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Viewing 1 to 24 of 24
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1883
Atsushi Matsumoto, Yi Zheng, Xingbin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, Wayne Moore
Advanced valvetrain coupled with Direct Injection (DI) provides an opportunity to simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole injectors are being adopted as gasoline DI fuel injectors. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the performance of a turbo-charged DI gasoline engine, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valvetrain engine architecture. This paper presents Mie-scattering spray imaging results taken with an Optical Accessible Engine (OAE). OAE offers dynamic and realistic in-cylinder charge motion with direct imaging capability, and the interaction with the ethanol spray with the intake air is studied. Two types of cams which are designed for Early Intake Valve Close (EIVC) and Later Intake Valve Close (LIVC) are tested, and the effect of variable valve profile and deactivation of one of the intake valves are discussed.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1881
Ming-Chia Lai, Yi Zheng, Mark Shost, Xingbin Xie, Atsushi Matsumoto, Jin Wang, Xusheng Zhang, Seoksu Moon, Jian Gao, Kamel Fezzaa, Lars Zigan, Ingo Schmitz, Michael Wensing, Alfred Leipertz
Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3691
Srinivasan Venugopalan, Ming-Chia Lai, Feng Wu, Frank M. Washko
Variable Valve Timing (VVT) strategy on both intake and exhaust valves has a pivotal influence on the specific fuel consumptions and engine performance. In addition to this, fuel economy can also be enhanced by the application of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) strategy. This paper presents three possible strategies to enhance fuel economy improvement: A possible VVT strategy Early Intake Valve Opening (EIVO) and Late Exhaust Valve Closure (LEVC) that alters the valve overlap to reduce fuel consumption A two-position VCR system that improves fuel conversion factor to realize fuel economy A strategy that combines above two technologies to produce a complementary effect on fuel economy All three strategies have been tested on a 1.8L DOHC four cylinder PFI engine. AVL BOOST a 1D engine gas exchange and cycle simulation code was used to model this engine to get fuel economy gains at part-load points.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0601
Atsushi Matsumoto, Wayne R. Moore, Ming-Chia Lai, Yi Zheng, Matthew Foster, Xing-Bin Xie, David Yen, Keith Confer, Eunjoo Hopkins
Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1434
Mark A. Shost, Ming-Chia Lai, Bizhan Befrui, Peter Spiekermann, Daniel L. Varble
Abstract Development of in-cylinder spray targeting, plume penetration and atomization of the gasoline direct-injection (GDi) multi-hole injector is a critical component of combustion developments, especially in the context of the engine downsizing and turbo-charging trend that has been adopted in order to achieve the European target CO2, US CAFE, and concomitant stringent emissions standards. Significant R&D efforts are directed towards the optimization of injector nozzle designs in order to improve spray characteristics. Development of accurate predictive models is desired to understand the impact of nozzle design parameters as well as the underlying physical fluid dynamic mechanisms resulting in the injector spray characteristics. This publication reports Large Eddy Simulation (LES) analyses of GDi single-hole skew-angled nozzles, with β=30° skew (bend) angle and different nozzle geometries.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2151
Atsushi Matsumoto, Yi Zheng, Xing-Bin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, Wayne Moore
Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0934
Peng Quan, Ming-Chia Lai, Atul Kumar, James Waldecker, Shinichi Hirano
Effects of fuel cell material properties on water management were numerically investigated using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in the FLUENT. The results show that the channel surface wettability is an important design variable for both serpentine and interdigitated flow channel configurations. In a serpentine air flow channel, hydrophilic surfaces could benefit the reactant transport to reaction sites by facilitating water transport along channel edges or on channel surfaces; however, the hydrophilic surfaces would also introduce significantly pressure drop as a penalty. For interdigitated air flow channel design, it is observable that liquid water exists only in the outlet channel; it is also observable that water distribution inside GDL is uneven due to the pressure distribution caused by interdigitated structure. An in-situ water measurement method, neutron imaging technique, was used to investigate the water behavior in a PEM fuel cell.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0255
Bizhan Befrui, Andreas Aye, Peter Spiekermann, Daniel L. Varble, Mark A. Shost, Ming-Chia Lai, Jin Wang
Improvement of spray atomization and penetration characteristics of the gasoline direct-injection (GDi ) multi-hole injector is a critical component of the GDi combustion developments, especially in the context of engine down-sizing and turbo-charging trend that is adopted in order to achieve the European target CO₂, US CAFE, and concomitant stringent emissions standards. Significant R&D efforts are directed towards optimization of the nozzle designs, in order to improve the GDi multi-hole spray characteristics. This publication reports VOF-LES analyses of GDi single-hole skew-angled nozzles, with β=30° skew (bend) angle and different nozzle geometries. The objective is to extend previous works to include the effect of nozzle-hole skew angle on the nozzle flow and spray primary breakup. VOF-LES simulations of a single nozzle-hole of a purpose-designed GDi multi-hole seat geometry, with three identical nozzle-holes per 120° seat segment, are performed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1678
Paul C. Miles, Dae Choi, Marcus Megerle, Bret RempelEwert, Rolf D. Reitz, Ming-Chia Lai, Volker Sick
Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0027
Aditya Mulemane, Shriram Subramaniyam, Pai-Hsiu Lu, Joong-Sub Han, Ming-Chia Lai, Ramesh Poola
Results of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analyses of different diesel fuel injector nozzle configurations using a commercial CFD code are presented here. The emphasis of this study is on comparing cavitation models available in the commercial code with respect to their mathematical approach. One of the models is a simple single-phase model based on the Barotropic equation of state, while the other model is a two-phase model based on the bubble dynamic considerations. Results are compared for various 3-D diesel injector nozzles using the two cavitation-modeling approaches. Simulation results are observed to substantiate some of the experimentally established facts like; nozzle efficiency improvements by using techniques like rounded orifice inlets and conical orifices. Also, simulation results agree well with the experimental results. Spray characteristics are predicted based on a primary breakup model.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0536
Aditya Mulemane, Joong-Sub Han, Pai-Hsiu Lu, Suck-Ju Yoon, Ming-Chia Lai
Precise control of fuel delivery and injection pressure is essential in modern DI diesel engines. Electronically controlled high-pressure injection systems provide features required by modern diesel engines such as precise injection quantity, flexible injection timing, flexible rate of injection with multiple injections and high injection pressures. A comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of operating parameters and critical injector design parameters on the dynamic performance of advanced high-pressure electronically controlled diesel injection systems. The injection systems compared in this study are the High Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) and the Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI). Experiments are carried out using a Bosch type injection-rate meter. Needle lift, injection-rate/rate shape, and injection pressure are measured.
2008-10-06
Journal Article
2008-01-2424
A. Matsumoto, X. Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, R. E. Winsor, T. C. Huynh
Double-hole nozzle and multiple injections have the potential for better fuel atomization and mixing in DI engine. In order to evaluate the behavior of the spray for the double-hole nozzles against traditional single-hole ones, high-speed spray visualization was carried out using a streak film camera and a copper vapor laser, and in combination with a long-distance camera when taking microscopic movies. The spray penetration and the cone angle were measured based on the images and compared for variable injection pressures, and for single and split injections, under ambient and elevated chamber pressure conditions. The results showed that the spray of the double-hole nozzle has comparable penetration but smaller cone angle when viewed from the nozzle end, compared to the single-hole nozzle with the same total hole discharge cross-sectional area. For microscopic view, it was observed that the interaction between the dual sprays is very dynamic.
2004-01-16
Technical Paper
2004-28-0014
Aditya Mulemane, Ming-Chia Lai
In diesel injector nozzles, the shape of the orifice entrance and the sac-volume play a significant role in determining the orifice internal flow characteristics and the subsequent spray formation process. The sac-volume of the injector nozzle determines injection characteristics like injection rate shape and discharge coefficients. The sac-volume is also important from emissions point of view, in that it controls the amount of Un-Burnt Hydrocarbons (UBHC). This paper demonstrates the use of commercial dynamic and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) programs in predicting the flow characteristics of various nozzle orifice and sac-volume configurations. Three single orifice nozzle tips with varying sac configurations and orifice entrance shapes are studied. Transient simulations are carried out in order to compare the injection rates, discharge coefficients and internal flow characteristics for the nozzle tips. The simulation results are compared with experimental results.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0795
Qiang Hu, Sean F. Wu, Ming-Chia Lai, Shari Stottler, Ragu Raghupathi
This paper presents a computer model for simulating dynamic responses inside an injector of an automotive fuel rail system. The injector contains a filter at the top, a coil spring in the middle, and a needle and orifices at the bottom. The equations of motion for unsteady one-dimensional flow are derived for the fluid flowing through the injector. The needle motion is described by a second order ordinary differential equation. The forces exerted on the needle include the magnetic force that controls the opening and closing of the injector and the coil spring force. To account for the loss of kinetic energy, we define two loss factors Ka and Kb. The former describes the loss of kinetic energy as fluid enters the injector through the filter at the top, and the latter depicts that as fluid is ejected into a large chamber through the passage between the needle and the needle seat and across four orifices at the bottom of the injector.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0561
Qiang Hu, Sean F. Wu, Ming-Chia Lai, Shari Stottler, Ragu Raghupathi
A computer model is developed for predicting pressure fluctuations inside an automotive electronic fuel rail system, which consists of six injectors connected in series through pipelines and a pressure regulator. The pressure fluctuations are mainly caused by opening and closing of injectors fired in a particular order. The needles that control the opening and closing of the injectors are modeled by mass- spring-dashpot systems, whose equations of motion are governed by a second order ordinary differential equations. A similar second order ordinary differential equation is used to describe the motion of the membrane with nonlinear stiffness inside the pressure regulator. The responses of injectors and pressure regulator are coupled by unsteady one-dimensional flow through the pipelines. The pressure fluctuations are also required to satisfy a one-dimensional damped wave equation. To validate this computer model, pressure fluctuations inside injectors and pipelines are calculated.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3555
Jian-Rong Qin, Tomohisa Dan, Ming-Chia Lai, Craig Savonen, Ernest Schwartz, Walter Brkyzik
This paper studies the effect of nozzle geometry on the flow characteristics inside a diesel fuel injection nozzle and correlates to the subsequent atomization process under different operating conditions, using simple turbulent breakup model. Two kinds of nozzles, valve covered orifice (VCO) and mini-SAC nozzle, with various nozzle design parameters were studied. The internal flow inside the nozzle was simulated using 3-D computational fluid dynamics software with k-ε turbulence model. The flow field at the nozzle exit was characterized by two parameters: the fuel discharge coefficient Cd and the initial amplitude parameter amp0. The latter parameter represents the turbulence characteristics of the exit flow. The effects of nozzle geometry on the mean velocity and turbulent energy distribution of the exit flow were also studied. The characteristics of the exit flow were then incorporated into the spray model in KIVA-II to study the effect of nozzle design on diesel spray behavior.
2001-05-07
Technical Paper
2001-01-1983
Jian-Rong Qin, S. T. John Yu, Zeng-Chan Zhang, Ming-Chia Lai
Cavitating flows inside a two-dimensional valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle were simulated by using the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CE/SE) method in conjunction with a homogeneous equilibrium cavitation model. As a validation for present model, cavitation over a NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted and compared with previous simulation results as well as experimental observations. The model was then used to investigate the effects on internal cavitating flows of different nozzle design parameters, such as the hole size, hole aspect-ratio, hydro-erosion radius, and orifice inclination. Under different conditions, cavitating flows through fuel injectors generated hydraulic flip, supercavitation, full cavitation, and cyclical cavitation phenomena, which are commonly observed in experiments.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1004
K. J. Richards, M. N. Subramaniam, Rolf D. Reitz, Ming-Chia Lai, N. A. Henein, Paul C. Miles
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1293
Yong Yue, Christopher F. Powell, Ramesh Poola, Jin Wang, Ming-Chia Lai, Scott E. Parrish
A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2698
Ming-Chia Lai, Pai-Hsiu Lu, Joon-Ho Yoo, Bizhan Befrui, Dan Varble, Reinhold Kneer, Jay Sofianek, Sergio Quelhas
A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2663
Gerhard F. Meister, Ales Alajbegovic, Ming-Chia Lai, Joon-Ho Yoo
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2775
Joong-Sub Han, Pai-Hsui Lu, Xing-Bin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, Naeim A. Henein
The nozzle configuration for an injector is known to have an important effect on the fuel atomization. A comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of various internal geometries on the primary spray breakup and development using the electronically controlled high-pressure diesel injection systems. Different types of multi-hole minisac and VCO nozzles with cylindrical and tapered geometries, and different types of single-hole nozzles with defined grades of Hydro Grinding (HG) were investigated. The global characteristics of the spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration and spray pattern were measured from the spray images with a high-speed drum camera. A long-distance microscope with a pulsed-laser as the optical shutter was used to magnify the diesel spray at the nozzle hole vicinity. A CFD analysis of the internal flow through various nozzle geometries has been carried out with a commercial code.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1072
Paul C. Miles, Marcus Megerle, Zachary Nagel, Rolf D. Reitz, Ming-Chia Lai, Volker Sick
Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0699
L. Zhong, I. P. Singh, J. Han, Ming-Chia Lai, N. A. Henein, Walter Bryzik
The performance of the Common Rail diesel injection system (CRS) is investigated experimentally in a single cylinder engine and a test rig to determine the cycle-to-cycle variation in the injection pressure and its effects on the needle opening and rate of fuel delivery. The engine used is a single cylinder, simulated-turbocharged diesel engine. Data for the different injection and performance parameters are collected under steady state conditions for 35 consecutive cycles. Furthermore, a mathematical model has been developed to calculate the instantaneous fuel delivery rate at various injection pressures. The experimental results supported with the model computations indicated the presence of cycle-to-cycle variations in the fuel injection pressure and needle lift. The variations in the peak-cylinder gas pressure, rate of heat release, cylinder gas temperature and IMEP are correlated with the variation in the injection rate.
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