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Viewing 1 to 30 of 60
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1883
Atsushi Matsumoto, Yi Zheng, Xingbin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, Wayne Moore
Advanced valvetrain coupled with Direct Injection (DI) provides an opportunity to simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole injectors are being adopted as gasoline DI fuel injectors. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the performance of a turbo-charged DI gasoline engine, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valvetrain engine architecture. This paper presents Mie-scattering spray imaging results taken with an Optical Accessible Engine (OAE). OAE offers dynamic and realistic in-cylinder charge motion with direct imaging capability, and the interaction with the ethanol spray with the intake air is studied. Two types of cams which are designed for Early Intake Valve Close (EIVC) and Later Intake Valve Close (LIVC) are tested, and the effect of variable valve profile and deactivation of one of the intake valves are discussed.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1881
Ming-Chia Lai, Yi Zheng, Mark Shost, Xingbin Xie, Atsushi Matsumoto, Jin Wang, Xusheng Zhang, Seoksu Moon, Jian Gao, Kamel Fezzaa, Lars Zigan, Ingo Schmitz, Michael Wensing, Alfred Leipertz
Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1221
Wayne Moore, Matthew Foster, Ming-Chia Lai, Xing-Bin Xie, Yi Zheng, Atsushi Matsumoto
Requirements for reduced fuel consumption with simultaneous reductions in regulated emissions require more efficient operation of Spark Ignited (SI) engines. An advanced valvetrain coupled with Gasoline Direct injection (GDi) provide an opportunity to simultaneously reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Work on a flex fuel GDi engine has identified significant potential to reduce throttling by using Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) strategies to control knock and load. High loads were problematic when operating on gasoline for particulate emissions, and low loads were not able to fully minimize throttling due to poor charge motion for the EIVC strategy. The use of valve deactivation was successful at reducing high load particulate emissions without a significant airflow penalty below 3000 RPM. Valve deactivation did increase the knocking tendency for knock limited fuels, due to increased heat transfer that increased charge temperature.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1168
Bo Yang, Xing Wei, Ke Zeng, Ming-Chia Lai
Abstract Natural gas has been considered to be one of the most promising alternative fuels due to its lower NOx and soot emissions, less carbon footprint as well as attractive price. Furthermore, higher octane number makes it suitable for high compression ratio application compared with other gaseous fuels. For better economical and lower emissions, a turbocharged, four strokes, direct injection, high pressure common rail diesel engine has been converted into a diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine. For dual-fuel engine operation, natural gas as the main fuel is sequentially injected into intake manifold, and a very small amount of diesel is directly injected into cylinder as the ignition source. In this paper, a dual-fuel electronic control unit (ECU) based on the PowerPC 32-bit microprocessor was developed. It cooperates with the original diesel ECU to control the fuel injection of the diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3691
Srinivasan Venugopalan, Ming-Chia Lai, Feng Wu, Frank M. Washko
Variable Valve Timing (VVT) strategy on both intake and exhaust valves has a pivotal influence on the specific fuel consumptions and engine performance. In addition to this, fuel economy can also be enhanced by the application of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) strategy. This paper presents three possible strategies to enhance fuel economy improvement: A possible VVT strategy Early Intake Valve Opening (EIVO) and Late Exhaust Valve Closure (LEVC) that alters the valve overlap to reduce fuel consumption A two-position VCR system that improves fuel conversion factor to realize fuel economy A strategy that combines above two technologies to produce a complementary effect on fuel economy All three strategies have been tested on a 1.8L DOHC four cylinder PFI engine. AVL BOOST a 1D engine gas exchange and cycle simulation code was used to model this engine to get fuel economy gains at part-load points.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1331
Nick Polcyn, Ming-Chia Lai, Po-I Lee
Abstract The need for using alternative fuel sources continues to grow as industry looks towards enhancing energy security and lowering emissions levels. In order to capture the potential of these megatrends, this study focuses on the relationship between ignition energy, thermal efficiency, and combustion stability of a 0.5 L single cylinder engine powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) at steady state operation. The goal of the experiment was to increase ignition energy at fixed lambda values to look for gains in thermal efficiency. Secondly, a lambda sweep was performed with criteria of maintaining a 4% COVIMEP by increasing the ignition energy until an appropriate threshold for stable combustion was found. The engine performance was measured with a combustion analysis system (CAS), to understand the effects of thermal efficiency and combustion stability (COVIMEP). Emissions of the engine were measured with an FTIR.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1389
Ziliang Zheng, PO-I Lee, Amit Shrestha, Tamer Badawy, Ming-Chia Lai, Naeim Henein, Eric Sattler
Surrogates for JP-8 have been developed in the high temperature gas phase environment of gas turbines. In diesel engines, the fuel is introduced in the liquid phase where volatility plays a major role in the formation of the combustible mixture and autoignition reactions that occur at relatively lower temperatures. In this paper, the role of volatility on the combustion of JP-8 and five different surrogate fuels was investigated in the constant volume combustion chamber of the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). IQT is used to determine the derived cetane number (DCN) of diesel engine fuels according to ASTM D6890. The surrogate fuels were formulated such that their DCNs matched that of JP-8, but with different volatilities. Tests were conducted to investigate the effect of volatility on the autoignition and combustion characteristics of the surrogates using a detailed analysis of the rate of heat release immediately after the start of injection.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1224
Liangjun Hu, Ce Yang, Harold Sun, Eric Krivizky, Louis Larosiliere, Jizhong Zhang, Ming-Chia Lai
Self recirculation casing treatment has been showed to be an effective technique to extend the flow range of the compressor. However, the mechanism of its surge extension on turbocharger compressor is less understood. Investigation and comparison of internal flow filed will help to understand its impact on the compressor performance. In present study, experimentally validated CFD analysis was employed to study the mechanism of surge extension on the turbocharger compressor. Firstly a turbocharger compressor with replaceable inserts near the shroud of the impeller inlet was designed so that the overall performance of the compressor with and without self recirculation casing treatment could be tested and compared. Two different self recirculation casing treatments had been tested: one is conventional self recirculation casing treatment and the other one has deswirl vanes inside the casing treatment passage.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0877
Zunping Liu, Kyoung-Su Im, Yuejie Wang, Kamel Fezzaa, Xing-Bin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, Jin Wang
By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0596
Diana Martin, Jochen Stratmann, Philipp Pischke, Reinhold Kneer, Ming-Chia Lai
In present GDI engines, multiple injection strategies are often employed for engine cold start mixture formation. In the future, these strategies may also be used to control the combustion process, and to prevent misfiring or high emission levels. While the processes occurring during individual injections of GDI injectors have been investigated by a number of researchers, this paper concentrates on the interactions of multiple injection events. Even though multiple injection strategies are already applied in most GDI engines, the impact of the first injection event on the second injection event has not been analyzed in detail yet. Different optical measurement techniques are used in order to investigate the interaction of the two closely timed injection events, as well as the effect of dwell time and the in-cylinder conditions. The injector investigated is a GDI piezo injector with an outwardly opening needle.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0601
Atsushi Matsumoto, Wayne R. Moore, Ming-Chia Lai, Yi Zheng, Matthew Foster, Xing-Bin Xie, David Yen, Keith Confer, Eunjoo Hopkins
Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0898
Kan Zha, Xin Yu, Ming-Chia Lai, Marcis Jansons
Low cetane JP-8 fuels have been identified as being difficult to use under conventional diesel operation. However, recent focus on low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes has led to an interest in distillate hydrocarbon fuels having high volatility and low autoignition tendency. An experimental study is performed to evaluate low-temperature combustion processes in a small-bore optically-accessible diesel engine operated in a partially-premixed combustion mode using low-cetane Sasol JP-8 fuel. This particular fuel has a cetane number of 25. Both single and dual injection strategies are tested. Since long ignition delay is a consequence of strong autoignition resistance, under the conditions examined, low cetane Sasol JP-8 combustion can only take place with a double injection strategy: one pilot injection event in the vicinity of exhaust TDC and one main injection event near firing TDC.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1129
PO-I Lee, Nick Polcyn, Ming-Chia Lai
Gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) engines have been adopted increasingly by the automotive industry in the recent years due to their performance, effects on the environment, and customers' demand on advanced technology. However, the knowledge of detailed combustion process in such engines is still not thoroughly analyzed and understood. With optically accessible engines (OAE) and advanced measuring techniques, such as high-speed digital imaging, the in-cylinder combustion process is made available directly to researchers. The present study primarily focuses on the effects of different parameters of engine control on the combustion process, such as fuel types, valve deactivation, ignition timing, spark energy, injection timing, air-fuel ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation. Three engine heads of a 2.0L GDI engine are used with modification to acquire different optical access.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2151
Atsushi Matsumoto, Yi Zheng, Xing-Bin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, Wayne Moore
Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0392
Bizhan Befrui, Giovanni Corbinelli, Peter Spiekermann, Mark Shost, Ming-Chia Lai
The improvement of spray atomization and penetration characteristics of GDI multi-hole injector sprays is a major component of the engine combustion developments, in order to achieve the fuel economy and emissions standards. Significant R&D efforts are directed towards optimization of the nozzle designs, in order to achieve optimum multi-objective spray characteristics. The Volume-of-Fluid Large-Eddy-Simulation (VOF-LES) of the injector internal flow and spray break-up processes offers a computational capability to aid development of a fundamental knowledge of the liquid jet breakup process. It is a unique simulation method capable of simultaneous analysis of the injector nozzle internal flow and the near-field jet breakup process. Hence it provides a powerful toll to investigate the influence of nozzle design parameters on the spray geometric and atomization features and, consequently, reduces reliance on hardware trial-and-tests for multi-objective spray optimizations.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980166
Eric N. Balles, Edward A. VanDyne, Alexandre M. Wahl, Kenneth Ratton, Ming-Chia Lai
Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder engine to measure the ionization current across the spark plug electrodes as a function of key operating parameters including air/fuel ratio. A unique ignition circuit was adapted to measure the ion current as early as 300 microseconds after the initiation of spark discharge. A strong relationship between air/fuel ratio and features of the measured ion current was observed. This relationship can be exploited via relatively simple algorithms in a wide range of electronic engine control strategies. Measurements of spark plug ion current for approximating air/fuel ratio may be especially useful for use with low cost mixture control in small engine applications. Cylinder-to-cylinder mixture balancing in conjunction with a global exhaust gas oxygen sensor is another promising application of spark plug ion current measurement.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952366
Ming-Chia Lai, Naeim A. Henein, Xingbin Xie, Tsan-Hal Chue, Yasuhiko Itoh, Walter Bryzik
An experimental and numerical study was carried out to simulate the diesel spray behavior during cold starting conditions inside two single-cylinder optically accessible engines. One is an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access; the other is a TACOM/LABECO engine retrofitted with mirror-coupled endoscope access. The first engine is suitable for sophisticated optical diagnostics but is constrained to limited consecutive fuel injections or firings. The second one is located inside a micro-processor controlled cold room; therefore it can be operated under a wide range of practical engine conditions and is ideal for cycle-to-cycle variation study. The intake and blow-by flow rates are carefully measured in order to clearly define the operation condition. In addition to cylinder pressure measurement, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941873
Ming-Chia Lai, Fu-Quan Zhao, Amer Ahmad Amer, Tsan-Hai Chue
Port fuel injection system in gasoline engines is receiving an increasing attention for its potential advantages in meeting the constrains of simultaneous reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emission, and maintaining a good engine performance. The structure of port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. In this paper, an experimental and analytical study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and atomization process of the non-air-assisted port injector sprays in gasoline engines. The liquid sprays resulted from various types of current and development-type automotive fuel injectors were visualized using planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging technique. A comparison was made on the spray structure of the single hole and multi-hole injectors.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982702
Joon-Ho Yoo, Sung-Kun Kim, Fu-Quan Zhao, Ming-Chia Lai, Ki-Sang Lee
Two-dimensional pulse-laser Mie scattering visualization of the direct-injection gasoline fuel sprays and wall impingement processes was carried out inside a single-cylinder optically accessible engine under motoring condition. The injectors have been first characterized inside a pressurized chamber using identical technique, as well as high-speed microscopic visualization and phase Doppler measurement techniques. The effects of injector cone angle, location, and injection timings on the wall impingement processes were investigated. It was found that the fuel vaporization is not complete at the constant engine speed tested. Fuel spray droplets were observed to disperse wider in the motored engine when compared with an isothermal quiescent ambient conditions. The extent of wall-impingement varies significantly with the injector mounting position and spray cone angle; however, its effect can be reduced to some extent by optimizing the injection timing.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982548
Ling Bai, Fu-Quan Zhao, Yi Liu, Ming-Chia Lai, Ki-Sang Lee
An experimental study was carried out to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside the closed-coupled catalytic converter, which is installed on a firing four-cylinder 12-valve passenger car gasoline engine. Simultaneous velocity and pressure measurements were taken using cycle-resolved Laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) technique and pressure transducer. A small fraction of titanium (IV) iso-propoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for the LDA measurements. It was found that the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions and the measuring locations. The pressure oscillation is correlated with the transient exhaust flow characteristics. The main exhaust flow event from each cylinder can only be observed at the certain region in front of the monolith brick.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982542
Ming-Chia Lai, T.-C. Thomas Wang, Xingbin Xie, Jong-Sub Han, Naeim Henein, Ernest Schwarz, Walter Bryzik
A long-distance microscope with pulse-laser as optical shutter up to 25kHz was used to magnify the diesel spray at the nozzle hole vicinity onto 35-mm photographic film through a still or a high-speed drum camera. The injectors examined are high-pressure valve-covered-orifice (VCO) nozzles, from unit injector and common rail injection systems. For comparison, a mini-sac injector from a hydraulic unit injector is also investigated. A phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system with an external digital clock was also used to measure the droplet size, velocity and time of arrival relative to the start of the injection event. The visualization results provide very interesting and dynamic information on spray structure, showing spray angle variations, primary breakup processes, and spray asymmetry not observed using conventional macroscopic visualization techniques.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1769
Kyoung-Su Im, Ming-Chia Lai, Jin Wang
A numerical simulation of shock wave generation by high-pressure and high-speed spray jet has been conducted to compare to the experimental results obtained by X-ray radiographic technique. Using the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method and the stochastic particle techniques to account for fuel injections and droplet collisions, supersonic-spray-induced shock waves are successfully simulated. Similar to the experimental condition, a non-evaporating diesel spray in a chamber filled with inert gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) at 1 atm pressure under room temperature (30° C) is simulated. To simulate the needle lift effect in the single-hole diesel injector, various injection-rate profiles were employed. In addition, the effects of discharge coefficients, with Cd ranging from 0.8 to 1.0, were also considered to simulate the shock generation processes in the leading spray front.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1678
Paul C. Miles, Dae Choi, Marcus Megerle, Bret RempelEwert, Rolf D. Reitz, Ming-Chia Lai, Volker Sick
Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3240
Hoisan Kim, Suckju Yoon, Ming-Chia Lai, Sergio Quelhas, Richard Boyd, Naresh Kumar, Joon-Ho Yoo
Unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions from gasoline engines remain a primary engineering research and development concern due to stricter emission regulations. Gasoline engines produce more UBHC emissions during cold start and warm-up than during any other stage of operation, because of insufficient fuel-air mixing, particularly in view of the additional fuel enrichment used for early starting. Impingement of fuel droplets on the cylinder wall is a major source of UBHC and a concern for oil dilution. This paper describes an experimental study that was carried out to investigate the distribution and “footprint” of fuel droplets impinging on the cylinder wall during the intake stroke under engine starting conditions. Injectors having different targeting and atomization characteristics were used in a 4-Valve engine with optical access to the intake port and combustion chamber.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2919
Pai-Hsiu Lu, Xing-bin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai
Late-injection low-temperature diesel combustion is found to further reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The combustion phenomena and detail chemical kinetics are studied with high speed spray/combustion images and time-resolved spectroscopy analysis in a rapid compression machine (RCM) with a small bowl combustion chamber. High swirl and high EGR condition can be achieved in the RCM; variable injection pressure and injection timing is supplied by the high-pressure common-rail fuel injection system. Effect of small amount of premix hydrogen gas on diesel combustion is also studied in the RCM. A hydrogen injector is located in the upstream of air inlet for delivery small amount and premixed hydrogen gas into cylinder just before the compression stroke. The ignition delay is studied both from the pressure curves and the chemiluminescence images.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0027
Aditya Mulemane, Shriram Subramaniyam, Pai-Hsiu Lu, Joong-Sub Han, Ming-Chia Lai, Ramesh Poola
Results of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analyses of different diesel fuel injector nozzle configurations using a commercial CFD code are presented here. The emphasis of this study is on comparing cavitation models available in the commercial code with respect to their mathematical approach. One of the models is a simple single-phase model based on the Barotropic equation of state, while the other model is a two-phase model based on the bubble dynamic considerations. Results are compared for various 3-D diesel injector nozzles using the two cavitation-modeling approaches. Simulation results are observed to substantiate some of the experimentally established facts like; nozzle efficiency improvements by using techniques like rounded orifice inlets and conical orifices. Also, simulation results agree well with the experimental results. Spray characteristics are predicted based on a primary breakup model.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0536
Aditya Mulemane, Joong-Sub Han, Pai-Hsiu Lu, Suck-Ju Yoon, Ming-Chia Lai
Precise control of fuel delivery and injection pressure is essential in modern DI diesel engines. Electronically controlled high-pressure injection systems provide features required by modern diesel engines such as precise injection quantity, flexible injection timing, flexible rate of injection with multiple injections and high injection pressures. A comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of operating parameters and critical injector design parameters on the dynamic performance of advanced high-pressure electronically controlled diesel injection systems. The injection systems compared in this study are the High Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) and the Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI). Experiments are carried out using a Bosch type injection-rate meter. Needle lift, injection-rate/rate shape, and injection pressure are measured.
2008-10-06
Journal Article
2008-01-2424
A. Matsumoto, X. Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, R. E. Winsor, T. C. Huynh
Double-hole nozzle and multiple injections have the potential for better fuel atomization and mixing in DI engine. In order to evaluate the behavior of the spray for the double-hole nozzles against traditional single-hole ones, high-speed spray visualization was carried out using a streak film camera and a copper vapor laser, and in combination with a long-distance camera when taking microscopic movies. The spray penetration and the cone angle were measured based on the images and compared for variable injection pressures, and for single and split injections, under ambient and elevated chamber pressure conditions. The results showed that the spray of the double-hole nozzle has comparable penetration but smaller cone angle when viewed from the nozzle end, compared to the single-hole nozzle with the same total hole discharge cross-sectional area. For microscopic view, it was observed that the interaction between the dual sprays is very dynamic.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1184
Amy Peterson, Po-I Lee, Ming-Chia Lai, Ming-Cheng Wu, Craig DiMaggio
As diesel emission regulations continue to increase, the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems containing, for example the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) will become necessary in order to meet these stringent emission requirements. The addition of a DOC and DPF in conjunction with utilizing biodiesel fuels requires extensive research to study the implications that biodiesel blends have on emissions as well as to examine the effect on aftertreatment devices. The proceeding work discusses results from a 2006 VM Motori four-cylinder 2.8L direct injection diesel engine coupled with a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Tests were done using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel blended with 20% choice white grease biodiesel fuel to evaluate the effects of biodiesel emission products on the performance and effectiveness of the aftertreatment devices and the effect of low temperature combustion modes.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1470
Liangjun Hu, Ce Yang, Eric Krivitzky, Louis Larosiliere, Harold Sun, Tim Schram, Ming-Chia Lai
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
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