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Viewing 1 to 23 of 23
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1580
Mauro Velardocchia, Aldo Sorniotti
The paper shortly describes an ABS/ESP Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) test bench built by the Vehicle Dynamics Team of the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino. It consists of a whole brake system, integrated through specific interface (e.g. wheel pressures signals) with a vehicle model running in real time on a dSPACE® board. Different commercial ABS strategies are compared, in a large spectrum of manoeuvres: slow brake apply manoeuvres, panic brake manoeuvres, μ-split brake manoeuvres, brake manoeuvres with a sudden variation of the friction coefficient between tyres and ground. The paper deals with the generation of all the signals required for activating a commercial ESP: steering wheel angle, body yaw rate, body lateral acceleration, engine control, etc… Some of them are transmitted by CAN. Typical handling manoeuvres are used to test the ESP: step steer, double step steer, ramp steer, etc… Several brake manoeuvres are simulated while turning.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0895
Elvio Bonisoli, Mauro Velardocchia, Sandro Moos, Stefano Tornincasa, Enrico Galvagno
The paper discusses a gearbox design method based on an optimization algorithm coupled to a fully integrated tool to draw 3D virtual models, in order to verify both functionality and design. The aim of this activity is to explain how the state of the art of the gear design may be implemented through an optimization software for the geometrical parameters selection of helical gears of a manual transmission, starting from torque and speed time histories, the required set of gear ratios and the material properties. This approach can be useful in order to use either the experimental acquisitions or the simulation results to verify or design all of the single gear pairs that compose a gearbox. Genetic algorithm methods are applied to solve the optimization problems of gears design, due to their capabilities of managing objective functions discontinuous, non-differentiable, stochastic, or highly non-linear.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1281
Mauro Velardocchia
The paper deals with the Hardware-In-the-Loop based methodology which was adopted to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of Electronic Stability Program (ESP) and Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) components. Firstly, it permits the identification of the time delays due to the hardware of the actuation system. Secondly, the link between the hardware of the hydraulic unit and a vehicle model running in real time permits the objective evaluation of the performance induced by the single components of different hydraulic units in terms of vehicle dynamics. The paper suggests the main parameters and tests which can help the car manufacturer in evaluating ESP hydraulic units, without expensive road tests.
2003-10-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-3335
Andrea Fortina, Mauro Velardocchia, Aldo Sorniotti
The paper deals with a method implemented to study braking systems design, modelling components' characteristics through commercial software. It summarizes the potential improvement possible by using modelling techniques in chassis systems design. The first part consisted in producing a passive braking system model. A first validation was carried out on a test bench by using components of different braking systems. Particular attention was devoted to booster modelization both in semi-stationary and dynamic conditions. The second part was callipers, roll-back and thermal phenomena modelization. Finally, it were modelled Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) Hydraulic Units and their integration with control strategies and with vehicle dynamics model.
2003-10-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-3336
Luigi Petruccelli, Mauro Velardocchia, Aldo Sorniotti
The first step toward a braking system ‘by wire’ is Electro-Hydraulic Braking System (EHB). The paper describes a method to evaluate through virtual experimentation the actual improvement in vehicle behaviour, from the point of view of both handling and comfort, including also pedal feeling, due to EHB. The first step consisted in modelling the hydraulic unit, comprehensive of sensors. Then it was conceived a control logic devoted to medium-low intensity braking manoeuvres, without ABS intervention, to determine an optimal braking force distribution and pedal feeling depending on the manoeuvre. A failsafe strategy, complete of on board diagnosis, to prevent dangerous system behaviour in the eventuality of a component failure was carried out and tested. Finally, EHB wheel pressure sensors were used to improve both ABS performance, increasing the adherence estimation, and Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) performance, through a more precise actuation.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1268
Andrea Morgando, Mauro Velardocchia, Davide Danesin, Edoardo Rossi
A four wheel steer control logic is described. A first control logic release, obtained during previous research activity, is based only on feed forward (F.F.) but is here upgraded merging closed loop control (C.L.). Integration between F.F. and C.L. is described. Rear steering electromechanical actuator frequency response is analyzed, in order to consider its not ideal behaviour during control logic design. Several simulation are performed to qualitatively evaluate the error committed considering an ideal actuator during the control logic design. Specific manoeuvres are chosen to investigate about active system influence on vehicle handling; a 14 degrees of freedom vehicle model is validated in order to compare simulation results with experimental data.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1267
Andrea Morgando, Mauro Velardocchia, Davide Danesin, Edoardo Rossi
Through a single track model, correspondence between typical frequency analysis coefficients and test driver's opinion developed after experimental tests has been stated. Benchmark analysis of several vehicles, considered significant, has been carried out as well as a sensitivity analysis of vehicle behavior depending on passive design parameters, such as vehicle sideslip stiffness and tyre relaxation length. It led to the definition of the different transfer function capable of describing passive vehicle linear behavior; vehicle performance limits, due to unbridgeable physical phenomenon, has been also considered. 4WS vehicle chance to overcome these limits has been investigated, depending on rear steering control logic complexity. Vehicle frequency response has been then analyzed for different longitudinal velocity, introducing thus the concept of “natural vehicle”. The design of a four wheel steer system control logic, based only on feed forward, is described.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0401
Nicolò D'Alfio, Andrea Morgando, Aldo Sorniotti, Mauro Velardocchia
Chassis Control Systems development methodology is nowadays strongly based on analyzing performance by using PC vehicle dynamics simulation. Generally, the overall design, test bench and road validation process is continuously accompanied by simulation. The Base Model Simulator was developed by the Vehicle Dynamics Group at the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino both to satisfy this requirement and for educational purposes. It considers a complete vehicle dynamics mathematical model, including driver, powertrain, driveline, vehicle body, suspensions, steering system, brakes, tires. The Base Model Simulator takes in account the suspensions system elastokinematics, including, for example, automatic computation of camber variation during the vehicle roll motions. Tire model considered are either Pacejka's models or experimental data.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0860
Davide Danesin, Christian Girardin, Aldo Sorniotti, Andrea Morgando, Mauro Velardocchia
The paper presents the research activity managed to investigate the dynamics of a 4WD vehicle equipped considering drivelines with different layout. The procedure developed required to conceive an on purpose simulator to compare performance through virtual experimentation. Drivelines mechanical main characteristics and performance increasing due to control strategy were evaluated. Preliminary road test were performed with a single driveline layout, to evaluate simulation reliability and limits. The paper presents the 4WD vehicle simulator, the main equations applied to model open, torque sensing and limited slip differentials, some preliminary road test results showing torque sensing driveline performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0190
Mauro Velardocchia, Aldo Sorniotti
The paper presents a failsafe strategy conceived for a Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) system developed by the Vehicle Dynamics Research Team of Politecnico di Torino. The main equations used by the failsafe algorithm are presented, especially those devoted to estimate steering wheel angle, body yaw rate and lateral acceleration, each of them fundamental to correctly actuate the VDC. The estimation is based on redundancy; each formula is considered according to a weight depending on the kind of maneuver. A new recovery algorithm is presented, which does not deactivate VDC after a sensor fault, but substitutes the sensor signal with the virtually estimated value. The results obtained through simulation are satisfactory. First experimental tests carried out on a ABS/VDC test bench of the Vehicle Dynamics Research Team of Politecnico di Torino confirmed the simulation results.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0498
Andrea Morgando, Mauro Velardocchia
Steer by wire (SbW) system is examined, considering the positive effects of the lack of direct mechanical connection between steering wheel and rack. SbW system's steering wheel has to generate a resistant torque which adds to the friction one. Such torque must be felt as natural by the average driver and carry information about vehicle dynamic condition. System prototype is obtained from a classical steering system. Steering wheel is linked to a brushless 12V DC current electric motor designed to develop resistance torque, after steering column is removed, triple stadium planetary gear is necessary to increase the torque output. A hardware in the loop test bench is realized in order to test feedback torque generation and steering wheel efficiency influence on vehicle behaviour. Steering wheel is fixed to the bench and its rotation acquired by an optic encoder. Steering wheel angle is used as input for a ten degrees of freedom vehicle model through an acquisition data board.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0631
Mauro Velardocchia, Nicolò D'Alfio, Elvio Bonisoli, Enrico Galvagno, Fabrizio Amisano, Aldo Sorniotti
Vehicles equipped with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) for gear shift control show many advantages in terms of reduction of fuel consumption and improvement of driving comfort and shifting quality. In order to increase both performance and efficiency, an important target is focused on the minimization of the typical torque interruption during the gear shift, especially in front of the conventional automatic transmission. Recently, AMT are proposed to be connected with planetary gears and friction brakes, in order to reduce the torque gap during the gear change process. This paper is focused on a block-oriented simulation methodology developed in Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow® environment, able to simulate the performance of a complete FWD powertrain and in particular to predict dynamic performance and overall efficiency of the AMT with innovative Torque Gap Filler devices (TGF).
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0595
Aldo Sorniotti, Mauro Velardocchia
The aim of this paper is the conception of a tire model which allows a good fit with the physical experimental behavior of the component. In the meanwhile, the model should be simple enough to permit real time vehicle dynamics simulation, in the same way as the diffused Pacejka's model. The paper discusses the influence of the model for the estimation of contact patch properties on the overall tire forces and moments. It demonstrates that unrealistic models of the contact patch can lead to a good fit with the experimental data (in terms of forces and self-aligning moment), even if the real physics of the tire is not reproduced. A realistic model implies a significant reduction of the stiffness of the brushes as a function of the vertical load between the tire and the road surface.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0138
Aldo Sorniotti, Enrico Sampo', Mauro Velardocchia, Elvio Bonisoli, Enrico Galvagno
This paper presents an experimental methodology which can be adopted to measure the friction torque of the bearings in the wheel hubs of passenger vehicles. The first section of the paper highlights the reasons why an experimental device is necessary to have an objective evaluation of the performance of the bearing in terms of friction. In particular, the high level of approximation of the current formulas for the estimation of the friction inside a single bearing is discussed and demonstrated. An analytical methodology for the evaluation of the distribution of the axial load between the two bearings of the wheel hub is presented. However, its practical application for the precise calculation of the distribution of the load has to be checked through experimental tests.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1020
Aldo Sorniotti, Mauro Velardocchia
The paper describes the aims, the basic principles and the internal layout of Dual Rate boosters. It presents two models of Dual Rate boosters capable of reproducing their behavior in semi-stationary and dynamic conditions. The models can be adopted to evaluate the effect of the main parameters on the performance of the entire component. A sensitivity analysis is presented. Some comparisons between the performance of Dual Rate and Emergency Valve Assistance (EVA) boosters are dealt with, on the basis of experimental tests.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0443
Mauro Velardocchia, Enzo Rondinelli, Stefano Tornincasa, Elvio Bonisoli
The superior mobility of a military vehicle provides the combat crew with a tactical advantage through increased cross country speed. The suspension system plays a fundamental role in evaluating a vehicle mobility. A mathematical model that allows realistic simulations of vehicles operating in a wide spectrum of environmental conditions may help to lower costs and time required during their development. The paper concerns with vehicle-terrain interaction modeling, for a military tracked tank, through multi-body and block-oriented approaches. It is focused on the consequences that the suspension system has got on the comfort and on the performance. Thus through a multi-body software a realistic three dimensional model of a tracked fighting vehicle is developed. This virtual model confirms some experimental data available on its longitudinal dynamics. In order to simplify the multi-body simulations, a block-oriented approach is adopted to develop a model of the same vehicle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1061
Mauro Velardocchia, Andrea Morgando, Aldo Sorniotti
The paper presents a 4-wheel-steering (4WS) control strategy devoted to reduce the turn diameter for small longitudinal speed values and to obtain a yaw rate damping effect in dynamic manoeuvres. Moreover, the 4WS active system conceived produces compensation both for lateral wind and road irregularities. The main results obtained through a functional vehicle model are presented. 4WS was integrated with a Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC), which was improved for turn while braking manoeuvres. The results due to integration were very good, with a reduction of both systems interventions. Finally, a VDC-4WS-Active Roll Control (ARC) integration was tried, based on only one reference body yaw rate for all the active systems. The main results obtained are presented and discussed.
2011-06-09
Technical Paper
2011-37-0028
Ozan Avarisli, Enrico Galvagno, Mauro Velardocchia
A prototype vehicle (PV) is equipped to test powertrain and active chassis systems with innovative control strategies for safety and energy saving. Additional sensors installed on-board allow the measurement and estimation of new information useful to the vehicle dynamic control. The PV was based on a serial production passenger car with Electronic Stability Control (ESC). Testing activities on Controller Area Network (CAN) and ESC Electronic Control Unit (ECU) are carried out to compare the vehicle dynamic performance obtainable using serial production rather than customized control strategies, while maintaining the same hardware. The PV is also utilized to provide reverse engineering analysis about the implemented control strategy for the ESC working in serial production mode.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1121
Enrico Galvagno, Mauro Velardocchia, Alessandro Vigliani, Antonio Tota
Abstract This paper investigates the torsional dynamic behaviour of a Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) both numerically and experimentally. First, the experimental setup is described, followed by a mathematical description in the frequency domain of the mechanical system under test, using a lumped parameter model. An analytical expression for the frequency response function describing the rotational dynamics is derived and compared with experimental data. Sine sweep tests are used to characterise the system, imposing constant amplitude excitation, i.e. the torque applied to the engine side of the DMF. Moreover a method for enhancing the dynamic performance of the electric motor torque control is suggested in order to use it as a torsional shaker.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2496
Enrico Galvagno, Antonio Tota, Alessandro Vigliani, Mauro Velardocchia
Abstract Brake systems represent important components for passenger cars since they are strictly related to vehicle safety: Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are the most well-known examples. The paper is focused on the characterization of the braking hydraulic plant and on the design of a pressure following control strategy. This strategy is aimed at pursuing performances and/or comfort objectives beyond the typical safety task. The low-level logic (focus of the paper) consists of a Feedforward and Proportional Integral controller. A Hardware In the Loop (HIL) braking test bench is adopted for pressure controller validation by providing some realistic reference pressure histories evaluated by a high-level controller. Results prove that innovative control strategies can be applied to conventional braking systems for achieving targets not limited to braking issues, i.e., comfort or NVH tasks.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0877
Fabrizio Amisano, Gabriele Serra, Mauro Velardocchia
To optimize a shift transient during clutch engagement (third phase of a gearshift) it is fundamental to define the engine velocity reference and the more appropriate instant at which to begin the clutch engagement itself. An analytical procedure to calculate the engine velocity reference value during the third phase of a gearshift and the moment when to begin the clutch engagement is presented. Simulation results obtained considering upshift and downshift with engine torque either applied or not are presented. The analytical solution presented permits to tune the third phase of the gearshift in an easier way than previous strategy based on look-up tables.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0962
Davide Danesin, Philippe Krief, Aldo Sorniotti, Mauro Velardocchia
The paper deals with the elaboration of an Active Roll Control (ARC) oriented both on comfort and handling improvement. The ARC determines hydraulically the variation of the equivalent stiffness of the anti-roll bars. The control strategies conceived were extensively validated through road tests managed on an Alfa Romeo sedan. The first part of the paper deals with comfort improvement, mainly consisting in an absence of bar effect during straight-ahead travel and in a modification of the roll characteristic of the car. To increase driver's handling feeling, it was necessary to optimise the ratio between front and rear roll stiffness. This purpose can be reached through control strategies based exclusively on lateral acceleration. Some control strategy corrections were necessary to optimise roll damping and front/rear roll stiffness balancing.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-0815
Eugenio Brusa, Mauro Velardocchia, Davide Danesin, Philippe Krief, Enrico Suraci
Product development in automotive industry is still deeply based on experimentation: test benches and road test facilities are used both for components testing and models validation. Nevertheless a growing role is played by numerical simulation and nowdays by virtual experimentation. The latter is required by the increasing complexity of the systems and cost saving. Moreover new products involve a higher level of integration between mechanics, electronics and computer science, which makes difficult a rapid and low cost prototyping. The design of the vehicle is currently applied to the overall system instead of assembling subsystems separately developed and tested. This approach requires that the same level of integration is achieved on numerical codes and simulators, to be able to operate hardware and software for virtual experimentation in mechatronic systems. This paper briefly describes the experience done since few years, by Fiat Auto and Politecnico di Torino (Dept.
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