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Viewing 1 to 30 of 45
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2066
Toshitaka Nakamura, Yasumasa Suzuki, Jin Kusaka, Masatoshi Ogawa, Harutoshi Ogai, Shigeki Nakayama, Takao Fukuma
Model based control design is an important method for optimizing engine operating conditions so as to simultaneously improve engines' thermal efficiency and emission profiles. Modeling of intake system that includes an intake throttle valve, an EGR valve and a variable geometry turbocharger was constructed based on conservation laws combined with maps. Calculated results were examined the predictive accuracy of fresh charge mass flow, EGR rate and boost pressure.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2044
Yasumasa Suzuki, Jin Kusaka, Masatoshi Ogawa, Harutoshi Ogai, Shigeki Nakayama, Takao Fukuma
This paper describes the development of a High Speed Calculation Diesel Combustion Model that predicts combustion-related behaviors of diesel engines from passenger cars. Its output is dependent on the engine's operating parameters and on input from on-board pressure and temperature sensors. The model was found to be capable of predicting the engine's in-cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and NOx emissions with a high degree of accuracy under a wide range of operating conditions at a reasonable computational cost. The construction of this model represents an important preliminary step towards the development of an integrated Model Based Control system for controlling combustion in diesel engines used in passenger cars.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1841
Jin Kusaka, Hiroki Yano, Hiroyuki Shimao, Shigeki Nakayama, Yusuke Nozaki, Toshihiro Mori
The efficiency of the NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) catalysts used in the aftertreatment of diesel engine exhaust gases can potentially be increased by using reactive reductants such as CO and H₂ that are formed during in-cylinder combustion. In this study, a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with complex chemical analysis was used to study combustion with various fuel after-injection patterns. The results obtained will be useful in designing fuel injection strategies for the efficient formation of CO.
2013-10-14
Journal Article
2013-01-2689
XiaoDan Cui, Beini Zhou, Mitsuhiro Matsunaga, Yusuke Fujii, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
The objective of the present research is to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs) on diesel engine combustion and emission (NOx and soot). We studied methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated fuel representative of major constituents of many types of biodiesels. Engine tests and numerical simulations were performed for 100% MO (MO100), 40% MO blended with JIS#2 diesel (MO40) and JIS#2 diesel (D100). The effects of MO on diesel combustion and emission characteristics were studied under engine operating conditions typically encountered in passenger car diesel engines, focusing on important parameters such as pilot injection, injection pressure and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate. We used a diesel engine complying with the EURO4 emissions regulation, having a displacement of 2.2 L for passenger car applications. In engine tests comparing MO with diesel fuel, no effect on engine combustion pressure was observed for all conditions tested.
2005-09-11
Technical Paper
2005-24-051
Jin Kusaka, Nobuhiko Horie, Yasuhiro Daisho, V. I. Golovichev, Shigeki Nakayama
To facilitate research and development of diesel engines, the universal numerical code for predicting diesel combustion has been favored for the past decade. In this paper, the finite-rate elementary chemical reactions, sometimes called the detailed chemical reactions, are introduced into the KIVA-3V code through the use of the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model with the KH-RT break-up, modified collision and velocity interpolation models. Outcomes were such that the predicted pressure histories have favorable agreements with the measurements of single and double injection cases in the diesel engine for use in passenger cars. Thus, it is demonstrated that the present model will be a useful tool for predicting ignition and combustion characteristics encountered in the cylinder.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0203
Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Matsuo Odaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism was applied to achieve premixed diesel combustion at higher load for low emissions and high thermal efficiency in a light duty diesel engine. By means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), compressed gas temperatures near the top dead center are lowered, thereby preventing too early ignition and increasing ignition delay to enhance fuel-air mixing. The variability of effective compression ratio has significant potential for ignition timing control of conventional diesel fuel mixtures. At the same time, the expansion ratio is kept constant to ensure thermal efficiency. Combining the control of LIVC, EGR, supercharging systems and high-pressure fuel injection equipment can simultaneously reduce NOx and smoke. The NOx and smoke suppression mechanism in the premixed diesel combustion was analyzed using the 3D-CFD code combined with detailed chemistry.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2132
Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0011
Sok Ratnak, Kohei Katori, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Kei Yoshimura, Nakama Kenjiro
Abstract The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential of lean burn combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engine. Experiments used a single cylinder gasoline spark ignition engine fueled with primary reference fuel of octane number 90, running at 4000 revolution per minute and at wide open throttle. Experiments were conducted at constant fueling rate and in order to lean the mixture, more air is introduced by boosted pressure from stoichiometric mixture to lean limit while maintaining the high output engine torque as possible. Experimental results show that the highest thermal efficiency is obtained at excess air ratio of 1.3 combined with absolute boosted pressure of 117 kPa. Three dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulation with detailed chemical reactions was conducted and compared with results obtained from experiments as based points.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0015
Sok Ratnak, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Abstract This paper aims to validate chemical kinetic mechanisms of surrogate gasoline three components fuel by calculating one-dimensional laminar burning velocity of iso-octane/air mixture. Next, the application of level-set method on premixed combustion without consideration the effect of turbulence eddies on flame front is also studied in three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (3D-CFD) simulation. In the 3D CFD simulation, there is an option to calculate laminar burning velocity by using empirical correlations, however it is applicable only for particular initial pressure and temperature in spark ignition engine cases. One-dimensional burning velocities from lean to rich of iso-octane/air mixture are calculated by using CHEMKIN-PRO with detailed chemistry and transport phenomena as a function of different equivalence ratios, different unburnt temperature and pressure ranges.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0614
Norifumi Mizushima, Toshiro Yamamoto, Jin Kusaka, Susumu Sato
Compared with petroleum fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) demonstrates advantages in low CO₂ emission. This is because of propane (C₃H₈), n-butane (n-C₄H₁₀) and i-butane (i-C₄H₁₀), which are the main components of LPG, making H/C ratio higher. In addition, LPG is suitable for high efficient operation of a spark ignition (SI) engine due to its higher research octane number (RON). Because of these advantages, that is, diversity of energy source and reduction of CO₂, in the past several years, LPG vehicles have widely been used as the alternate gasoline vehicles all over the world. Consequently, it is absolutely essential for the performance increase in LPG vehicles to comprehend combustion characteristics of LPG. In this study, the differences of laminar burning velocity between C₃H₈, n-C4H10, i-C₄H₁₀ and regular gasoline were evaluated experimentally with the use of a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC).
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1637
XiaoDan Cui, Teagun Kim, Yusuke Fujii, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop
The objective of the present research is to investigate the effects on diesel engine combustion and NOx and PM emission characteristics in case of blending the ordinary diesel fuel with biodiesel in passenger car diesel engines. Firstly, we conducted experiments to identify the combustion and emissions characteristics in a modern diesel engine complying with the EURO 4 emission standard. Then, we developed a numerical simulation model to explain and generalize biodiesel combustion phenomena in detail and generalize emission characteristics. The experimental and simulation results are useful to reduce biodiesel emissions by controlling engine operating and design parameters in the diesel engine.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1651
Akira Kikusato, Hiroyuki Fukasawa, Kazutoshi Nomura, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Natural gas is an attractive alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is considered to be one of the most promising measures for increasing thermal efficiency and reducing emissions, but it is difficult to control and stabilize its ignition and combustion processes. This paper describes an experimental study of natural gas combustion utilizing two types of ignition assistance. Spark assistance, which is used for conventional spark ignition (SI) engines, and pilot diesel injection, hereinafter called diesel pilot, which generates multiple ignition points by using a small injection of diesel that accounts for 2% of the total heat release for the cycle. The performance of these two approaches was compared with respect to various combustion characteristics when burning homogeneous natural gas mixtures at a high compression ratio.
1997-05-01
Technical Paper
971598
Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Ryoji Kihara, Takeshi Saito
An experimental and numerical study has been conducted on the emission and reduction of HCHO (formaldehyde) and other pollutants formed in the cylinder of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled by methanol. Engine tests were performed under a variety of intake conditions including throttling, heating, and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) for the purpose of improving these emissions by changing gas compositions and combustion temperatures in the cylinder. Moreover, a detailed kinetics model was developed and applied to methanol combustion to investigate HCHO formation and the reduction mechanism influenced by associated elementary reactions and in-cylinder mixing.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
961935
Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Ryoji Kihara, Takeshi Saito
A numerical model has been developed to predict the formation of NOx and formaldehyde in the combustion and post-combustion zones of a methanol DI engine. For this purpose, a methanol-air mixture model combined with a full kinetics model has been introduced, taking into account 39 species with their 157 related elementary reactions. Through these kinetic simulations, a concept is proposed for optimizing methanol combustion and reducing exhaust emissions.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941909
Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Takeshi Saito, Ryoji Kihara
A new type of fuel injection nozzle, called a “slit nozzle,” has been developed to improve poor ignitability and to stabilize combustion under low load conditions in direct-injection methanol diesel engines manufactured for medium-duty trucks. This nozzle has a single oblong vent like a slit. Engine test results indicate that the slit nozzle can improve combustion and thermal efficiency, especially at low loads and no load. This can be explained by the fact that the slit nozzle forms a more highly concentrated methanol spray around the glow-plug than do multi-hole nozzles. As a result, this nozzle improves flame propagation.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3308
Ryota Nakayama, Tazuki Watanabe, Keishi Takada, Matsuo Odaka, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Urea-SCR system has a high NOx reduction potential in the steady-state diesel engine operation. In complicated transient operations, however, there are certain problems with the urea-SCR system in that NOx reduction performance degrades and adsorbed NH3 would be emitted. Here, optimum urea injection methods and exhaust bypass control to overcome these problems are studied. This exhaust bypass control enables NO/NOx ratio at the inlet of SCR catalyst to be decreased widely, which prevents over production of NO2 at the pre-oxidation catalyst. Steady-state and simple transient engine tests were conducted to clarify NOx reduction characteristics when optimum urea injection pattern and exhaust bypass control were applied. In simple transient test, only the engine load was rapidly changed for obtaining the fundamental knowledge concerning the effect of those techniques.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3442
Kanta Yamamoto, Keishi Takada, Jin Kusaka, Yasuharu Kanno, Makoto Nagata
For diesel emission control systems containing a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and a Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF) the DOC is used to oxidize the additional fuel injected into the cylinder and/or the exhaust pipe for the purpose of increasing the CSF inlet temperature during the soot regeneration. Hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation performance of the DOC is affected by HC species as well as a catalyst design, i.e., precious metal species, support materials and additives. How engine-out HC species vary as a function of fuel supply conditions is not well understood. In addition, the relationship between catalyst design and oxidation activity of different hydrocarbon species requires further study. In this study, diesel fuel was supplied by in-cylinder, post injection and exhaust HC species were measured by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a gas analyzer. The post injection timing was set to either 73°, 88° or 98° ATDC(after top dead center).
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3435
Takashi Kaminaga, Jin Kusaka
Three types of combustion chamber configurations (Types A, B, and C) with compression ratio lower than that of the baseline were tested for improved performance and exhaust gas emissions from an inline-four-cylinder 1.7-liter common-rail diesel engine manufactured for use with passenger cars. First, three combustion chambers were examined numerically using CFD code. Second, engine tests were conducted by using Type B combustion chamber, which is expected to have the best performance and exhaust gas emissions of all. As a result, 80% of NOx emissions at both low and medium loads at 1500 rpm, the engine speed used frequently in the actual city driving, improved with nearly no degradation in smoke emissions and brake thermal efficiency. It was shown that a large amount of cooled EGR enables NOx-free combustion with long ignition delay.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0034
Kenjiro Nakama, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
To suppress knock in small gasoline engines, the coolant flow of a single-cylinder engine was improved by using two methods: a multi-dimensional knock prediction method combining a Flamelet model with a simple chemical kinetics model, and a method for predicting combustion chamber wall temperature based on a thermal fluid calculation that coupled the engine coolant and the engine structure (engine head, cylinder block, and head gasket). Through these calculations as well as the measurement of wall temperatures and the analysis of combustion by experiments, the effects of wall temperature distribution and consequent unburnt gas temperature distribution on knock onset timing and location were examined. Furthermore, a study was made to develop a method for cooling the head side, which was more effective to suppress knock: the head gasket shape was modified to change the coolant flow and thereby improve the distribution of wall temperatures on the head side.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3158
Keishi Takada, Futoshi Yoshimura, Yasushi Ohga, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
In this study, we selected four unregulated emissions species, formaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and benzo[a]pyrene to research the emission characteristics of these unregulated components experimentally. The engine used was a water-cooled, 8-liter, 6-cylinder, 4-stroke-cycle, turbocharged DI diesel engine with a common rail fuel injection system manufactured for the use of medium-duty trucks, and the fuel used was JIS second-class light gas oil, which is commercially available as diesel fuel. The results of experiments indicate as follows: formaldehyde tends to be emitted under the low load condition, while 1,3-butadiene is emitted at the low engine speed. This is believed to be because 1,3-butadiene decomposes in a short time, and the exhaust gas stays much longer in a cylinder under the low speed condition than under the high engine speed one. Benzene is emitted under the low load condition, as it is easily oxidized in high temperature.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3175
Akinori Morishima, Tomoyuki Narushima, Haruki Moriwaki, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Experimental and numerical studies on PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and PM (Particulate Matters) formed in the fuel rich mixture have been conducted. In the experiment, neat n-heptane and n-heptane with benzene 25 % by weight were chosen as test fuels. In-cylinder gases produced by the fuel-rich HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion were directly sampled and analyzed by the use of GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectro- metry), and PM emission was also measured by PM sampling system to reveal characteristics of PM formation. Numerical study has been also carried out using a zero dimensional combustion model combined with detailed chemistry. Furthermore, simple surface growth of soot particles was integrated into a detailed chemical kinetic model, and validated with the experimental data.
2003-09-15
Technical Paper
2003-32-0003
Kenjiro Nakama, Eiji Murase, Masahito Imada, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Swirl injector spray at high fuel temperatures has unique characteristics [1][2][3][4] compared to normal fuel temperature spray such as strong penetration and narrow spray width. These characteristics have a possibility for improving fuel consumption and exhaust emission at the cold start condition. Thus, Swirl injector spray at high fuel temperature conditions was modeled in a CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) code by using a multi components fuel evaporation model and other spray sub-models to predict the mixture formation process at the cold start condition. Results show that, high temperature fuel decreases wall film amount and increases vapor amount. It can be concluded that high temperature fuel has the possibility for improving fuel consumption and exhaust emission at the cold start condtion.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1939
Jin Kusaka, Shingo Ito, Norifumi Mizushima, Yasuhiro Daisho, Takeshi Saito
Natural gas pre-mixture is ignited by a small amount of pilot fuel in the dual fuel engine. In this paper, numerical studies were carried out to investigate the combustion and exhaust gas emissions formation process of this engine type by using a multi dimensional model combined with the detailed chemical kinetics including 57 chemical species and 290 elementary reactions. In calculation, the effect of the pre-mixture concentration on combustion was examined. The result indicated that the increased concentration of natural gas could improve the burning fraction and THC, CO emissions due to the increased pre-mixture consumption rate and the cylinders gas temperature.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1938
Norifumi Mizushima, Shingo Ito, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
A dual fuel natural gas diesel engine suffers from remarkably lower thermal efficiency and higher THC, CO emissions at lower load because of its lower burned mass fraction caused by the lean pre-mixture. To overcome this inevitable disadvantage at lower load, two methods of reducing the number of operating cylinders were examined. One method was to use the two cylinders operation while the second one was to use the quasi-two cylinders operation. As a result, it was found that the unburned hydrocarbons and CO emissions could be favorably reduced with the improvement of thermal efficiency by reducing the number of cylinders to half for a dual fuel natural gas diesel engine. Moreover, it was also found that the quasi-two cylinders operation could improve the torque fluctuation more compared to the two cylinders operation.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1917
Seang-wock Lee, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
It has been recognized that alternative fuels such as liquid petroleum gas (LPG) has less polluting combustion characteristics than diesel fuel. Direct-injection stratified-charge combustion LPG engines with spark-ignition can potentially replace conventional diesel engines by achieving a more efficient combustion with less pollution. However, there are many unknowns regarding LPG spray mixture formation and combustion in the engine cylinder thus making the development of high-efficiency LPG engines difficult. In this study, LPG was injected into a high pressure and temperature atmosphere inside a constant volume chamber to reproduce the stratification processes in the engine cylinder. The spray was made to hit an impingement wall with a similar profile as a piston bowl. Spray images were taken using the Schlieren and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method to analyze spray penetration and evaporation characteristics.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1637
Keishi Takada, Jin Kusaka
In this study, fuel ignition timing parameters, in-cylinder pressure and heat release rates, and quantities of major exhaust gas emissions from a diesel engine were calculated using multi-dimensional CFD codes coupled with complex chemistry analysis. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of parameters was conducted to identify the major variables affecting these diesel combustion parameters. Firstly, diesel combustion analysis under typical operating conditions was carried out to validate the analytical methods used in the study, and then the effects of intake gas variables (e.g. temperature, and pressure) were investigated in detail in the sensitivity analysis. The results show that the main determinant of ignition timing in the engine is the spatial density of oxygen in the cylinder. This finding indicates that diesel combustion with high EGR and high boost pressure can provide both high thermal efficiency and low emissions.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0140
Daisuke Tanaka, Koji Hiraya, Hirofumi Tsuchida, Hidetoshi Wakasa, Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the concept of gasoline lift-off spray combustion in which the burning velocity is controlled by the rate of mixture supply to the flame zone. With this concept, gasoline fuel is injected under high pressure to promote atomization, evaporation and mixing with the air, thereby quickly forming a homogenous mixture extending to the flame downstream of the spray. As a result, the injected fuel is burned sequentially. In this study, a constant-volume combustion vessel was used to visualize and analyze spray combustion. The experimental results made clear the effects of the initial conditions (e.g., injection pressure and nozzle hole diameter) and the ambient conditions (e.g., temperature and pressure) on the flame lift-off length and soot formation. In addition, the conditions facilitating this combustion concept were examined by conducting combustion simulations with the KIVA-3V code, taking into account the detailed chemical reaction mechanisms.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0644
Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism has been applied in a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The effective compression ratio (εeff) was lowered by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), while keeping the expansion ratio constant. Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion, adopting the Miller-cycle, was experimentally realized and numerically analyzed. Significant improvements of NOx and soot emissions were achieved for a wide range of engine speeds and loads, frequently used in a transient mode test. The operating range of the Miller-PCCI combustion has been expanded up to an IMEP of 1.30 MPa.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-3998
Kanta Yamamoto, Keishi Takada, Jin Kusaka, Makoto Nagata
In a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF) system, the DOC is used to oxidize additional fuel injected into the cylinder and/or exhaust pipe in order to increase the CSF's inlet temperature during soot regeneration. The catalyst's hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation performance is known to be strongly affected by the HC species present and the catalyst design. However, the engine operating conditions and additive fuel supply parameters also affect the oxidation performance of DOCs, but the effects of these variables have been insufficiently examined. Therefore, in this study, the oxidation performance of a DOC was examined in experiments in which both exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and exhaust pipe injection parameters were varied. The results were then analyzed and optimal conditions were identified using modeFRONTIER.
2008-09-09
Journal Article
2008-32-0020
Kenjiro Nakama, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
This study examines the effects of ethanol content on engine performances and the knock characteristics in spark ignition gasoline engine under various compression ratio conditions by cylinder pressure analysis, visualization and numerical simulation. The results confirm that increasing the ethanol content provides for greater engine torque and thermal efficiency as a result of the improvement of knock tolerance. It was also confirmed that increasing the compression ratio together with increasing ethanol content is effective to overcome the shortcomings of poor fuel economy caused by the low calorific value of ethanol. Further, the results of one dimensional flame propagation simulation show that ethanol content increase laminar burning velocity. Moreover, the results of visualization by using a bore scope demonstrate that ethanol affects the increase of initial flame propagation speed and thus helps suppress knock.
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