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2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0886
Jun Deng, Yunhai Zhang, Zongjie Hu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li
Idle stopping is one of the most important fuel saving methods for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). While the enriched injection strategy which was employed to ensure reliable ignition of first cycle will leads to even more fuel film stayed in the intake port, all of the liquid film will evaporate randomly and interfere the mixture air-fuel ratio of the followed cycles. The fuel transport of the first cycle should be enhanced to reduce the residual fuel film, and then the control of the cycle-by-cycle air-fuel ratio will become easier and the combustion and HC emissions will also be better. In this paper the mixture preparation characteristics of the unfired first cycle, as well as the combustion and HC emissions characteristics of the fired first cycle under various injection timing strategies such as close-valve injection, mid-valve injection, and open-valve injection were investigated.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1222
Qianwang Fan, Liguang Li, Zongjie Hu, Jun Deng
Spray characteristics and spray wall-impingement events are the key factors for the direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, affecting fuel/air mixture preparation and its combustion process. Thus, the spray characteristics of a multi-hole injector for DISI engines, such as spray tip penetration and spray cone angle were investigated in an optical chamber employing the high-speed shadow photography. Furthermore, the effects of the injection pressure, ambient pressure and piston top shape on the impinging spray development were studied in the optical chamber, when the impinging distance is 26.1 mm, corresponding to about 60 CAD ATDC. In addition, the SMD and wall film thickness of the spray impinging on the piston top were studied by means of CFD technique. The results showed that the ambient pressure had the greater effect on the changes of the spray penetration and spray cone angle than the injection pressure.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1311
Zhilong Li, Jun Deng, Liguang Li, Ling Cao, Zhijun Wu
Many studies show that under diesel engine operating conditions, SCR reductant sprays will impinge on the wall of exhaust pipes. In order to understand this impinging process of SCR reductant spray, and to analyze what factors affect it, a test bench was set up by means of high speed video camera. At atmospheric pressure, SCR spray was injected on a heated metal wall, the impacts of wall temperature, injection pressure, injection height and angle on developing characteristics of SCR reductant spray after impinging on the heated wall have been researched and analyzed. The results show that the heated wall temperature has a great impact on the spray developing process, when wall temperature is lower than 405K, after water evaporated the crystallized urea will remain on the wall to block exhaust pipes. When wall temperature is higher, the atomization and evaporation of SCR reductant spray will be better, and the hydrolysis process of urea will be faster.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1587
Weidi Huang, Zhijun Wu, Huifeng Gong, Ya Gao, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
In this study, the orifice inlet rounding radii of four diesel nozzles with different hydro erosive grinding time were measured based on the x-ray CT scan technology provided by Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), and a wide parametrical study of the spray macroscopic behavior in the first 18 mm from the nozzle tip have been carried out with high speed camera. And then the influence of orifice inlet rounding radius on the spray behavior in the near-nozzle field was thoroughly investigated. The investigation results show that: the mean values of orifice inlet rounding radii of different nozzles are measured to be on the order of 21.5-56.8 μm. Although the spray tip penetrations of different nozzles tend to increase with the hydro erosive grinding time through statistical analyzing method, the variations of penetration from nozzles are less than 15% according to different hydro erosive grinding timing.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1202
Xiao Yu, Zhijun Wu, Cheng Wang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
A novel reciprocating engine version of oxy-fuel combustion cycle combined with water direct injection (known as internal combustion rankine cycle) is presented in this paper. Water is injected near top dead center to control the reaction rate of the oxy-fuel mixture, as well as the peak in-cylinder temperature. The evaporation of the water mist will increase the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, and enhances the thermo efficiency and MEP. Moreover, the injected water is heated up through heat exchangers by both engine coolant and exhaust gas, and the waste heat is effectively recovered this way. This study investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of ICRC under different engine loads based on a single-cylinder, air-cooled SI engine fueled with propane. An extra diesel injector is employed to inject water with high injection temperature (160°C).
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2698
Xiao Yu, Zhijun Wu, Lezhong Fu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
Internal combustion Rankine cycle (ICRC) engine uses oxygen instead of air as oxidant during the combustion process, therefore totally eliminates the emission of NOx. CO2 could be captured after separated from the exhaust gas, the latter are mainly water vapor and CO2, through condensation at a relatively low price, and thus an ultra-low emission working cycle is achieved. Moreover, water is heated up by exhaust gas and injected into the cylinder during the combustion process to control combustion temperature, and evaporation of the water mist would increase working fluid inside the cylinder, therefore enhance indicated thermal efficiency. This study investigates the combustion characteristics of a quasi ICRC on a single-cylinder SI engine fueled with propane. Gas mixture of O2/CO2 is employed to simulate EGR in order to control in-cylinder temperature.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1935
Liguang Li, Zongjie Hu, Shui Yu
Fuel films of several typical fuels were investigated by means of thermal gravity analysis (TGA). To make diesel homogeneous charge by means of film evaporation, it was concluded that to get 30%∼50% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 150°C and 180°C for diesel and 40°C∼60°C for gasoline, and to get 95% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 200°C and 250°C for diesel and 50°C∼100°C for gasoline, when the thickness of the fuel film is about 40 μ m. Based on the properties of fuels, the evaporation characteristics of diesel under 100°C should be improved.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0073
Jun Deng, Zhijun Wu, Wei Feng, Chengjie Huang, Liguang Li
A novel method is applied to analysis the autoignition phenomenon. Experiments on the study of autoignition characteristics of diesel fuel were carried out with a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustor. The results show that the method for autoignition studying of liquid fuel is of feasibility. Autoignition delay time and autoignition height from the nozzle increase with the coflow temperature decreasing and autoignition delay time changes sensitively under lower coflow temperature. Liftoff height of diesel spray flame decreases with the increasing of coflow temperature. Lower temperature causes higher variance of liftoff height. It might be speculated that there are two different mechanisms of flame stabilization that the lower lift-off heights flames are related to a balance between the flow velocity and flame speed while the higher lift-off heights flames are stabilized by the mixture autoignition.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1362
Zhiqiang Zhang, Fuquan Zhao, Liguang Li, Zhijun Wu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu
Abstract Based on high EGR rate, the low temperature combustion (LTC) has been studied widely, of which the application range is more extensive than the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). As the high EGR rate would influence the condition of intake charge, it would also affect the combustion process and the HC emissions, thus the combustion stability of LTC would be lower than tradition diesel combustion. In this study, an ion current detecting technology was employed to explore the ion current at different EGR rates. Meanwhile, the combustion parameters were also investigated, which included the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate. The CA50 and CAI50 were adopted as the phases of combustion and ion current, which respectively represented the crank angle of mid-point for the integrated heat release and integrated ion current. Then the correlation between CA50 and CAI50 was analysed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
Abstract An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2718
Shui Yu, Yunhai Zhang, Guangyu Dong, Liguang Li
Engine-off strategy are popular used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) for fuel saving. The engine of an HEV will start and stop frequently according to the road condition. In order to obtain excellent fuel economy and emissions performance, the fuel injection during engine quick start should be optimized. In this paper, the characteristic of mixture formation and the HC emissions at the first 5 cycles which contribute the most HCs were investigated. After the analysis of mixture preparation during start process, the HC emissions during engine quick start were optimized by means of cycle-by-cycle fuel injection control strategy. The fuel mixture concentration during start-up process fluctuates more dramatically under hot start condition. Typically, the mixture at 4th and 5th cycle is over-riched. Based on the original engine calibration, the fuel injection at the initial 5 cycles was optimized respectively.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2713
Guangyu Dong, Shui Yu, Liguang Li
In this paper a method of misfiring control in current cycle at engine start is presented. With this novel method, the high HC emissions of gasoline engine employed in traditional or hybrid electrical vehicles will be avoided. By the feedback of ion current signal, misfire phenomenon is identified within 30 degrees crank angle after spark plug ignited. Then, the ignition coil will be recharged and the plug sparked again to promote air fuel mixture oxidation and deplete the unburned hydrocarbon produces in exhaust gas. On the other hand, too late ignition will not always result in normal combustion, a kind of reaction similar with slow oxidation also occurs in such case.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0595
Qianwang Fan, Zongjie Hu, Jun Deng, Liguang Li, Yi You, Jingyan Hu
This paper presents the simulation of in-cylinder stratified mixture formation, spray motion, combustion and emissions in a four-stroke and four valves direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine with a pent-roof combustion chamber by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The Extended Coherent Flame Combustion Model (ECFM), implemented in the AVL-Fire codes, was employed. The key parameters of spray characteristics related to computing settings, such as skew angle, cone angle and flow per pulse width with experimental measurements were compared. The numerical analysis is mainly focused on how the tumble flow ratio and geometry of piston bowls affect the motion of charge/spray in-cylinder, the formation of stratified mixture and the combustion and emissions (NO and CO₂) for the wall-guided stratified-charge spark-ignition DISI engine.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2704
Yinbo Cao, Zhongye Xue, Qiqi Miao, Jun Deng, Liguang Li
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is admitted to be one of the most effective measures to improve the fuel economy for the spark ignition (SI) engines. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has advantages of low fuel consumption and ultra low NOx emissions. But the difficulty in the autoignition control and the narrow operation region inhibit the practical application of this technology. A hybrid combustion mode which combines SI mode and HCCI mode in separated working regions was regarded as a promising technology for HCCI engines. In addition, monitoring and providing feedback to the in-cylinder combustion characteristics is generally considered to be an effective method to improve and to optimize the combustion process. A lot of combustion information is included in the ion current generated by the in-cylinder combustion, and hence the ion current detection technique is considered to be a potential combustion feedback method.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2709
Xianjing Li, Liguang Li
Abstract Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have attracted interest as automotive power-plants because of their potential advantages in down-sizing, fuel efficiency and in emissions reduction. However, GDI engines suffer from elevated unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during start up process, which are sometimes worsened by misfires and partial burns. Moreover, as the engine is cranked to idle speed quickly in HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicle), the transients of quick starts are more dramatically than that in traditional vehicle, which challenge the optimization of combustion and emissions. In this study, test bench had been set up to investigate the GDI engine performances for ISG (Integrated Starter and Generator) HEVs during start up process. Based on the test system, cycle-controlled of the fuel injection mass, fuel injection timing and ignition timing can be obtained, as well as the cycle-resolved measurement of the HC concentrations and NO emissions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2600
Le-zhong Fu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Xiao Yu
Abstract The present work discusses a novel oxyfuel combustion method named internal combustion rankine cycle (ICRC) used in reciprocating engines. Water is heated up through heat exchanger by exhaust gas and engine cooling system, and then injected into the cylinder near top dead center to control the combustion temperature and in-cylinder pressure rise rate, meanwhile to enhance the thermo efficiency and work of the combustion cycle. That is because injected water increases the mass of the working fluid inside the cylinder, and can make use of the combustion heat more effectively. Waste heat carried away by engine coolant and exhaust gas can be recovered and utilized in this way. This study investigates the effect of water injection temperature on the combustion and emission characteristics of an ICRC engine based on self-designed test bench. The results indicate that both indicated work and thermal efficiency increase significantly due to water injection process.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1414
Weidi Huang, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Zongjie Hu, Ya Gao, Jun Deng
Abstract In this study, in order to form a wide range of ambient gas density, Nitrogen and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are employed as ambient gas. Based on the common rail and high speed imaging system, the spray characteristics in extremely high ambient density and different ambient temperature are investigated in a constant volume vessel, and the influences of gas physical property on the spray characteristics have also been analyzed. The investigation results show that: the spray tip penetration and spray cone angle vary phenomenally with the increase of the ambient gas density. Due to the generation of shock wave, the results of the spray characteristics from two ambient gas densities are different nevertheless the same densities. Furthermore, the spray tip penetrations from the different ambient gases do not vary obviously from each other until the detachment of the shock wave from the spray tip.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1445
Haifeng Lu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li
Accurate control of both the timing and quantity of injection events is critical for engine performance and emissions. The most serious problem which reduces the accuracy of the control operation in such systems is a time delay of the responsiveness for the opening and closing operation of the electromagnetic valve. Modern electronic control systems should be capable of driving high speed solenoid injectors at a very fast switch frequency with high efficiency and acceptable power requirements. In this paper, the dynamic characteristic of a high speed servo-hydraulic solenoid injector for diesel engine, with different driving circuits and control methods, is investigated. A pre-energizing control strategy based on a dual power supply is applied to speed up the opening response time of the injectors.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2874
Sunyu Tong, Xianjing Li, Shuai Liu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Gong Li, Liguang Li
Abstract Reducing the pumping loss, and thus, the fuel consumption of gasoline engine at part load, a two-stage intake valve lift system was implanted into a PFI engine. A corresponding engine model was set up with GT-power as well, which can simulate the effect of two-stage intake valve lift and different EGR rates on fuel economy performance and on combustion condition of a gasoline engine. Based on simulation results, the valve lift control strategy and EGR control strategy was studied in this paper. Results showed that at low engine speed, when SMALL LIFT was used, the tumble flow and the combustion process in cylinder was improved and burn time duration became shorter, resulting in higher indicated efficiency and lower fuel consumption than by LARGE LIFT. With the introduction of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lower fuel consumption was acquired.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1067
Xian Shi, Jun Deng, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li
Urea-SCR system is one of the after-treatment methods for diesel engines, which could effectively reduce the NOX emissions and enable diesel engines to meet increasingly stringent emission legislations. Within the urea-SCR system, characteristics of urea-solution spray, especially the distribution uniformity of spray droplets as well as gaseous NH₃ within the exhaust pipe, play an important role in the efficiency of catalytic reduction. In this paper, an SCR spray visualization test bench was set up. Urea-solution from a non-air-assist injector is injected into the steady stream of simulated exhaust gas flow. The transient characteristics of spray are recorded by high-speed photography. Specific spray characteristics in the original photographs, i.e., mixing distance and degree of uniformity are extracted. The influence of injection pressure and injection angle on spray characteristics are tested in different sets of experiments.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2512
Yulin Chen, Liguang Li, Qiqi Miao, Yinbo Cao, Yintong Liu, Zhenyuan Liu, Jun Deng
Ion current sensing, which usually employs a spark plug as its sensor to obtain feedback signal from different types of combustion in SI engines, may be applied to HCCI combustion sensing instead of a prohibitively expensive piezoelectric pressure transducer. However, studies showed that the ion current detected by a spark plug sensor is a localized signal within the vicinity of the sensor's electrode gap, being affected by conditions around it. To find out better and feasible ion probe positions, a 3D-CFD model with a detailed surrogate mechanism containing 1423 species and 6106 reactions was employed to study the effect of stratification on ion distribution in HCCI combustion. The simulation results indicate that the monitor probe 1, 8 and 9 are more stable and reliable than the others. IONmax and dIONmax are more accurate to estimate CA50 and dQmax respectively.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1617
Huifeng Gong, Xing Wang, Zhilong Li, Weidi Huang, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
A specially designed generator has been developed to produce poly-disperse droplet streams: A liquid fuel (n-heptane) is metered to an ultrasonic atomizer to produce droplets, which are then carried and accelerated vertically upwards through a nozzle tube by carrier-air flow. Conditions of the streams at the nozzle exit are modulated by varying the length of nozzle tubes, the fuel and carrier-air flow rate. Optical measurement techniques such as direct photography method, schlieren photography and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are employed to characterize its performance characteristics. Effects of the nozzle tube length, the carrier-air and fuel flow rate are investigated to evaluate the performance of the generator. Longer nozzle tubes provide a better flow guidance for the carrier-air, and tend to generate streams with less and smaller droplets due to the transporting losses.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1611
Ya Gao, Weidi Huang, Yuan Gao, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li
Spray behavior is regarded as one of main factors which influence engine performance, fuel consumption and emissions for diesel engine. In practice, spray characteristics from each orifice from a multi-hole nozzle are normally arranged symmetrically, while the hole-to-hole spray variation is unavoidable. This variation will cause spatial uneven distribution of spray and combustion degrade, which will be no longer inconsiderable in face of the more and more stringent emission rules. In this paper, two methods including spray macro-characteristics experiment and separated fuel mass measurement are employed to test the hole-to-hole spray variation of two six-hole symmetric VCO injectors of different brands, and experiments are operated under different conditions including different injection pressures, back pressures and injection durations.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2609
Yu Lin, Liguang Li, Yan Cheng
The weight of an exhaust system on a modern vehicle is increasing because of all kinds of reasons, like engine power's increasing, more catalysts for emission control and more NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance requirements. After the engine starting, the exhaust system was not only bearing a cyclical load from the engine, which mainly causing the vibration of the exhaust system, but also the loads from the road, which was transferred through the wheels, the suspension system and the body. Because the exhaust system always worked in these bad conditions, its structural strength, durability and life-time were analyzed in the paper, by numerical simulation and physical correlation. By discretizing the exhaust system's CAD model, a finite element model was built. After restrict the finite element model as it in a real load condition, complete the structure stress analysis and Fatigue analysis of exhaust system's hanger with FEA analysis tools.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2214
Xianjing Li, Liguang Li, Yongzheng Sun, Zongjie Hu, Jun Deng
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) provide significantly improvement in fuel economy over conventional vehicles as well as reductions in greenhouse gas and petroleum. Numerous recent reports regarding control strategy, power train configuration, driving pattern, all electric range (AER) and their effects on fuel consumption and electric energy consumption of PHEVs are reported. Meanwhile, the control strategy for engine start-stop and mileage between recharging events from the electricity grid also has an important influence on the petroleum displacement potential of PHEVs, but few reports are published. In this paper, a detailed simulation model is set up for a plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle (PSHEV) employing the AVL CRUISE. The model was employed to predict the AER of the baseline PSHEV using rule-based logical threshold switching control strategy.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2268
Jun Deng, Chunwang Li, Zongjie Hu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li
Biodiesel has been paid more and more attention as a renewable fuel due to some excellent properties such as renewable, high cetane number, ultralow sulfur content, no aromatic hydrocarbon, high flash point, low CO2 emission when compared with diesel. While others physical properties like high viscosity, high surface tension, big density and bad volatility would spoil the spray characteristics of biodiesel fuel, which will affect the thermal efficiency when running in diesel engine. Accompanied with constant volume vessel and high speed video camera system, a high pressure common rail system, which could provide an injection pressure of 180 MPa, is used to investigate the characteristics of jatropha curcas biodiesel, palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuel. The effects of injection pressures and ambient densities on spray characteristics of these fuels are studied.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2195
Yongzheng Sun, Xianjing Li, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li, Anzhi Yang, Wenkai Sun
In this paper, based on the plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle development project, the vehicle technology solutions and the match of power system parameters were analyzed. The vehicle control strategies were identified and optimized according to plug-in hybrid vehicle features. The plug-in series hybrid, rule-based logic threshold switching control strategy, charge depleting (CD) mode and charge-sustaining (CS) mode are chosen according to the key factors, such as the environment, performance requirements, technical requirements and cost. And then the structure and model of vehicle control strategy were established to carry out vehicle energy management and power system control. The parameter selection, electric drive system matching, energy storage system design based on the requirement of vehicle performance, system architecture and control strategy are presented.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2799
Xusheng Zhang, Liguang Li, Zhijun Wu, Zongjie Hu, Ying Zhou
The effects of biodiesel on the swelling of the elastomers and plastics and the corrosion of metals are studied by the immersion tests. The results indicate that biodiesels make little corrosion effect on aluminum, steel and little swelling impact on plastics, but a significant corrosion may be taken place on cooper and brass for some sourced biodiesels. For nitrile-butadiene rubber, the variation of swelling properties in biodiesels is slightly higher than that in diesel. For the non-diesel-resistant elatomers, the variation of swelling properties is lower than those in diesel. The production process and biodiesel source have an influence on the result of elastomer swelling and corrosion. The relationship between the impact of biodiesel on materials and biodiesels properties are also discussed.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0544
Yintong Liu, Xian Shi, Jun Deng, Yulin Chen, Minzhang Hu, Liguang Li
Gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) can achieve high efficiency and extremely low NOX emissions. However, the working condition range of HCCI is limited by knock occurring during engine operation. To achieve an expanded HCCI working condition range, it is necessary to explore a method predicting knock cases accurately to avoid knock occurring. Based on a DI-HCCI engine with ethanol/gasoline mixed fuel, the knock cases under different conditions have been investigated. In-cylinder pressure signals are used to identify the knock cases and the knock oscillations are extracted with fast Fourier transform (FFT). The effects of the ethanol proportion in the fuel and air/fuel ratio on the characteristics of knock have been studied. The results have shown that the knock parameters, such as maximum frequency, start point angle and the duration, have close relationship with the knock intensity.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1068
Qianwang Fan, Liguang Li
To improve the cold start performance and to reduce the misfire occurrence at cold start, the start-up strategy of total stoichiometric ratio combined with local rich mixture was applied in the study. The effect of injection strategy (the 1st injection timing, 2nd injection timing, 1st and 2nd fuel injection proportion and ignition timing) on the cold start HC emissions in the initial 10 cycles were investigated in a Two stage direct injection (TSDI) gasoline engine. The transient HC and NO emissions in the initial 10 cycles were analyzed, when the fuels are injected in the only 1st cycle and in the followed all cycles. The transient misfiring HC emissions were compared between the single and two-stage injection modes. In addition, the unburned HC (UBHC) emissions in the 1st cycle are compared among the TSDI engine, Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, Port fuel injection (PFI) engine and Liquefied petroleum gaseous (LPG) engine at the stoichiometric ratio.
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