference frame for both phases. The two-way coupling between the phases in mass, momentum, and energy balances is considered. A detailed description of liquid phase is present, taking into account drop size distribution in terms of the multi-continua approach. The hydrodynamic model capable of simulating common fuel injection systems is used for the rate-of-injection computations to provide realistic boundary conditions to the spray model.
2011-06-09
Technical Paper
2011-37-0030
Sergii Bogomolov, Antonin Mikulec, Jan Macek
This article presents results of the Design Assistance System (DASY) development and examples of its application for engine concept modeling. The software (DASY) for creating and maintaining knowledge database was developed. This software is targeted to simplify and speed up the concept design process. The targets were met by providing the high level of flexibility along with a simple user interface. Two examples that show interaction of DASY with computer-aided design (CAD) software are presented. The DASY creates a template for conserving the knowledge acquired during engine design in the past. It provides hints for the future design tasks by offering a data of similar engines, based on experiments and simulations at different levels of complexity and profoundness.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0156
Pavel Steinbauer, Jan Macek, Josef Morkus, Petr Denk, Zbynek Sika, Adam Barak
Abstract Current vehicles, especially the electric ones, are complex mechatronic devices. The pickup vehicles of small sizes are currently used in transport considerably. They often operate within a repeating scheme of a limited variety of tracks and larger fleets. Thanks to mechatronic design of vehicles and their components and availability of high capacity data connection with computational centers (clouds), there are many means to optimize their performance, both by planning prior the trip and recalculations during the route. Although many aspects of this opportunity were already addressed, the paper shows an approach developed to further increase the range of e-vehicle operation. It is based on prior information about the route profile, traffic density, road conditions, past behaviour, mathematical models of the route, vehicle and dynamic optimization.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0526
Oldrich Vitek, Jan Macek
Abstract The proposed paper deals with thermodynamic optimization of highly flexible ICE (variable compression ratio, intake/exhaust VVA) while comparing e-turbocharging concept with classical one. The e-turbocharging approach is based on idea that compressor/turbine has its own electric machine (motor/generator) and that additional electric energy can be supplied/attached from/to engine crank train. Hence it allows independent control of compressor/turbine. On the other hand, classical approach is based on a standard mechanical connection between turbine and compressor. The whole system (flexible engine + boost device) is optimized under steady operation – low load (BMEP of 4 bar), medium load (BMEP of 13 bar), high load (BMEP of 30, 25 and 18 bar) and maximum load are considered. Moreover, 3 combustion concepts are considered – classical SI and CI, and ideal RCCI.
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