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Viewing 1 to 30 of 73
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0063
Noritaka Yoshikawa, Koji Yoshida, Tatsuaki Suzuki
DME is alternate fuel for diesel engines, however DME has defects such as small lower calorific value, inferior lubricity and weak fuel penetration. To compensate disadvantages, In-direct injection 2-stroke diesel engine with low pressure fuel injection system was proposed. The fuel injection timing near TDC gave good performance because the heat loss of low temperature oxidation reaction reduced. The brake torque and brake thermal efficiency of 2-stroke IDI diesel engine were lower than those of 4-stroke engine. However, the exhaust gas emissions were very low level because the intake air leaked through the exhaust port and the exhaust gas was diluted.
2009-11-03
Journal Article
2009-32-0070
Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of low-temperature reactions on the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Specifically, an investigation was made of the effect of the residual gas condition on low-temperature reactions, autoignition and the subsequent state of combustion following ignition. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurements were made in the combustion chamber in order to investigate low-temperature reactions in detail. In addition, chemical kinetic simulations were performed to validate the experimental results and to analyze the elemental reaction process. The results made clear the formation behavior of the chemical species produced during low-temperature HCCI reactions.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1788
Akira Iijima, Yujiro Tsutsumi, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
This study examined the effects of fuel composition and intake pressure on two-stage high temperature heat release characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the combustion behavior in detail. Chemical kinetic simulations were also conducted to analyze the reaction mechanisms in detail. Blended fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane were used in the experiments. It was found that the use of such fuel blends together with a suitable intake air flow rate corresponding to the total injected heat value gave rise to two-stage heat release behavior of the hot flame, which had the effect of moderating combustion. The results of the spectroscopic measurements and the chemical kinetic simulations revealed that the main reaction of the first stage of the hot flame heat release was one that produced CO from HCHO.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9031
Akira Terashima, Naoya Ito, Tomoya Tojo, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine was operated under a continuous firing condition in this study to visualize combustion in order to obtain fundamental knowledge for suppressing the rapidity of combustion in HCCI engines. Experiments were conducted with a two-stroke engine fitted with a quartz observation window that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The effect of varying the compression ratio and fuel octane number on HCCI combustion was investigated. In-cylinder spectroscopic measurements were made at compression ratios of 11:1 and 15:1 using primary reference fuel blends having different octane numbers of 0 RON and 50 RON. The results showed that varying the compression ratio and fuel octane number presumably has little effect on the rapidity of HCCI combustion at the same ignition timing when the quantity of heat produced per cycle by the injected fuel is kept constant.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9030
Takashi Ishino, Norikuni Hayakawa, Tomomi Miyasaka, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Engine downsizing with a turbocharger / supercharger has attracted attention as a way of improving the fuel economy of automotive gasoline engines, but this approach can be frustrated by the occurrence of abnormal combustion. In this study, the factors causing abnormal combustion were investigated using a supercharged, downsized engine that was built by adding a mechanical supercharger. Combustion experiments were conducted in which the fuel octane number and supercharging pressure were varied while keeping the engine speed, equivalence ratio and intake air temperature constant. In the experiments, a visualization technique was applied to photograph combustion in the combustion chamber, absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the intermediate products of combustion, and the cylinder pressure was measured. The experimental data obtained simultaneously were then analyzed to examine the effects on combustion.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9174
Kohei Suzuki, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida
There are few investigations to change wood biomasses to the industrially available energy, so that a new conversion technology of biomass to liquid fuel has been established by the direct liquefaction process. However, cellulosic liquefaction fuel (for short CLF) cold not mixed with diesel fuel. In this study, the plastic was mixed with wood to improve the solubility of CLF to diesel fuel. CLF made by the direct co-liquefaction process could be stably and completely mixed with diesel fuel in any mixing ratio and CLF included 2 wt.% of oxygen. The test engine was an air-cooled, four-stroke, single cylinder, direct fuel injection diesel engine. In the engine starting condition test, the ignition timing of 5 wt.% CLF mixed diesel fuel was slightly delayed at immediately after the engine started, however the ignition timing was almost the same as diesel fuel after the engine was warmed-up.
2013-10-15
Journal Article
2013-32-9166
Akira Iijima, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Naoya Itoh, Akira Terashima, Tomoya Tojo
Combustion experiments were conducted with an optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized for the purpose of making clear the characteristics that induce extremely rapid HCCI combustion and knocking accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations. The HCCI combustion regime was investigated in detail by high-speed in-cylinder visualization of autoignition and combustion and emission spectroscopic measurements. The results revealed that increasing the equivalence ratio and advancing the ignition timing caused the maximum pressure rise rate and knocking intensity to increase. In moderate HCCI combustion, the autoignited flame was initially dispersed temporally and spatially in the cylinder and then gradually spread throughout the entire cylinder.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3732
Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion processes can be broadly divided between a CAI process that is applied to four-stroke engines and a CAI process that is applied to two-stroke engines. The former process is generally referred to as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the later process as Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC). The region of stable engine operation differs greatly between these two processes, and it is thought that the elucidation of their differences and similarities could provide useful information for expanding the operation region of HCCI combustion. In this research, the same two-stroke engine was operated under both the ATAC and HCCI combustion processes to compare their respective combustion characteristics. The results indicated that the ignition timing was less likely to change in the ATAC process in relation to changes in the fuel octane number than it was in the HCCI combustion process.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0005
Keisuke Mochizuki, Takahiro Shima, Hirotaka Suzuki, Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has attracted a great deal of interest as a combustion system for internal combustion engines because it achieves high efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. However, HCCI combustion has several issues that remain to be solved. For example, it is difficult to control engine operation because there is no physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue is the rapid rate of heat release because ignition of the mixture occurs simultaneously at multiple places in the cylinder. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and propane was observed that the overall combustion process was delayed, with that combustion became steep when injected propane much. This study focused on expanding the region of stable engine operation and improving thermal efficiency by using supercharging and blended fuels. The purpose of using supercharging were in order to moderated combustion.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0095
Koji Yoshida, Yusuke Soma
The flame propagation behavior of hydrogen-air and propane-air mixtures under application of high-voltage non-uniform electric field was explored by using combustion vessel. Both mixtures were ignited by laser-induced breakdown of Nd:YAG laser. In a case of propane-air mixture, top of flame front was drawn to the electrode and bottom of flame front was expanded. In a case of hydrogen-air mixture, the wrinkle caused by the preferential diffusion was enhanced by corona discharge, however the entire flame front was merely moved toward downward by corona wind. Therefore, the non-uniform electric field strongly influences charged particles originated in hydrocarbon of propane-air mixture.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0100
Masashi Ono, Masato Nakajima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Akira Iijima
The composition ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is depended on feedstock. Three FAMEs: soybean (SME), palm (PME) and coconut oil (CME) methyl esters were mixed to make fuels which have different composition ratio. The ignitability of fuel which mainly consisted of unsaturated FAME was inferior. Power was slightly reduced with increasing of mixing ratio of CME; however exhaust gas emissions were improved because CME contained a lot of oxygen atoms. Fuel which was equal mixture SME and CME indicated almost the same ignition characteristic as that of PME because they have same composition ratio.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0132
Ren Yuan, Masashi Ono, Noritaka Yoshikawa, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida, Akira Iijima
A new bio-fuel i.e. the cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was developed for diesel engines. CLF was made from woods by direct liquefaction process. When neat CLF was supplied to diesel engine, the compression ignition did not occur, so that blend of CLF and diesel fuel was used. The engine could be operated when the mixing ratio of CLF was up to 35 wt%. CO, HC and NOx emissions were almost the same as those of diesel fuel when the mixing ratio of CLF was less than 20 wt% whereas the thermal efficiency slightly decreases with increase in CLF mixing ratio.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0144
Yohsuke Takeshita, Koji Yoshida
A new diffusion combustion method characterized by plasma jet ignition is proposed. In this new diffusion combustion, the fuel is injected and ignited by the high-voltage electrical discharge, so this combustion method can be applied for various fuels which have different ignitability. Tests were carried out with seven fuels by using a combustion bomb. When a small orifice was used, fuels which had branched chain molecular structure were hardly ignited. In case of large orifice, all test fuels were surely ignited, and the maximum combustion pressures of branched chain structure molecular fuels were higher than those of straight chain structure molecular fuel.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0001
Naoya Ito, Akira Iijima, Akira Terashima, Junki Sahara, Takashi Shimada, Masanori Yamada, Tomohiko Asai, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Abstract This study investigated the effect of streamer discharge on autoignition and combustion in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. A continuous streamer discharge was generated in the center of the combustion chamber of a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area. The experimental results showed that the flame was initiated and grew from the vicinity of the electrode under the application of a streamer discharge. Subsequently, rapid autoignition (HCCI combustion) occurred in the unburned mixture in the end zone, thus indicating that HCCI combustion was accomplished assisted by the streamer discharge. In other word, ignition timing of HCCI combustion was advanced after the streamer discharging process, and the initiation behavior of the combustion flame was made clear under that condition.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0092
Ryoga Suzuki, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida, Akira Iijima
There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0089
Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
In this study, optical measurements were made of the combustion chamber gas during operation of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine in order to obtain a better understanding of the ignition and combustion characteristics. The principal issues of HCCI engines are to control the ignition timing and to optimize the combustion state following ignition. Autoignition in HCCI engines is strongly influenced by the complex low-temperature oxidation reaction process, alternatively referred to as the cool flame reaction or negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Accordingly, a good understanding of this low-temperature oxidation reaction process is indispensable to ignition timing control. In the experiments, spectroscopic measurement methods were applied to investigate the reaction behavior in the process leading to autoignition.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0098
Kenji Saitou, Akira Iijima, Yasuhiro Otagiri, Koji Yoshida, Yusuke Takahashi, Hideo Shoji
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0010
Yuya Abe, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida
The purpose of this study is to clarify ignition characteristics and engine performance of FAME for 4-stroke diesel engine in low compression ratios. Diesel fuel and coconut oil methyl ester (CME) were selected as test fuels, because CME consisted of saturate FAMEs which were good ignition characteristics. To reduce the compression ratio, thin copperplates were inserted between cylinder head and cylinder block and the compression ratio was reduced from 20.6 that was standard to 15. The engine starting test and an ordinary engine performance test were made at 3600 min.-₁. In engine starting test, the engine was soaked at room temperature and the ignition timing of diesel fuel was remarkably delayed compared with CME. When the compression ratio was 16, for diesel fuel, the misfiring cycles were included during engine warming up. In case of 15 of compression ratio, the engine could not be started by diesel fuel; however the engine could be run by CME.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0001
Ryo Sasaki, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida
This study clarified the influence of hot gas jet on combustion enhancement effect for lean mixture in the plasma jet ignition. The hot gas jet was generated by the high temperature plasma and was ejected from igniter after plasma jet finished issuing. In combustion tests, propane-air mixture at equivalence ratio of 0.6 was used and the mixture was filled in the combustion chamber at atmosphere pressure and room temperature. For generation of the hot gas jet, the standard air was filled in chamber at same conditions and the hot gas jet was visualized by schlieren method in the absence of combustion. The combustion development processes were also visualized and the combustion pressure was measured. The discharge voltage, discharge current and the plasma luminescence were also measured. The plasma luminescence disappeared within 0.05 ms for any experimental conditions. When cavity depth was deep and orifice diameter was small, the maximum plasma luminescence height was short.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0080
Mitsuo Asanuma, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Go Emori
The growing severity of global environmental issues in recent years, including air pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels, has made it necessary for internal combustion engines to achieve higher efficiency and lower exhaust emission levels. Calls for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) necessitate thoroughgoing measures to lower the levels of CO₂ originating in the combustion process of internal combustion engines and to facilitate operation on diverse energy sources. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. These characteristics are obtainable because HCCI combustion can take place at ultra-lean conditions exceeding the limits of flame propagation.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0079
Akira Iijima, Tomoya Tojo, Akira Terashima, Kenta Suyama, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
This study examined Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics in detail on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization, spectroscopic measurements of light emission and absorption and chemical kinetic simulations. Special attention was focused on investigating and comparing the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas on combustion characteristics. The results made clear the relationship between the production/consumption of formaldehyde (HCHO) in the HCCI autoignition process and flame development behavior in the cylinder. Additionally, it was found that both the fuel octane number and residual gas have the effect of moderating low-temperature oxidation reactions. Furthermore, it was observed that residual gas has the effect of shifting the temperature for the occurrence of the hot flame to a higher temperature range.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0075
Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
This study focused on the use of a two-component fuel blend and supercharging as possible means of overcoming these issues of HCCI combustion. Low-carbon gaseous fuels with clean emissions were used as the test fuels. The specific fuels used were dimethyl ether (DME, cetane number of 55 or higher) that autoignites easily And exhibits pronounced low-temperature oxidation reactions, methane (cetane number of 0) that does not autoignite readily and is the main component of natural gas which is regarded as petroleum substitute, and propane (cetane number of 5) that is a principal component of liquefied petroleum gas. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and methane produces a two-stage main combustion process under certain operating conditions, with the result that combustion is moderated.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0078
Tomoya Tojo, Koji Yoshida, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Akira Terashima, Kenta Suyama
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a single-cylinder test engine fitted with a sapphire observation window to facilitate visualization of the entire cylinder bore area. In addition to in-cylinder visualization of combustion, spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission and absorption in the combustion chamber to investigate autoignition behavior in detail. Engine firing experiments were conducted to visualize HCCI combustion over a wide range of compression ratios from 12:1 to 22:1. The results showed that increasing the compression ratio advanced the ignition timing and increased the maximum pressure rise rate, making it necessary to moderate combustion. It was also found that autoignition can be induced even in a mixture lean enough to cause misfiring by raising the intake air temperature so as to advance the overall combustion process.
1997-10-27
Technical Paper
978496
Daiji Kotani, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Atsushi Saima
We have investigated combustion characteristics of lean gasoline-air pre-mixture ignited by gas-oil injection using a high compression D.I. diesel engine. Gasoline was supplied as an uniform lean mixture by using carburetors, and gas-oil was directly injected into the cylinder. Two different types of combustion chamber were attempted. It was confirmed that the lean mixture of air-fuel ratio between 150 and 35 could be ignited and burned by this ignition method. An engine with the re-entrant type combustion chamber had an advantage for combustion and ignition. The brake mean effective pressure increased when relatively rich mixture was provided with a small amount of the gas-oil injection. As the gas-oil injection increased, HC concentration decreased, and NO and CO concentration increased. The exhaust gas emission of pollutants could be reduced when lean mixture was ignited by an optimum gas-oil injection.
1997-10-27
Technical Paper
978515
Yasunori Amino, Shunsuke Hashimoto, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Atsushi Saima
The aim of this research was to investigate the mechanism causing autoignition and the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion by detecting the behavior of the OH radical and other excited molecules present in the flame in a spark ignition engine. The test equipment used was a 2-cycle engine equipped with a Schnürle scavenging system. Using emission spectroscopy, the behavior of the OH radical was measured at four locations in the end zone of the combustion chamber. The OH radical plays an important role in the elemental reactions of hydrocarbon fuels. When a certain level of EGR was applied according to the engine operating conditions, the unburned gas became active owing to heat transfer from residual gas near the measurement positions on the exhaust port side and the influence of excited species in the residual gas, and autoignition tended to occur.
1997-10-27
Technical Paper
978516
Toshiyuki Matsushima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Atsushi Saima
The use of a higher compression ratio is desirable for improving the thermal efficiency and specific power of spark-ignition engines, but it gives rise to a problem of engine knock. In the present research, an investigation was made of the role of the preflame reaction region of a spark-ignition engine in the occurrence of autoignition. Emission spectroscopy was used to measure the behavior of formaldehyde (HCHO) in a cool flame. In addition, measure the behavior of the faint light attributed to the HCO radical in a blue flame with the concurrent measurement of the OH radical. The emission waveforms measurements obtained for HCHO when n-heptane (ORON) was used as the fuel, It is thought that these tendencies correspond to the passage and degeneracy of a cool flame. Further, the emission waveforms measured for the HCO radical when blended fuels (6ORON, 8ORON) were correspond to that of a blue flame.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962104
Hideo Shoji, Tomohiro Shimizu, Toru Nishizawa, Koji Yoshida, Atsushi Saima
Emission intensity was measured at a wavelength of 395 2 nm (corresponding to the characteristic spectrum of the HCHO radical) and absorbance was measured at 306 4 nm (corresponding to that of the OH radical). The emission intensity and absorbance waveforms recorded during engine operation on n-heptane show behavior indicative of the passage and degeneracy of cool flame in the preflame reaction interval. As the combustion chamber wall temperature approached an overheated state in the transition from normal combustion to knocking operation different preflame reaction behavior was observed which is thought to correspond to the presence of a negative temperature coefficient region related to the ignition delay time.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
942061
Hideo Shoji, Yasuhiro Tosaka, Koji Yoshida, Atsushi Saima
Using absorption spectroscopy, simultaneous measurements were made of the behavior of the OH (characteristic spectrum of 306.4 nm), CH (431.5 nm) and C2(516.5 nm) radicals in the end-gas region and center of the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine during preflame reactions with four types of fuel having different octane numbers. The results of this research show that the behavior of the OH, CH and C2 radicals in preflame reactions differed significantly in both the center and end-gas region of the combustion chamber depending on the octane number of the fuel and also between normal and knocking combustion conditions.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
942051
Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Atsushi Saima
The investigation regarding performance of plasma jet igniters was explored by using a constant volume vessel. This study focused on investigating the relationship between the jet effect, the hot gas jet issued from the igniter, and combustion enhancement. The hot gas penetration was visualized by the schlieren system with CCD camera and image intensifier. In the cases of small energies, 0.63 and 0.90 J, the combustion enhancement effect is similar to that of combustion jet igniter. In cases of supplied energies, 2.45 and 5.00 J, the jet effect influences on the combustion enhancement effect for small characteristic length of the igniter.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932750
Koji Yoshida, Atsushi Saima
The investigation regarding the plasma jet ignition was explored by using a combustion vessel. The first purpose is to elucidate the issuing duration and the penetration of hydrogen plasma jet. A temporal change of local electron temperature was measured along the central axis of plasma jet. A small characteristic length of igniter seems favorable with regard to the plasma jet penetration and the generation of high temperature, as compared with the case of the igniter that has the excessive cavity volume. The second purpose is to elucidate relationship between the characteristic length and the combustion enhancement effect, when the excessive volume of cavity and the excessive supplied electrical energy were used. The influence of the characteristic length on the plasma jet penetration and the combustion enhancement differs with the supplied energy. The combustion enhancement seems to be caused by the plasma jet in case of excessive supplied energy.
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