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Viewing 1 to 30 of 43
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1418
Seongeun Yu, Han Ho Song, Kyoungdoug Min, Hoimyung Choi, Sunghwan Cho, Kyoungchan Han
Emissions regulations are becoming more severe, and they remain a principal issue for vehicle manufacturers. Many engine subsystems and control technologies have been introduced to meet the demands of these regulations. For diesel engines, combustion control is one of the most effective approaches to reducing not only engine exhaust emissions but also cylinder-by-cylinder variation. However, the high cost of the pressure sensor and the complex engine head design for the extra equipment are stressful for the manufacturers. In this paper, a cylinder-pressure-based engine control logic is introduced for a multi-cylinder high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The time for 50% of the mass fraction to burn (MFB50) and the IMEP are valuable for identifying combustion status. These two in-cylinder quantities are measured and applied to the engine control logic.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1208
Namho Kim, Seokwon Cho, Hoimyung Choi, Han Ho Song, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Ethanol, one of the most widely used biofuels, has the potential to increase the knock resistance of gasoline and decrease harmful emissions when blended with gasoline. However, due to the characteristics of ethanol, a trade-off relationship between knock tolerance and BSFC exists which is balanced by the blending ratio of gasoline and ethanol. Furthermore, in a spark-ignited engine, it is reported that the blending ratio that maximizes thermal efficiency varies based on the engine operating conditions. Therefore, an injection system that can deliver gasoline and ethanol separately is needed to fully exploit the benefit of ethanol. In this study, PFI injectors and a DI injector are used to deliver ethanol and gasoline, respectively. Using the dual fuel injection system, the compression ratio was increased from 9.5 to 13.3, and the knock mitigation characteristics at the full load condition were examined.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1145
Joohan Kim, Gyujin Kim, Hoon Lee, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines are regarded as a promising technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and improvement of engine thermal efficiency. However, due to direct injection, the shortened fuel-air mixing duration leads to a spatial gradient of the equivalence ratio, and these locally rich regions cause the formation of particulate matter. In the current study, numerical investigations on pollutant formation in a DISI engine were performed using combined flamelet models for premixed and diffusion flames. The G-equation model for partially premixed combustion was improved by incorporating the laminar flamelet library. Gasoline fuel was represented as a ternary mixture of gasoline surrogate and its laminar flame speeds were obtained under a wide range of engine operating conditions.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2117
Jaeman Lim, Kyoungdoug Min
In an HSDI Diesel engine, fuel can be injected to the combustion chamber earlier as a strategy to reduce NOx and soot emissions. However, in the case of early injection the in-cylinder pressure and temperature during injection are much lower than those of normal injection conditions. As a result, wall impingement can occur if the conventional spray angle and piston bowl shape are maintained. In this study, 3-D CFD simulation was used to modify the spray angle of the injector and the piston bowl shape so that wall impingement was minimized, and soot emissions were reduced. The wall impingement model was used to simulate the behavior of impinged droplets. In order to predict the performance and emissions of the engine, a flamelet combustion model with the kinetic chemical mechanism for NOx and soot was used. A reduction in soot emissions was achieved with the modification of the spray angle and piston bowl shape.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2108
Hyuksun Kwon, Kyoungdoug Min, Hoimyung Choi, Hungu Lee
Conventional combustion models are suitable for predicting flame propagation for a wrinkled flamelet configuration. But they cannot predict the burned gas composition. This causes the overestimation of burned gas temperature and pressure. A modified method of combustion simulation was established to calculate the chemical composition and to investigate their ultimate fate in the burned gas region. In this work, the secondary products of combustion process, like CO and H2, were considered as well as the primary products like CO2 and H2O. A 3-dimensional CFD program was used to simulate the turbulent combustion and a zero dimensional equilibrium code was used to predict the chemical composition of burned gas. With this simple connection, more reasonable temperature and pressure approaching the real phenomena were predicted without additional time costs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0844
Sanghyun Chu, Jeongwoo Lee, Jaehyuk Cha, Hoimyung Choi, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract The alternative fuel jet propellant 8 (JP-8, NATO F-34) can be used as an auto-ignition source instead of diesel. Because it has a higher volatility than diesel, it provides a better air-fuel premixing condition than a conventional diesel engine, which can be attributed to a reduction in particulate matter (PM). In homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) or dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion or reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), nitrogen oxides (NOx) can also be reduced by supplying external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In this research, the diesel and JP-8 injection strategies under conventional condition and dual-fuel PCCI combustion with and without external EGR was conducted. Two tests of dual-fuel (JP-8 and propane) PCCI were conducted at a low engine speed and load (1,500 rpm/IMEP 0.55 MPa).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0854
Jeongwoo Lee, Sanghyun Chu, Jaehyuk Cha, Hoimyung Choi, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract In this work, the operating strategy for diesel injection methods and a way to control the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate under dual-fuel PCCI combustion with an appropriate ratio of low-reactivity fuel (propane) to achieve high combustion stability and low emissions is introduced. The standards of combustion stability were carbon monoxide (CO) emissions below 5,000 ppm and a CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) below 5 %. Additionally, the NOx emissions was controlled to not exceed 50 ppm, which is the standard of conventional diesel combustion, and PM emissions was kept below 0.2 FSN, which is a tenth of the conventional diesel value without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The operating condition was a low speed and load condition (1,500 rpm/ near gIMEP of 0.55 MPa).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0764
Seokwon Cho, Namho Kim, Jongwon Chung, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Ethanol is becoming more popular as a fuel component for spark-ignited engines. Ethanol can be used either as an octane enhancer of low RON gasoline or splash-blended with gasoline if a single injector is used for fuel injection. If two separate injectors are used, it is possible to inject gasoline and ethanol separately and the addition of ethanol can be varied on demand. In this study, the effect of the ethanol injection strategy on knock suppression was observed using a single cylinder engine equipped with two port fuel injectors dedicated to each side of the intake port and one direct injector. If the fuel is injected to only one side of the intake port, it is possible to form a stratified charge. The experiment was conducted under a compression ratio of 12.2 for various injection strategies.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2669
Jeongwoo Lee, Seungmok Choi, Gyujin Kim, Dongsu Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Seungha Lee, Jungyeon Lee, Hoimyung Choi, Kyoungdoug Min
Novel Diesel combustion concepts such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) promise lower NOx and PM emissions than those of conventional Diesel combustion. RCCI, which can be implemented using low-reactivity fuels such as gasoline or gases and high-reactivity fuels such as Diesel, has the potential to achieve extremely low emissions and improved thermal efficiency. However, to achieve RCCI combustion, a higher boost pressure than that of a conventional engine is required because a high EGR rate and a lean mixture are necessary to achieve a low combustion temperature. However, higher boost pressures can cause damage to intake systems. In this research, the addition of gaseous fuel to a CI engine is investigated to reduce engine emissions, mainly NOx and PM emissions, with the same IMEP level. Two different methods were evaluated.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2152
Heechang Oh, Choongsik Bae, Kyoungdoug Min
An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effects of ethanol blending on to gasoline spray and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine under lean stratified operation. The spray characteristics, including local homogeneity and phase distribution, were investigated by the planar laser-induced fluorescence and the planar Mie scattering method in a constant volume chamber. Therefore, the single cylinder engine was operated with pure gasoline, 85 %vol, 50 %vol and 25vol % ethanol blended with gasoline (E85, E50, E25) to investigate the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics. Ethanol was identified to have the potential of generating a more appropriate spray for internal combustion due to a higher vapor pressure at high temperature conditions. The planar laser-induced fluorescence image demonstrated that ethanol spray has a faster diffusion velocity and an enhanced local homogeneity.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0243
Junyong Lee, Seungha Lee, Wonah Park, Kyoungdoug Min, Han Ho Song, Hoimyung Choi, Jun Yu, Sung Hwan Cho
To meet the stringent emission regulations on diesel engines, engine-out emissions have been lowered by adapting new combustion concepts such as low-temperature combustion and after-treatment systems have also been used to reduce tailpipe emissions. To optimize the control of both in-cylinder combustion and the efficiency of an after treatment system to reduce NOx, the amount of real-time NOx emissions should be determined. Therefore, in previous studies, the authors developed a real-time NO estimation model based on the in-cylinder pressure and the data available from the ECU during engine operation. The model was evaluated by comparing its results with a CFD model, which agreed well. Then, the model was implemented on an embedded system which allows real-time applications, and was verified on a 2.2-liter diesel engine. The model showed good agreement with the experimental results at various steady-state conditions and simple transient conditions.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0681
Jeongwoo Lee, Seungmok Choi, Junyong Lee, Seunghyup Shin, Seunghyun Lee, Han Ho Song, Kyoungdoug Min, Hoimyung Choi
As EURO-6 regulations will be enforced in 2014, the reduction of NOx emission while maintaining low PM emission levels becomes an important topic in current diesel engine research. EGR is the most effective way to reduce the NOx emission because EGR has a dilution and thermal effect as a means to reduce the oxygen concentration and combustion temperature. Although EGR is useful in reducing the NOx emission, it suffers from a higher level of CO and THC emissions, which indicates a low combustion efficiency and poor fuel consumption. Therefore, in this research, a close post injection strategy, which is implemented using main injection and post injection, is introduced to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce PM emission under a high EGR rate. In addition, a modified hardware configuration using a double-row nozzle and a two-staged piston bowl geometry is adapted to improve the effect of the close post injection.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940306
Kyoungdoug Min, Wai K. Cheng, John B. Heywood
To understand the effects of crevices on the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions, a series of engine experiments was carried out with different piston crevice volumes and with simulated head gasket crevices. The engine-out HC level was found to be modestly sensitive to the piston crevice size in both the warmed-up and the cold engines, but more sensitive to the crevice volume in the head gasket region. A substantial decrease in HC in the cold-to-warm-up engine transition was observed and is attributed mostly to the change in port oxidation.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952481
Younggy Shin, Kyoungdoug Min, Wai K. Cheng
The fuel injection process in the port of a firing 4-valve SI engine at part load and 25°C head temperature was observed by a high speed video camera. Fuel was injected when the valve was closed. The reverse blow-down flow when the intake valve opens has been identified as an important factor in the mixture preparation process because it not only alters the thermal environment of the intake port, but also strip-atomizes the liquid film at the vicinity of the intake valve and carries the droplets away from the engine. In a series of “fuel-on” experiments, the fuel injected in the current cycle was observed to influence the fuel delivery to the engine in the subsequent cycles.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932708
Wai K. Cheng, Douglas Hamrin, John B. Heywood, Simone Hochgreb, Kyoungdoug Min, Michael Norris
This paper provides an overview of spark-ignition engine unburned hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms, and then uses this framework to relate measured engine-out hydrocarbon emission levels to the processes within the engine from which they result. Typically, spark-ignition engine-out HC levels are 1.5 to 2 percent of the gasoline fuel flow into the engine; about half this amount is unburned fuel and half is partially reacted fuel components. The different mechanisms by which hydrocarbons in the gasoline escape burning during the normal engine combustion process are described and approximately quantified. The in-cylinder oxidation of these HC during the expansion and exhaust processes, the fraction which exit the cylinder, and the fraction oxidized in the exhaust port and manifold are also estimated.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1119
Jinwook Lee, Kyoungdoug Min, Kernyong Kang, Choongsik Bae
The More precise control of the multiple-injection is required in common-rail injection system of direct injection diesel engine to meet the low NOx emission and optimal PM filter system. The main parameter for obtaining the multiple-injections is the mechanism controlling the injector needle energizing and movement. In this study, a piezo-driven diesel injector, as a new method driven by piezoelectric energy, has been applied with a purpose to develop the analysis model of the piezo actuator to predict the dynamics characteristics of the hydraulic component (injector) by using the AMESim code and to evaluate the effect of this control capability on spray formation processes. Aimed at simulating the hydraulic behavior of the piezo-driven injector, the circuit model has been developed and verified by comparison with the experimental results.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0218
Yongrae Kim, Kyoungdoug Min, Min Soo Kim, Suk Ho Chung, Choongsik Bae
A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for a gasoline surrogate was developed and validated in this study for CAI (Controlled Auto Ignition) combustion. The gasoline surrogate was modeled as a blend of iso-octane, n-heptane, and toluene. This reduced mechanism consisted of 44 species and 59 reactions, including main reaction paths of iso-octane, n-heptane, and toluene. The ignition delay times calculated from this mechanism showed a good agreement with previous experimental data from shock tube measurement. A rapid compression machine (RCM) was developed and used to measure the ignition delay times of gasoline and surrogate fuels in the temperature range of 890K ∼ 1000K. The RCM experimental results were also compared with the RCM simulation using the reduced mechanism. It was found that the chemical reaction started before the end of the compression process in the RCM experiment. And the ignition delay time of the suggested gasoline surrogate was similar to that of gasoline.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0965
Hyuksun Kwon, Kyoungdoug Min
As the real-time supplying of hydrogen-rich gas becomes possible by the advances in the on-board fuel reforming technologies, utilizations of synthetic gas in IC engines are actively studied. However, due to the lack of fundamental studies on the combustion characteristics of synthetic gas, there is no precedent for the simulation of combustion process in synthetic gas fueled SI engine. In this study, the laminar flame speeds of synthetic gas and its mixture with iso-octane were calculated under extensive initial conditions of 3,575 points derived by combinations of temperature, pressure, fraction of lower heating value of synthetic gas and air-excess ratio variations.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0540
Seungmok Choi, Minyoung Ki, Kyoungdoug Min, Jinkook Kong, Kyoungjoon Chang, Kiyoung Kwon, Kiwook Shin
CAI (Controlled Auto Ignition) combustion is already well known to be advantageous over conventional cycles in that it facilitates higher engine efficiency and has low emission characteristics. The CAI combustion process is mainly governed by in-cylinder RGF (Residual Gas Fraction), therefore achieving good control of in-cylinder RGF is essential in the development of CAI combustion engine. Usually, in-cylinder RGF controlled via low lift cam, short valve duration and negative valve overlap. More importantly on the other hand, accurate and instantaneous prediction of RGF must be done as a prerequisite to control. However, on-line prediction of RGF is not always practical due to the requirement of expensive fast response exhaust gas analyzers in the empirical case or otherwise due to theoretical models which are just too slow for application by means of simulation solving. In this paper, a newly enhanced theoretical model for predicting on-line in-cylinder RGF is introduced.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0042
Jaeman Lim, Seungmok Choi, Kyeung-hyeon Lee, Kyoungdoug Min, Jonghwa Lee
Ignition delay of the second injection of HSDI diesel engines is generally much shorter than that of the first injection because of the interaction between the radicals generated during the combustion process and the mixed gas of the second injection. Although previous Diesel combustion models could not explain this reaction, Hasse and Peters described the mass and heat transfer of the second injection and estimated the ignition delay of the second injection using two-dimensional flamelet equations. But a simulation of the two-dimensional flamelet equations requires enormous computational time. Thus, to analyze the combustion phenomena of the multiple injection mode in HSDI diesel engines effectively, the two-dimensional flamelet combustion model was modified in this study. To reduce the calculation time, two-dimensional flamelet equations were only applied near the stoichiometric region.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3536
Hyuksun Kwon, Kyoungdoug Min
Modeling of unburned hydrocarbon oxidation in an SI engine was performed in engine condition using modified one-step oxidation model. The new one-step equation was developed by modifying the Arrhenius reaction rate coefficients of the conventional one-step model. The modified model was well matched with the results of detailed chemical reaction mechanism in terms of 90 % oxidation time of the fuel. In this modification, the effect of pressure and intermediate species in the burnt gas on the oxidation rate investigated and included in developed one-step model. The effect of pressure was also investigated and included as an additional multiplying factor in the reaction equation. To simulate the oxidation process of piston crevice hydrocarbons, a computational mesh was constructed with fine mesh density at the piston crevice region and the number of cell layers in cylinder was controlled according to the motion of piston.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0670
Seungmok Choi, Joonwon Lim, Minyoung Ki, Kyoungdoug Min, Hoimyung Choi
CAI engine is well known to be advantageous over conventional SI engines because it facilitates higher engine efficiency and lower emission (NOx and smoke). However, its limited operation range, large cyclic variation, and difficulty in heat release control are still unresolved obstacles. Previous studies showed that a high load range of the CAI engine is limited mainly by the combustion noise caused by a stiff pressure rise (knock), and that a low load range is also limited by the combustion instability caused by the high dilution of residual gas. In this study, the characteristics of each cycle were analyzed to find the cause of the cycle variation at the high load limit of CAI operation. Moreover, to improve combustion stability, we tested the in-cylinder fuel stratification by applying nonsymmetrical fuel injection to the intake port. Experiments were performed on a PFI single cylinder research engine equipped with dual CVVT and low lift (2 mm) cam shaft with NVO strategy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0822
Jongwon Chung, Namho Kim, Hoimyung Choi, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Due to the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber, particulate emission is a challenge in DISI engines. Specifically, a significant amount of particulate emission is produced under the cold start condition. In this research, the main interest was to investigate particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition because it is one of the significant particulate-emissionproducing stages under the cold start condition. A single-cylinder optically accessible engine was used to investigate the effect of injection strategies on particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition. The split injection strategy was applied during intake stroke with various injection pressures and injection timings. Using luminosity analysis of the soot radiation during combustion, the particulate formation characteristics of each injection strategy were studied.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1770
Insoo Jung, Jaemin Jin, Dongchul Lee, Seunghyun Lee, Seungwook Yang, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract This paper presents two closed-loop control methods for monitoring and improving the combustion behavior and the combustion noise on two 4-cylinder diesel engines, in which an in-cylinder pressure and an accelerometer transducer are used to monitor and control them. Combustion processes are developed to satisfy the stricter and stricter regulations on emissions and fuel consumption. These combustion processes are influenced by the factors such as engine durability, driving conditions, environmental influences and fuel properties. Combustion noise could be increased by these factors and is detrimental to interior sound quality. Therefore, it is necessary to develop robust combustion behaviors and combustion noise. For this situation, we have developed two closed-loop control methods. Firstly, a method using in-cylinder pressure data was developed for monitoring and improving the combustion noise of a 1.7L engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0561
Seungha Lee, Youngbok Lee, Kyoungchan Han, Kyoung Min Lee, Jun Yu, Junyong Lee, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0580
Joohan Kim, Namho Kim, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract The soot emission in direct-injection spark-ignition engines under various operating conditions was numerically investigated in the present study. A detailed soot model was used to resolve the physical soot process that consists of polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbon (PAH) formation and soot particle dynamics. The primary propagating flame in partially-premixed field was described by G-equation model, and the concentrations of burned species as well as PAH behind of the flame front were determined from the laminar flamelet library that incorporates the PAH chemical mechanism. The particle dynamics in post-flame region include nucleation, surface growth, coagulation, and oxidation were modeled by method of moments. To improve the model predictability, a gasoline surrogate model was proposed to match the real fuel properties, and the input of droplet size distribution of fuel spray was obtained from Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1822
Hyunguk Kim, Sungwoo Cho, Kyoungdoug Min
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion engines could have a thermal efficiency as high as that of conventional compression-ignition engines and the production of low emissions of ultra-low oxides of NOx and PM. HCCI engines can operate on most alternative fuels, especially, dimethyl ether which has been tested as possible diesel fuel for its simultaneously reduced NOx and PM emissions. However, to adjust HCCI combustion to practical engines, the main problem about the HCCI engine must be solved; control of its ignition timing and burn rate over a range of engine speeds and loads. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been used to predict the combustion characteristics. But it is difficult to apply detailed chemical kinetic mechanism to simulate practical engines because of its high complexity coupled with multidimensional fluid dynamic models. Thus, reduced chemical kinetic modeling is desirable.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0021
Wonah Park, Sangyul Lee, Seungmok Choi, Kyoungdoug Min, Hoimyung Choi, Sejune Kim
Much research has been devoted to reducing NOx and soot emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. The low temperature combustion (LTC) concept has the potential to reduce these emissions at the same time, but it has limitations to its commercialization. In-cylinder EGR stratification is another combustion concept meant to reduce both types of emissions simultaneously using non-uniform in-cylinder EGR gas distribution. The EGR stratification concept uses a locally high EGR region of the in-cylinder so that the emissions can be reduced without increasing the overall EGR rate. In this study, the EGR stratification concept was improved with a CFD-based analysis. First, a two-step piston was developed to maximize the stratified EGR effect. Then, the feasibility of combustion and emission control by stratified EGR was evaluated under cases of artificially distributed EGR stratification and conventional diesel engine conditions.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0684
Junyong Lee, Namho Kim, Hyowon Lee, Kyoungdoug Min
The measurement of spray penetration length is one of crucial tasks for understanding the characteristics of diesel spray and combustion. For this reason, many researchers have devised various measurement techniques, including Mie scattering, schlieren photography, and laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF). However, the requirements of expensive lasers, complicated optics, delicate setups, and tracers that affect fuel characteristics have been disadvantages of previous techniques. In this study, the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique is employed to measure the vapor penetration length of diesel spray for the first time. The BOS technique has a number of benefits over the previous techniques because of its quantitative, non-intrusive nature which does not require lasers, mirrors, optical filters, or fuel tracers.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1784
Kyeonghyeon Lee, Kyoungdoug Min
A gasoline homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) called the controlled auto ignition (CAI) engine is an alternative to conventional gasoline engines with higher efficiency and lower emission levels. However, noise and vibration are currently major problems in the CAI engine. The problems result from fast burning speeds during combustion, because in the CAI engine combustion is controlled by auto-ignition rather than the flame. Thus, the ignition delay of the local mixture has to vary according to the location in the combustion chamber to avoid noise and vibration. For making different ignition delays, stratification of temperature or mixing ratio was tested in this study. In charge stratification, which determines the difference between the start of combustion among charges with different properties, two kinds of mixtures with different properties flow into two intake ports.
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