Viewing 1 to 30 of 31
Journal Article
Leila Sharifian, Yuri Martin Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Martin Elsener, Oliver Krocher
The NO reduction in an ammonia SCR converter has been simulated by a 1D+1D model for a single representative channel to parametrically study the characteristics of the system under typical operating conditions. An appropriate model has been selected interpreting the chemical behavior of the system and the parameters are calibrated based on a comprehensive set of experiments with an Fe-Zeolite washcoated monolith for different feed concentrations, temperatures and flow rates. Physical and chemical properties are determined as well as kinetics and rate parameters and the model has been verified by experimental data at different operating conditions. Three different mechanisms for the surface kinetics to model NO reduction have been assessed and the results have been compared in the cases of steady DeNO performance and transient response of the system. Ammonia inhibition is considered in the model since it has a major effect specifically under transient operating conditions.
Journal Article
Patrick Kirchen, Peter Obrecht, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Measurements of the soot emissions and engine operating parameters from a diesel engine during transient operation were used to investigate the influence of transient operation on the soot emissions, as well as to validate a realtime mean value soot model (MVSM, [1]) for transient operation. To maximize the temporal resolution of the soot emission and engine parameter measurements (in particular EGR), fast instruments were used and their dynamic responses characterized and corrected. During tip-in transients, an increase in the soot emissions was observed due to a short term oxygen deficit compared to steady-state operation. No significant difference was seen between steady-state and transient operation for acceleration transients. When the MVSM was provided with inputs of sufficient temporal resolution, it was capable of reproducing the qualitative and, in part, quantitative soot emission trends.
Journal Article
Jann Koch, Martin Schmitt, Yuri M. Wright, Karel Steurs, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract Large eddy simulations (LES) of a port-injected 4-valve spark ignited (SI) engine have been carried out with the emphasis on the combustion process. The considered operating point is close to full load at 3,500 RPM and exhibits considerable cyclic variation in terms of the in-cylinder pressure traces, which can be related to fluctuations in the combustion process. In order to characterize these fluctuations, a statistically relevant number of subsequent cycles, namely up to 40, have been computed in the multi-cycle analysis. In contrast to other LES studies of SI engines, here the G-equation (a level set approach) has been adopted to model the premixed combustion in the framework of the STAR-CD/es-ICE flow field solver. Tuning parameters are identified and their impact on the result is addressed.
Journal Article
Daniele Farrace, Michele Bolla, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Numerical simulations of in-cylinder soot evolution in the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine of Sandia National Laboratories have been performed with the multidimensional conditional moment closure (CMC) model using a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model. Simulation results are compared to the high-fidelity experimental data by means of pressure traces, apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and time-resolved in-cylinder soot mass derived from optical soot luminosity and multiple wavelength pyrometry in conjunction with high speed soot cloud imaging. In addition, spatial distributions of soot relevant quantities are given for several operating conditions.
Journal Article
Achinta Varna, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Alexander Spiteri, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Yuri M. Wright
Simulations for a pressure-assisted multi-stream injector designed for urea-dosing in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust gas system have been carried out and compared to measurements taken in an optically accessible high-fidelity flow test rig. The experimental data comprises four different combinations of mass flow rate and temperature for the gas stream with unchanged injection parameters for the spray. First, a parametric study is carried out to determine the importance of various spray sub-models, including atomization, spray-wall interaction, buoyancy as well as droplet coalescence. Optimal parameters are determined using experimental data for one reference operating condition.
Technical Paper
Aleš Srna, Michele Bolla, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
This study presents an application of the conditional moment closure (CMC) combustion model to marine diesel sprays. In particular, the influence of fuel evaporation terms has been investigated for the CMC modeling framework. This is motivated by the fact that substantial overlap between the dense fuel spray and flame area is encountered for sprays in typical large two-stroke marine diesel engines which employ fuel injectors with orifice diameters of the order of one millimeter. Simulation results are first validated by means of experimental data from the Wärtsilä optically accessible marine spray combustion chamber in terms of non-reactive macroscopic spray development. Subsequently, reactive calculations are carried out and validated in terms of ignition delay time, ignition location, flame lift-off length and temporal evolution of the flame region. Finally, the influence of droplet terms on spray combustion is analyzed in detail.
Technical Paper
Nicolò Frapolli, Michele Bolla, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
Abstract In this study, numerical simulations of in-cylinder processes associated to fuel post-injection in a diesel engine operated at Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) have been performed. An extended Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model capable of accounting for an arbitrary number of subsequent injections has been employed: instead of a three-feed system, the problem has been described as a sequential two-feed system, using the total mixture fraction as the conditioning scalar. A reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model is employed. Numerical results have been validated with measurements from the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine installed at Sandia National Laboratories by comparing apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and in-cylinder soot mass evolutions for three different start of main injection, and a wide range of post injection dwell times.
Journal Article
Fabian Müller, Martin Schmitt, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos
The combustion of gaseous fuels like methane in internal combustion engines is an interesting alternative to the conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. Reasons are the availability of the resource and the significant advantage in terms of CO2 emissions due to the beneficial C/H ratio. One difficulty of gaseous fuels is the preparation of the gas/air mixtures for all operation points, since the volumetric energy density of the fuel is lower compared to conventional liquid fuels. Low-pressure port-injected systems suffer from substantially reduced volumetric efficiencies. Direct injection systems avoid such losses; in order to deliver enough fuel into the cylinder, high pressures are however needed for the gas injection which forces the fuel to enter the cylinder at supersonic speed followed by a Mach disk. The detailed modeling of these physical effects is very challenging, since the fluid velocities and pressure and velocity gradients at the Mach disc are very high.
Journal Article
Michele Bolla, Thordur Gudmundsson, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Numerical simulations of diesel sprays in a constant-volume vessel have been performed with the conditional moment closure (CMC) combustion model for a broad range of conditions. On the oxidizer side these include variations in ambient temperature (800-1100 K), oxygen volume fraction (15-21%) and density (7.3-58.5 kg/m₃) and on the fuel side variation in injector orifice diameter (50-363 μm) and fuel pressure (600-1900 bar); in total 22 conditions. Results are compared to experimental data by means of ignition delay and flame lift-off length (LOL). Good agreement for both quantities is reported for the vast majority of conditions without any changes to model constants: the variations relating to the air side are quantitatively accurately predicted; for the fuel side (viz. orifice diameter and injection pressure) the trends are qualitatively well reproduced.
Technical Paper
Johannes Ritzinger, Thomas Koch, Jürgen Lehmann, Konstantinos Boulouchos
In the field of heavy-duty applications almost all engines apply the compression ignition principle, spark ignition is used only in the niche of CNG engines. The main reason for this is the high efficiency advantage of diesel engines over SI engines. Beside this drawback SI engines have some favorable properties like lower weight, simple exhaust gas aftertreatment in case of stoichiometric operation, high robustness, simple packaging and lower costs. The main objective of this fundamental research was to evaluate the limits of a SI engine for heavy-duty applications. Considering heavy-duty SI engines fuel consumption under full load conditions has a high impact on CO₂ emissions. Therefore, downsizing is not a promising approach to improve fuel consumption and consequently the focus of this work lies on the enhancement of thermal efficiency in the complete engine map, intensively considering knocking issues.
Technical Paper
Andrzej Wolff, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Rene Mueller
This paper deals with the influence of a wall soot layer of varying thickness on the unsteady heat transfer between the fluid and the engine cylinder wall during a full cycle of a four-stroke Diesel engine operation. For that purpose a computational investigation has been carried out, using a one-dimensional model of a multi-layer solid wall for simulating the transient response within the confinement of the combustion chamber. The soot layer is thereby of varying thickness over time, depending on the relative rates of deposition and oxidation. Deposition is accounted for due to a thermophoretic mechanism, while oxidation is described by means of an Arrhenius type expression. Results of the computations obtained so far show that the substrate wall temperature has a significant effect on the soot layer dynamics and thus on the wall heat flux to the combustion chamber wall.
Technical Paper
Tobias Steiner, Konstantinos Boulouchos
A computational study of the near-wall premixed flame propagation in homogeneous charge spark ignited engines is presented on the basis of a spectral concept accounting for flow-chemistry interaction in the flamelet regime. Flame surface enhancement due to wrinkling and modification of the local laminar flame speed due to flame stretch are the main phenomena described by the model. A high pass filter in the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum associated with the distance between the ensemble-averaged flame front location and the solid surface has been also introduced. In addition a probability density function of instantaneous flamelet positions around the above mean flame front location allows to consider statistical effects in a simplified way. Issues of temperature distribution within the boundary layer and associated heat losses, except for the concept of a thermal quenching distance, are thereby not explicitly taken into account.
Technical Paper
German Weisser, Franz X. Tanner, Konstantinos Boulouchos
A recently developed auto-ignition model based on a single transport equation in combination with a reduced kinetic scheme has been validated and tested in combination with a cascade jet and droplet breakup model. The validation has been performed by comparing ignition locations and delays for various thermodynamic conditions with experimental data from a high-pressure combustion cell. Also for medium-size diesel engine applications, predictions of ignition delay are in good agreement with experimental observations. In addition, a new approach to the modeling of the early flame development in diesel engine combustion is introduced. The reaction rate in the transition phase from the premixed to the mixing-controlled combustion mode is determined by means of a sub-grid scale model, which describes the evolution of a turbulent diffusion flame. The model has been tested during the early combustion phase of a medium-size, medium-speed DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper
Marco Warth, Peter Obrecht, Andrea Bertola, Konstantinos Boulouchos
A new approach within the well-known trade-off in combustion process simulations between computational efforts (and thus the capability for engine operating map calculations) on the one hand, and accuracy of predictions on the other, has been developed and applied successfully to diesel combustion, in particular to energy release and pollutant formation. Using phenomenological models in combination with bio-inspired algorithms (for parameter identification), it is now possible to predict thermal, chemical and injection related engine characteristics over an entire operating map including different types of fuel (e.g. diesel, water-in-diesel emulsions and oxygenated diesel).
Technical Paper
Enrico Conte, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline in internal combustion engines is gaining increasing interest, as it seems suitable to reach near-zero emission combustion, able to easily meet future stringent regulations. Bottled gas was used to simulate the output of an on-board reformer (21%H2, 24%CO, 55%N2). Measurements were carried out on a 4-stroke, 2-cylinder, 0.5-liter engine, with EGR, in order to calculate the heat release rate through a detailed two-zone model. A quasi-dimensional model of the flame was developed: it consists of a geometrical estimate of the flame surface, which is then coupled with the heat release rate. The turbulent flame speed can then be inferred. The model was then applied to blends of gasoline with hydrogen-rich gas, showing the effect on the flame speed and transition from laminar to turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper
Patrick Kirchen, Konstantinos Boulouchos
A mean value soot model (MVSM) was developed and validated for the realtime prediction of the raw, engine-out soot emissions from common rail diesel engines. Through the consideration of five representative states during the combustion cycle, the developed MVSM determines the engine out soot emissions based on the soot formation and oxidation processes, using only parameters available from a standard engine control unit. 16 model parameters are used to describe the engine, fuel, and combustion characteristics, and must be determined for each engine and fuel combination. The MVSM was parameterized and validated using the measured soot emissions from two different engines operating with a total of three different fuels. After parameterization, the MVSM was capable of qualitatively and quantitatively reproducing the soot emissions for operating points throughout the entire operating map, including for operating regimes not considered during the parameterization.
Journal Article
Christopher Kim Blomberg, Dimitrios Mitakos, Michele Bardi, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright, Annelies Vandersickel
Abstract An existing three-stage ignition delay model which has seen successful application to Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) has been extended to six surrogate fuels which constitute potential candidates for future Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. The fuels include petroleum-derived and oxygenated components and can be divided into low, intermediate and high cetane number groups. A new methodology to obtain the model parameters is presented which relies jointly on simulation and experimental data: in a first step, constant volume adiabatic reactor simulations using chemical kinetic mechanisms are performed to generate ignition delays for a very wide range of conditions, namely variations in equivalence ratio, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper
Guoqing Xu, Christophe Hanauer, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract In this study, the ignition and combustion process in a lean burn, spark-ignited stationary gas engine was investigated using a level-set (G-equation) combustion model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations. An ignition model based on Herweg and Maly [1] and its coupling with the G-equation combustion model was implemented in the framework of the STARCD/es-ICE solver. A first validation was performed by means of spherically expanding methane/air flame measurements in an optically accessible spherical combustion bomb at elevated pressure by Lawes et al. [2]: predictions of the kernel size and the flame expansion are in good agreement with the experimental data at both stoichiometric and lean conditions. The model was subsequently applied to study combustion in a premixed lean burn stationary gas engine with a displacement volume of roughly two liters, ignited by means of a centrally located “G-type” spark plug.
Journal Article
Yujun Liao, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Alexander Spiteri, Lorenzo Nocivelli, Gianluca Montenegro, Konstantinos Boulouchos
The injection process of urea-water solution (AdBlue) determines initial conditions for reactions and catalysis and is fundamentally responsible for optimal operation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. The spray characteristics of four, commercially available, injectors (one air-assisted and three pressure-driven with different nozzle-hole configurations) are investigated with non-intrusive measuring techniques. Injection occurred in the crossflow of a channel blowing preheated air in an exhaust duct similar configuration. The effect of several gas temperatures and flows on the spray propagation and entrainment has been extensively studied by shadow imaging. Shadow images, in addition, show that the spray of the pressure-driven injectors is only marginally affected by the gas crossflow. In contrast, the air assisted spray is strongly deflected by the gas, the effect increasing with increasing gas flow.
Journal Article
Daniele Farrace, Ronny Panier, Martin Schmitt, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) provide instantaneous values indispensable to conduct statistical studies of relevant fluctuating quantities for diesel sprays. However, numerous realizations are generally necessary for LES to derive statistically averaged quantities necessary for validation of the numerical framework by means of measurements and for conducting sensitivity studies, leading to extremely high computational efforts. In this context, the aim of this work is to explore and validate alternatives to the simulation of 20-50 single realizations at considerably lower computational costs, by taking advantage of the axisymmetric geometry and the Quasi-Steady-State (QSS) condition of the near nozzle flow at a certain time after start-of-injection (SOI).
Technical Paper
Christophe Barro, Sushant Pandurangi, Philipp Meyer, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Philipp Elbert, Yuri M. Wright
Abstract Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in NOx emissions. However, an accurate, widely applicable rule of how to parameterize a post injection such that it provides a maximum reduction of PM emissions does not exist. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. In past research, the underlying mechanisms have been investigated in engine experiments, in constant volume chambers and also using detailed 3D CFD-CMC simulations. It has been observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is mainly due to two reasons: increased turbulence from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to lower amount of fuel in the main combustion at similar load conditions. Those studies do not show a significant temperature rise caused by the post injection.
Journal Article
Jann Koch, Guoqing Xu, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Michele Schiliro
Abstract Three-dimensional reactive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a crucial role in IC engine development tasks complementing experimental efforts by providing improved understanding of the combustion process. A widely adopted combustion model in the engine community for (partially) premixed combustion is the G-Equation where the flame front is represented by an iso-level of an arbitrary scalar G. A convective-reactive equation for this iso-surface is solved, for which the turbulent flame speed ST must be provided. In this study, the commonly used and well-established Damköhler approach is compared to a novel correlation, derived from an algebraic closure for the scalar dissipation of reaction progress as proposed by Kolla et al. [1].
Journal Article
Christopher Kim Blomberg, Lucas Zeugin, Sushant S. Pandurangi, Michele Bolla, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
Abstract This study investigates n-dodecane split injections of “Spray A” from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) using two different turbulence treatments (RANS and LES) in conjunction with a Conditional Moment Closure combustion model (CMC). The two modeling approaches are first assessed in terms of vapor spray penetration evolutions of non-reacting split injections showing a clearly superior performance of the LES compared to RANS: while the former successfully reproduces the experimental results for both first and second injection events, the slipstream effect in the wake of the first injection jet is not accurately captured by RANS leading to an over-predicted spray tip penetration of the second pulse. In a second step, two reactive operating conditions with the same ambient density were investigated, namely one at a diesel-like condition (900K, 60bar) and one at a lower temperature (750K, 50bar).
Technical Paper
Annelies Vandersickel, Yuri Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Sebastian Beck, Michael Bargende
Compact and computationally efficient reaction models capable of accurately predicting ignition delay and heat release rates are a prerequisite for the development of strategies to control and optimize HCCI engines. In particular for full boiling range fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition a tremendous demand exists in the engine development community. To this end, in a previous investigation, a global reaction mechanism was developed and fitted to data from shock tube experiments for n-heptane and five full boiling range fuels. By means of a genetic algorithm, for each of these fuels, a set of reaction rate parameters (consisting of pre-exponential factors, activation energies and concentration exponents) has been defined, without any change to the model form.
Journal Article
Christophe Barro, Adam Lucjan, Zhi Li, Panagiotis Kyrtatos, Sushant Pandurangi, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract Modern Diesel engines have become ever more complex systems with many degrees of freedom. Simultaneously, with increasing computational power, simulations of engines have become more popular, and can be used to find the optimum set up of engine operation parameters which result in the desired point in the emission-efficiency trade off. With increasing number of engine operation parameter combinations, the number of calculations increase exponentially. Therefore, adequate models for combustion and emissions with limited calculation costs are required. For obvious reasons, the accuracy of the ignition timing is a key point for the following combustion and emission model quality. Furthermore, the combination of mixing and chemical processes during the ignition delay is very challenging to model in a fast way for a wide range of operation conditions.
Journal Article
Thomas Kammermann, Jann Koch, Yuri M. Wright, Patrik Soltic, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract The interaction of turbulent premixed methane combustion with the surrounding flow field can be studied using optically accessible test rigs such as a rapid compression expansion machine (RCEM). The high flexibility offered by such a test rig allows its operation at various thermochemical conditions at ignition. However, limitations inherent to such test rigs due to the absence of an intake stroke do not allow turbulence production as found in IC-engines. Hence, means to introduce turbulence need to be implemented and the relevant turbulence quantities have to be identified in order to enable comparability with engine relevant conditions. A dedicated high-pressure direct injection of air at the beginning of the compression phase is considered as a measure to generate adjustable turbulence intensities at spark timing and during the early flame propagation.
Technical Paper
Christophe Barro, Curdin Nani, Richard Hutter, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract The operation of dual fuel engines, operated with natural gas as main fuel, offers the potential of substantial savings in CO2. Nevertheless, the operating map area where low pollutant emissions are produced is very narrow. Especially at low load, the raw exhaust gas contains high concentrations of unburned methane and, with high pilot fuel portions due to ignition limitations, also soot. The analysis of the combustion in those conditions in particular is not trivial, since multiple combustion modes are present concurrently. The present work focuses on the evaluation of the individual combustion modes of a dual fuel engine, operated with natural gas as main and diesel as pilot fuel, using a combustion model. The combustion has been split in two partwise concurrent combustion phases: the auto-ignition phase and the premixed flame propagation phase.
Technical Paper
Christian Barba, Christine Burkhardt, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Michael Bargende
This paper presents a phenomenological single-zone combustion model which meets the particular requirements of high speed DI diesel engines with common rail injection. Therefore the model takes into account the freely selectable pilot and main injection and is strongly focusing on result parameters like combustion noise or NO-emission which are affected by this split injection. The premixed combustion, the mixing-controlled combustion and the ignition delay are key parts of the model. The model was developed and tested on more than 200 samples from three different engine types of DaimlerChrysler passenger car engines equipped with common rail injection. A user-friendly parameterization and a short computing time was achieved thanks to the simple structure of the model.
Technical Paper
Katharina Schänzlin, Thomas Koch, Alexios P. Tzannis, Konstantinos Boulouchos
We have performed simulations and experiments to characterize the mixture formation in spray-guided direct injected spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines and to help to understand features of the combustion process, which are characteristic for this engine concept. The 3-D computations are based on the KIVA 3 code, in which basic submodels of spray processes have been systematically modified at ETH during the last years. In this study, the break-up model for the hollow-cone spray typical for DISI engines has been validated through an extended comparison with both shadowgraphs and Mie-scattering results in a high-pressure-high-temperature, constant volume combustion cell at ambient conditions relevant for DISI operation, with and without significant droplet evaporation. Computational results in a single-cylinder research engine have been then obtained at a given engine speed for varying load (fuel mass per stroke), swirl and fuel injection pressure.
Technical Paper
Laurentius W. Jaeger, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Martin Mohr
The relative amounts of heat released by premixed and by diffusion controlled combustion is varied in a compression-ignition engine run on the test bench through variation of four operating parameters. Exhaust gas is led to a differential mobility particle sizer and to filters that are loaded for gravimetric analysis. Particle size distributions are acquired in the 16÷630 nm range of electrical mobility diameters. Opacity readings of the exhaust gas are taken, cylinder pressure is indicated, a value for the combustion noise is computed; gaseous emissions are recorded and heat release rates based on cylinder pressure analysis are evaluated. Two full factorial experiments at 2 bar bmep 2000 rpm are run as 24 combinations of four factors: Injection pressure 400 and 1200 bar, with and without pilot injection, 1/3 and 1/4 mass-fraction exhaust gas recirculation, late, middle and early start of injection.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 31


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