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2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0373
Andreas Schmid, Michael Grill, Hans-Juergen Berner, Michael Bargende
Turbocharged SI-DI-engines in combination with a reduction of engine displacement (“Downsizing”) offer the possibility to remarkably reduce the overall fuel consumption. In charged mode it is possible to scavenge fresh unburnt air into the exhaust system if a positive slope during the overlap phase of the gas exchange occurs. The matching of the turbo system in SI-engines always causes a trade-off between low-end torque and high power output. The higher mass flow at low engine speeds of an engine using scavenging allows a partial solution of this trade-off. Thus, higher downsizing grades and fuel consumption reduction potential can be obtained. Through scavenging the global fuel to air ratio deviates from the local in-cylinder fuel to air ratio. It is possible to use a rich in-cylinder fuel to air ratio, whereas the global fuel to air ratio remains stochiometrical.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0047
Johannes Haag, Florian Kock, Marco Chiodi, Oliver Mack, Michael Bargende, Clemens Naumann, Nadezhda Slavinskaya, Alex Heron, Uwe Riedel, Cornelius Ferrari
In this paper the development approach and the results of numerical and experimental investigations on homogeneous charge compression ignition in a free piston engine are presented. The Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG) is a new type of internal combustion engine designed for the application in a hybrid electric vehicle. The highly integrated system consists of a two-stroke combustion unit, a linear generator, and a mass-variable gas spring. These three subsystems are arranged longitudinally in a double piston configuration. The system oscillates linearly between the combustion chamber and the gas spring, while electrical energy is extracted by the centrally arranged linear generator. The mass-variable gas spring is used as intermediate energy storage between the downstroke and upstroke. Due to this arrangement piston stroke and compression ratio are no longer determined by a mechanical system.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1220
Daniel Goerke, Michael Bargende, Uwe Keller, Norbert Ruzicka, Stefan Schmiedler
Abstract In this paper a rule-based energy management for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is presented, which is based on the principles describing the optimal control behavior. Therefore we first show the general relations that can be used to describe the optimal limit of electric driving as well as the optimal torque split among the two propulsion systems. Subsequently these relations are employed to derive maps, which represent the optimal behavior depending on several input parameters. These maps are then used as inputs for the rules in the proposed energy management. This not only makes it possible to automatically calibrate the rule-based controller but also gives the optimal control in every driving situation. Given it is not fuel-efficient to turn the internal combustion engine (ICE) on or off for short intervals, it is further shown how this approach allows to adjust the established limit for electric driving by additional rules.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0385
Fabian Köpple, Paul Jochmann, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
Abstract The emission of particulate matter from future GDI engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. The understanding of the in-cylinder processes, necessary for this purpose, can only be achieved by a complementary use of optically accessible single-cylinder engines as well as the numerical simulation. This however leads to great demands on the 3D flow simulation. In this paper the complete CFD approach, incorporating a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain is shown. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus also the particulate emissions.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1270
David Lejsek, Andre Kulzer, Günter Hohenberg, Michael Bargende
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0820
Daniel Boland, Hans-Juergen Berner, Michael Bargende
The hybrid power train technology offers various prospects to optimize the engine efficiency in order to minimize the CO₂ emissions of an internal-combustion-engine-powered vehicle. Today different types of hybrid architectures like parallel, serial, power split or through-the-road concepts are commonly known. To achieve lowest fuel consumption the following hybrid electric vehicle drive modes can be used: Start/Stop, pure electric/thermal driving, recuperation of brake energy and the hybrid mode. The high complexity of the interaction between those power sources requires an extensive investigation to determine the optimal configuration of a natural-gas-powered SI engine within a parallel hybrid power train. Therefore, a turbocharged 1.0-liter 3-cylinder CNG engine was analyzed on the test bench. Using an optimized combustion strategy, the engine was operated at stoichiometric and lean air/fuel ratio applying both high- and low-pressure EGR.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2659
Andreas Schmid, Michael Grill, Hans-Jürgen Berner, Michael Bargende, Sascha Rossa, Michael Böttcher
The simulation of the combustion process is an essential part of the internal combustion engine development. For simulating whole engine maps quasi-dimensional models in combination with 1-D-flow simulations are widely used. This procedure is beneficial due to short computation times and accurate forecast capability of quasi-dimensional combustion models. For the simulation of homogeneous SI-engines the two-zone entrainment model is usually used, which is based on hemispherical flame propagation. In this work a new approach for the quasi-dimensional calculation of the stratified SI-engine combustion process is proposed, which is based on the two-zone entrainment model. This proven approach was extended with regard to the inhomogeneous air/fuel composition of stratified SI-engines that make a two-zone treatment not sufficient. Therefore, four unburnt zones are defined: a rich zone, a stoichiometrical zone, a lean zone and a remaining air zone.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1447
Fabian Köpple, Dimitri Seboldt, Paul Jochmann, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
In order to comply with more and more stringent emission standards, like EU6 which will be mandatory starting in September 2014, GDI engines have to be further optimized particularly in regard of PN emissions. It is generally accepted that the deposition of liquid fuel wall films in the combustion chamber is a significant source of particulate formation in GDI engines. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction [1]. In order to quantify this temperature drop at combustion chamber surfaces, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single-cylinder engine were conducted. Therefore, eight fast-response thermocouples were embedded 0.3 μm beneath the piston surface and the signals were transmitted from the moving piston to the data acquisition system via telemetry.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0149
Marco Chiodi, Antonella Perrone, Paolo Roberti, Michael Bargende, Alessandro Ferrari, Donatus Wichelhaus
In the last years motorsport is facing a technical revolution concerning the engine technology in every category, from touring car championships up to the F1. The strategy of the car manufacturers to bring motorsport engine technology closer to mass production one (e.g. turbo-charging, downsizing and direct injection) allows both to reduce development costs and to create a better image and technology transfer by linking motorsport activities to the daily business. Under these requirements the so-called Global Race Engine (GRE) concept has been introduced, giving the possibility to use one unique engine platform concept as basis for different engine specifications and racing categories. In order to optimize the performance of this kind of engines, especially due to the highly complex mixture formation mechanisms related to the direct injection, it is nowadays mandatory to resort to reliable 3D-CFD simulations.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1089
Fabian Köpple, Paul Jochmann, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
Due to the EU6 emission standard that will be mandatory starting in September 2014 the particulate emissions of GDI engines come into the focus of development. For this reason, soot and the mechanisms responsible for the soot formation are of particular importance. A very significant source of particulate emissions from engines with gasoline direct injection is the wall film formation. Therefore, the analysis of soot emission sources in the CFD calculation requires a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain, with special emphasis on the spray-wall interaction and the wall film dynamics. The validation of the mentioned spray-wall interaction and wall film models is performed using basic experimental investigations, like the infrared-thermography and fluorescence based measurements conducted at the University of Magdeburg.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1315
Markus Wenig, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
For a reliable and accurate simulation of SI engines reproduction of their operation limits (misfiring and knock limit) and in this context the knowledge of cyclic combustion variations and their influence on knock simulation are mandatory. For this purpose in this paper a real working-process simulation approach for the ability to predict cycle-to-cycle variations (ccv) of gasoline engines is proposed. An extensive measurement data base of four different test engines applying various operation strategies was provided in order to gain a better understanding of the physical background of the cyclic variations. So the ccv initiated by dilution strategies (internal EGR, lean operation), the ccv at full load and at the knock limit could be investigated in detail. Finally, the model was validated on the basis of three further engines which were not part of the actual development process.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0673
Moritz Heinle, Michael Bargende, Hans-Juergen Berner
More than 20 years after the first presentation of the heat transfer equation according to Bargende [1,2], it is time to introduce some useful additions and enhancements, with respect to new and advanced combustion principles like diesel- and gasoline- homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). In the existing heat transfer equation according to Bargende the calculation of the actual combustion chamber surface area is formulated in accordance with the work of Hohenberg. Hohenberg found experimentally that in the piston top land only about 20-30% of the wall heat flux values from the combustion chamber are transferred to the liner and piston wall. Hohenberg explained this phenomenon that is caused by lower gas temperature and convection level in charge within the piston top land volume. The formulation just adds the existing piston top land surface area multiplied by a specified factor to the surface of the combustion chamber.
2006-09-14
Technical Paper
2006-01-3000
Marco Chiodi, Hans-Jürgen Berner, Michael Bargende
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. To demonstrate the potential of natural gas direct injection, especially in combination with supercharging, some experimental investigations were carried out using a single-cylinder engine unit with lateral injector position. For this purpose different injection valve nozzles, piston crown geometries as well as operating strategies were investigated. First experimental results show that it is also possible to better support the combustion process by providing a late injection of a part of the fuel, near ignition point, so that the additional induced turbulence can speed up the flame propagation 1 Mixture formation with gaseous fuels due to its low mass density is more critical than in gasoline engines, because even high injection velocities still produce very low fuel penetration.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3004
Marco Chiodi, Hans-Jürgen Berner, Michael Bargende
The research institute FKFS in cooperation with the IVK Universität Stuttgart has recently presented QuickSim, a 3D-CFD-tool, that works integrated into the commercial 3D-CFD-code Star-CD. QuickSim has been developed to cover a vacancy in the market of simulation programs for engine development. The code introduces a new concept in the 3D-CFD-simulation of internal combustion engines (SI-Manifold-Injection and SI-GDI), that drastically reduces the CPU-time in comparison to a conventional 3D-CFD-simulation. QuickSim, as a 3D-CFD-tool, combines the advantages of local resolution of the fluid-dynamical field of internal combustion engines exactly like that provided by traditional 3D-CFD-simulations and the versatility and clearness of the real working-process analysis (WP) and of the full 1D-flow calculations. The CPU-time always remains in an acceptable range (few hours over a full operating cycle for a single-processor computing simulation).
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3053
Uwe Koehler, Michael Bargende
The presented results are part of a research project to create a universal residual gas fraction model. It is supported by the „Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungs-kraftmaschinen e.V. (FVV)”. In the research project an universal formula has been developed which allows the determination of the residual gas fraction in allkind of IC engines. The formula is valid for naturally aspirated engine, turbo and super charged, variable valve timing and fully variable valve trains, as well. The formula (constant approach) developed during the project is based on variables like time averaged intake and exhaust pressure, exhaust temperature and geometric engine data which were measured on the test bench. As a result, online and real time calculation is possible already while the engine is running. This implies that the formula can be used within the engine control unit for control purposes.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0016
Simon Haas, Michael Bargende, Hans-Jürgen Berner
Because of its outstanding efficiency, the direct-injection diesel engine is the preferred drive source in many fields. However, its emission behavior, especially with regard to particulate and nitrogen-oxide emissions, is problematic. A promising approach to reducing emissions inside the engine is presented by various (partially) homogeneous diesel combustion processes, which use suitable mixture formation and combustion management to prevent the formation of nitrogen-oxide and soot. In this paper, starting out from an ideally homogeneous combustion process with manifold injection, two further partially homogeneous combustion processes with internal mixture formation are examined. With regard to the maximum obtainable indicated mean effective pressure and the combustion noise, the ideally homogeneous combustion process proved - in the examined configuration - not to be desirable.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1002
Benjamin Kaal, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
Abstract This paper presents a quasi-dimensional emission model for calculating the transient nitric oxide emissions of a diesel engine. Using conventional and high-speed measurement technology, steady-state and transient emissions of a V6 diesel engine were examined. Based on measured load steps and steady-state measurements a direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions was found. Load steps to and from, as well as steady-state measurements down to almost stoichiometric global combustion air ratios were used to examine the behavior of nitric oxide formation under these operating conditions. An existing emission model was expanded in order to represent the direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions as well as enabling the forecasting of nitric oxide emissions at low global combustion air ratios: Both particularly important aspects for the simulation of transient emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1024
Adalbert Wolany, Claus Glahn, Hans-Juergen Berner, Michael Bargende
Abstract For scavenging the combustion chamber during the gas exchange, a temporary positive pressure gradient between the intake and the exhaust is required. On a single-scroll turbocharged four cylinder engine, the positive pressure gradient is not realized by the spatial separation of the exhaust manifold (twin-scroll), but by the use of suitable short exhaust valve opening times. In order to avoid any influence of the following firing cylinder onto the ongoing scavenging process, the valve opening time has to be shorter than 180 °CA. Such a short valve opening time has both, a strong influence on the gas exchange at the low-end torque and at the maximum engine power. This paper analyzes a phenomenon, which occurs due to short exhaust valve opening durations and late valve timings: A repeated compression of the burned cylinder charge after the bottom dead center, referred to as “recompression” in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0801
Dimitri Seboldt, David Lejsek, Marlene Wentsch, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
Abstract CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2469
Marlene Wentsch, Antonella Perrone, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende, Donatus Wichelhaus
Abstract Comparative analyses of a high-performance 4-cylinder DISI-engine and its equivalent single-cylinder research engine were performed by means of fast response 3D-CFD simulations. Both engines have identical geometries of intake and exhaust channels, cylinder head and piston. The used 3D-CFD tool QuickSim was developed at the Forschungsinstitut für Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS), particularly for the numerical simulation of internal combustion engines (ICE). A calibration of the air consumption enabled a comparison of in-cylinder processes, including charge motion, mixture formation and combustion. All calculated operating points showed a similar trend. Deviations during the gas exchange phase led to a higher turbulence level and hence combustion velocity for the single-cylinder research engine. This resulted in a slightly higher maximum cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2531
Marco Leonetti, Michael Bargende, Martin Kreschel, Christoph Meier, Horst Schulze
Abstract Due to the demands for today's passenger cars regarding fuel consumption and emissions, exhaust turbo charging has become a fundamental step in achieving these goals. Especially in upper and middle class vehicles it is also necessary to consider the noise comfort. Today, floating bushings are mainly used as radial bearings in turbochargers. In the conventional operating range of the turbocharger dynamic instability occurs in the lubrication films of the bearings. This instability is transferred by structure-borne noise into audible airborne sound and known as constant tone phenomenon. This phenomenon is not the major contributor of the engine noise but its tonal character is very unpleasant. In order to gain a more detailed understanding about the origin of this phenomenon, displacement sensors have been applied to the compressor- and the turbine-side of the rotor, to be able to determine the displacement path.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2545
Florian Winke, Hans-Juergen Berner, Michael Bargende
Abstract This study presents a comparison of different approaches for the simulation of HEV fuel consumption. For this purpose a detailed 1D-CFD model within an HEV drivetrain is compared to a ‘traditional’ map-based combustion engine model as well as different types of simplified engine models which are able to reduce computing time significantly while keeping the model accuracy at a high level. First, a simplified air path model (fast running model) is coupled with a quasi dimensional, predictive combustion model. In a further step of reducing the computation time, an alternative way of modeling the in cylinder processes was evaluated, by replacing the combustion model with a mean value model. For this approach, the most important influencing factors of the 1D-CFD air path model (temperature, pressure, A/F-ratio) are used as input values into neural nets, while the corresponding outputs are in turn used as feedback for the air path model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0569
Mahir Tim Keskin, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
Abstract Operating gasoline engines at part load in a so-called Gasoline-HCCI (gHCCI) combustion mode has shown promising results in terms of improved efficiency and reduced emissions. So far, research has primarily been focused on experimental investigations on the test bench, whereas fast, predictive burn rate models for use in process calculation have not been available. Such a phenomenological model is henceforth presented. It describes the current burn rate as the sum of a sequential self-ignition process on the one hand and a laminar-turbulent flame propagation on the other hand. The first mechanism is essentially represented by ignition delay calculation, in which the reaction rate is computed separately for some hundred groups of different temperatures based on the Arrhenius equation. Thermal inhomogeneity is described by a contaminated normal distribution which accounts for the influence of wall temperature on mixture close to the cylinder wall.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0037
Stephan Schneider, Horst Friedrich, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is developing a free-piston engine as an innovative internal combustion engine for the generation of electrical power. The arrangement of the Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG) in opposed-piston design consists of two piston units oscillating freely, thereby alternately compressing the common combustion chamber in the center of the unit and gas springs on either side. Linear alternators convert the kinetic energy of the moving pistons into electric energy. Since the pistons are not mechanically coupled to a crank train, the bottom and top dead centers of the piston movement can be varied during operation e.g. to adjust the compression ratio. Utilizing these degrees of freedom, the present paper deals with the analysis of different combustion processes in a port scavenged opposed-piston combustion chamber prototype.
2011-06-09
Technical Paper
2011-37-0018
Michael Auerbach, Markus Ruf, Michael Bargende, Hans-Christian Reuss, Rene Van Doorn, Friedrich Wilhelm, Immanuel Kutschera
An approach for model-based control strategy design for diesel hybrid drive-trains has been developed, permitting the reduction of fuel consumption as well as of exhaust gas emissions. The control strategy consists of four core-functions: the SOC-management, the operation mode determination, the gear selection, and the thermal monitoring. Based on those different interpretations, a control strategy can be designed that leads to great reductions in fuel consumption or alternatively to a mentionable decline of nitrous oxides. In this trade-off, both aims can not be optimized at a time. Though, the strategy to be used is a compromise, designs for control strategies are possible that reduce both for a significant amount. Extending this control strategy by adding functions for transient behavior at start-up and load changes; phlegmatization enables additional potentials for emission reduction.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0024
Annelies Vandersickel, Yuri Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Sebastian Beck, Michael Bargende
Compact and computationally efficient reaction models capable of accurately predicting ignition delay and heat release rates are a prerequisite for the development of strategies to control and optimize HCCI engines. In particular for full boiling range fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition a tremendous demand exists in the engine development community. To this end, in a previous investigation, a global reaction mechanism was developed and fitted to data from shock tube experiments for n-heptane and five full boiling range fuels. By means of a genetic algorithm, for each of these fuels, a set of reaction rate parameters (consisting of pre-exponential factors, activation energies and concentration exponents) has been defined, without any change to the model form.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0518
Sebastian Hann, Lukas Urban, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
Abstract Since 0D/1D-simulations of natural gas spark ignition engines use model theories similar to gasoline engines, the impact of changing fuel characteristics needs to be taken into consideration in order to obtain results of higher quality. For this goal, this paper proposes some approaches that consider the influence of binary fuel mixtures such as methane with up to 40 mol-% of ethane, propane, n-butane or hydrogen on laminar flame speed and knock behavior. To quantify these influences, reaction kinetics calculations are carried out in a wide range of the engine operation conditions. Obtained results are used to update and extend existing sub-models. The model quality is validated by comparing measured burn rates with simulation results. The benefit of the new sub-models are utilized by predicting the influence the fuel takes on engine operating limits in terms of knocking and lean misfire limits, the latter being determined by using a cycle-to-cycle variation model.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0140
Marco Chiodi, Alessandro Ferrari, Oliver Mack, Michael Bargende, Donatus Wichelhaus
Methane as an alternative fuel in motorsports? Actually this solution is well known for the reduction of CO₂ emissions but apparently it does not really awake race feelings. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race on the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by innovative turbo-charged CNG engines for the first time. The aim was to prove, that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued also in 2010, this time exclusively with CNG vehicles. Focusing on the CO₂ emission, reclusively the higher hydrogen content of methane which represents the main component of NG leads to a CO₂ reduction during the combustion of about 20% compared to gasoline.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0141
Alessandro Ferrari, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende, Paolo Roberti, Federico Millo, Donatus Wichelhaus
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2186
Lukas Urban, Michael Grill, Sebastian Hann, Michael Bargende
Abstract Engine Knock is a stochastic phenomenon that occurs during the regular combustion of spark ignition (SI) engines and limits its efficiency. Knock is triggered by an autoignition of local “hot spots” in the unburned zone, ahead of the flame front. Regarding chemical kinetics, the temperature and pressure history as well as the knock resistance of the fuel are the main driver for the autoignition process. In this paper, a new knock modeling approach for natural gas blends is presented. It is based on a kinetic fit for the ignition delay times that has been derived from chemical kinetics simulations. The knock model is coupled with an enhanced burn rate model that was modified for Methane-based fuels. The two newly developed models are incorporated in a predictive 0D/1D simulation tool that provides a cost-effective method for the development of natural gas powered SI engines.
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