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Viewing 1 to 30 of 64
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1762
Ryo Odajima, Daisuke Shirota, Norimasa Iida
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine is able to achieve low NOx and particulate emissions as well as high efficiency. However, its operation range is limited by the knocking at high load, which is the consequence of excessively rapid pressure rises. It has been suggested that making thermal or fuel inhomogeneities can be used to solve this problem, since these inhomogeneities have proved to create different auto-ignition timing zones. It has also been suggested that EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) has a potential to reduce pressure rise rate. But according to a past report, it was concluded that under the same fueling ratio and CA50 with different initial temperature and EGR ratio, the maximum PRR is almost constant. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fundamental effects of EGR. First, I considered EGR homogeneous charge case. In this case, the effects of EGR and its components like CO₂, H₂O or N₂ on HCCI combustion process is argued.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0087
Hiroki Iino, Kenji Shigetoyo, Mari Nagae, Norimasa Iida
In HCCI Engine, HCCI combustion characteristics come under the influence of change of compression speed corresponding to engine speed. The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism of influence of engine speed on HCCI combustion characteristics by using numerical analysis. At first, the Influence of engine speed was showed. And then, In order to clarified the mechanism of influence of engine speed, results of kinetics computations were analyzed to investigate the elementary reaction path for heat release at transient temperatures by using contribution matrix.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0086
Chao Shi, Kenichiro Nagai, Norimasa Iida
Delaying CA50(Crank Angle of 50% Heat Release) of the HCCI engine to expansion stroke can lead to high indicated thermal efficiency as well as the avoidance of knocking. However, this method could induce the problem of cycle variability. In this study, the cycle-to-cycle variation of a HCCI engine fueled with DME was investigated. Experimental parameters of each cycle, such as in-cylinder temperature, pressure and gas flow rate, were recorded by fast response system, and analyzed consequently. Moreover, the interdependency between the combustion and the performance parameters were evaluated.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0085
Daisuke Shirota, Norimasa Iida
Thermal and mixing stratifications have been thought as one of the ways to avoid an excessive pressure rise on HCCI combustion. The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential of thermal and mixing stratifications for reducing PRR (Pressure Rise Rate) on HCCI combustion. The pre-mixture with thermal and mixing stratifications is charged in RCM (Rapid Compression Machine). After that, the pre-mixture is compressed and in that process, in-cylinder gas pressure and chemiluminescence images are obtained and analyzed. Furthermore, experimental results are compared with the computational results calculated by using multi-zone model for analyzing these mechanisms.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1958
Dong Won Jung, Jae Hoon Jeong, Ock Taeck Lim, Young Duck Pyo, Young Jae Lee, Norimasa Iida
This work experimentally investigates how the dwell time between pilot injection and main injection influences combustion characteristics and emissions (NOx, CO, THC and Smoke) in a single-cylinder DI diesel engine. Additionally, results from diesel injection are compared with those shown in dimethyl ether (DME) injection under the identical injection strategy to demonstrate the sensitivity of the combustion characteristics and emissions to changes of the fuel type. Two fuel injection systems are applied for this experiment due to the differences of fuel characteristic with regard to physical and chemical properties. The injection strategy is accomplished by varying the dwell time (10°CA, 16°CA and 22°CA) between injections at five main injection timings (-4°CA aTDC, -2°CA aTDC, TDC, 2°CA aTDC and 4°CA aTDC).
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1779
Masato Kanehara, Hiroki Iino, Norimasa Iida
In HCCI Engine, the HCCI combustion characteristics come under the influence of change of compression speed corresponding to the engine speed. The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism of influence of engine speed on HCCI combustion characteristics by using numerical analysis. At first, the influence of engine speed was showed. And then, in order to clarify the mechanism of influence of engine speed, results of kinetic computations were analyzed to investigate the elementary reaction path for heat release at transient temperatures by using contribution matrix.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1104
Hung Nguyen Ba, Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
Abstract A simulation study was conducted to examine the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion in a two-stroke free piston engine fuelled with propane. Operation of the free piston engine was simulated based on the combination of three mathematical models including a dynamic model, a linear alternator model and a thermodynamic model. The dynamic model included an analysis of the piston motion, based on Newton's second law. The linear alternator model included an analysis of electromagnetic force, which was considered to be a resistance force for the piston motion. The thermodynamic model was used to analysis thermodynamic processes in the engine cycle, including scavenging, compression, combustion, and expansion processes. Therein, the scavenging process was assumed to be a perfect process. These mathematical models were combined and solved by a program written in Fortran.
2013-10-15
Journal Article
2013-32-9069
Yusuke Nakamura, Dong-Won Jung, Norimasa Iida
This study experimentally investigates the control system and the algorithm after constructing a HCCI combustion control system for the development of a small HCCI engine fuelled with Dimethyl Ether (DME). This system can control four throttles for the mixing ratio of three gases of in-cylinder (stoichiometric pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas). At first, the combustion behavior for combustion phasing retarded operation with cold and hot EGR was examined. Then, the potential of model-based and feed back control for HCCI combustion with change of the demand of IMEP was investigated. In the end, the limit of combustion-phasing retard for IMEP and PRR was explored. Results shows that to get high IMEP with acceptable PRR and low coefficient of variation of IMEP, crank angle of 50% heat release (CA50) should be controlled at constant phasing in the expansion stroke. CA50 can be controlled by changing the ratio of pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas with throttles.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9070
Kyohei Ozaki, Dong-Won Jung, Norimasa Iida
Problem of HCCI combustion is knocking due to a steep heat release by the ignition that is occurred in each local area at the same time. It is considered that dispersion of auto-ignition timing at each local area in the combustion chamber is necessary to prevent this problem. One of technique of this solution is to make thermal stratification. It could be made by using two-stage ignition fuel, which has large heat release at low temperature reaction. Dispersion of fuel concentration leads to difference of temperature histories while combustion phasing is dispersed at each local area. Also, EGR gas stratification could make difference of temperature histories at each local area because of that of the characteristics. This study examines the effect of mixing stratification by stratifying the charge of fuel and CO2. A single-cylinder engine equipped with optical access was used in experiments, and numerical analysis was executed.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9083
Shota Ito, Hiroki Ikeda, Dong-Won Jung, Norimasa Iida
The charge stratification has been thought as one of the ways to reduce the sharp pressure rises of HCCI combustion. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications for reducing pressure-rise rate of HCCI combustion. Using rapid compression machine, the stratified pre-mixture is charged, and compressed to analyze the change of in-cylinder gas pressure and temperature traces during compression process. Based on the experiment results, numerical calculations by CHEMKIN are conducted to more specifically analyze the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications on the reduction of pressure rise rate. Multi-zone model is used to simulate the thermal stratification, fuel stratification and EGR gas stratification of in-cylinder charge as like real engine.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1619
Yutaka Takada, Norifumi Takada, Norimasa Iida
In order to clarify the reason why NOx emissions factor becomes higher at vehicle acceleration at intersections etc, two freight vehicles, that have EGR system for the reduction of NOx, were tested by an on-board NOx measurement system. Higher NOx emissions factor was observed in operations in lower-gear operation for each vehicle. Since the engine speed change was higher in the operation of lower gears, NOx emissions characteristics were analyzed in view of engine torque, NOx mass emissions and EGR rate, considering engine speed change. It was found that lower-gear operations made the engine speed change higher and the EGR rate lower. This seems to be one of the factors to engender the intensive NOx pollution at roadsides.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1461
Narankhuu Jamsran, Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
This study has been computationally investigated how the DME autoignition reactivity is affected by EGR and intake-pressure boost over various engine speed. CHEMKIN-PRO was used as a solver and chemical-kinetics mechanism for DME was utilized from Curran's model. We examined first the influence of EGR addition on autoignition reactivity using contribution matrix. Investigations concentrate on the HCCI combustion of DME at wide ranges of engine speeds and intake-pressure boost with EGR rates and their effects on variations of autoignition timings, combustion durations in two-stage combustion process in-detail including reaction rates of dominant reactions involved in autoignition process. The results show that EGR addition increases the combustion duration by lowering reaction rates.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0132
Hiroki Ikeda, Norimasa Iida, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara, Takayuki Fuyuto
Abstract A combustion method called Noise Canceling Spike (NC-Spike) Combustion [1, 2] has been reported in the co-author's previous paper, which reduces combustion noise in PCCI with split injection. This NC-Spike Combustion uses interference of the following “spike” of pressure rise on the preceding peak of pressure rise. The overall combustion noise is reduced by lowering the maximum frequency component of the noise spectrum. The period of this frequency is two times of the time interval between the two peaks of the pressure rise rate. This maximum load range of conventional PCCI combustion is limited by the combustion noise, since the maximum pressure rise rate increases as the amount of injected fuel increases. The NC-Spike Combustion has a potential to extend of the operating range of PCCI combustion.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0079
Yuta Kugimachi, Yusuke Nakamura, Norimasa Iida
Abstract To approach realization of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion without external combustion ignition trigger, it is necessary to construct HCCI engine control system. In this study, HCCI research engine equipped with the EGR passage for external EGR and the two-stage exhaust cam for exhaust rebreathed. This system can control the mixing ratio of four gases (air, fuel, rebreathed EGR gas, external EGR gas) of in-cylinder by operating four throttles and fuel injection duration while maintaining acceptable pressure rise rate (PRR) and cycle-to-cycle variation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), closed-loop control system designed by applying feedback variables (equivalence ratio, combustion-phasing, IMEP) for feedback control. Those control inputs (four throttles and fuel injection) has correlation mutually, control inputs cause interference, response become low and hunching occurs.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0108
Sejun Lee, Kyohei Ozaki, Norimasa Iida, Takahiro Sako
Abstract Recently, a potentiality of Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept SI engine has been studied. This concept engine had four cylinders and operated with exhaust gas supplied from the single cylinder to the intake manifold. Compared with conventional SI engines, it was able to increase thermal efficiency and decrease CO, HC, and NOx emission by the high D-EGR ratio 0.25. In this study, numerical analysis of a SI engine with D-EGR system with various D-EGR ratios was conducted for detailed understanding the potentiality of this concept in terms of thermal efficiency and NOx emission. #1 cylinder of assumed engine was used as D-EGR cylinder that equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 3.4. Entire exhaust gas from #1 cylinder was recirculated to the other cylinders. The other cylinders run with this exhaust gas and new premixed air and fuel with various equivalence ratios from 0.6-1.0.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0094
Yuichi Seki, Keito Negoro, Norimasa Iida, Katsuya Matsuura, Hiroshi Sono
Abstract This study investigated effects of gas inhomogeneity induced by droplets of fuels and oils on the auto ignition timing and temperature in the direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engine by means of detailed numerical calculation using multi zone model. Recent researchers pointed out that droplets are made of fuels and oils which mix on the cylinder liner and released from the cylinder liner [1]. During the compression stroke released droplets reach the auto ignition temperature before flame propagation induced by spark ignition. It is called Pre-ignition. In combustion chamber, there is inhomogeneity caused by temperature and mixture distribution. In this study, the effects of gas inhomogeneity produced by droplet on the auto ignition timing and temperature have been investigated using Multi-Zone model of CHEMKIN-PRO by changing initial temperature and initial equivalence ratio. Especially, the volume of first ignition zone is focused on.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0141
O Seok Kwon, Dong Won Jeong, Ock Taeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
The HCCI engine is a next generation engine, with high efficiency and low emissions. However a rate of pressure rise is a major limitation for high load range. Recently, we are able to reduce the rate of pressure rise using thermal stratification. Nevertheless, this was insufficient to produce high power. Without the higher equivalent ratio, one way to improve the power is to increase the intake boost pressure. It is suggested that the rate of pressure rise is reduced by thermal stratification and the power is increased by boost pressure at the same time. The objective of this work is to understand the characteristics of combustion, knock and emissions for using both thermal stratification and the boost pressure. The calculations are performed by CHEMKIN and modified SENKIN. As a result of increasing the boost pressure, a higher IMEP was attained while the rate of pressure rise increased only slightly in the HCCI with thermal stratification.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0097
Taketora Naiki, Norimasa Iida, Cedric Lhomme
Theoretically, homogeneous charge compression engines (HCCI) are able to grant a high thermal efficiency, as well as a low NOx and particulate emissions. This ability is mainly due to the combustion process, which, contrary to both Diesel and Gasoline engine, is homogeneous in time and space within the combustion chamber. But despite these advantages, the engine operating condition is limited by the narrow boundaries of misfire at low load and knocking at high load. For that matter, one of the numerous ways of overcoming knocking is to deliberately create fuel inhomogeneities within the combustion chamber, since it has proved to lengthen combustion duration and to drastically reduce maximum pressure rise rate (PRR). Nevertheless, though the global effects of fuel inhomogeneities on PRR have been studied, we lack information that explains this phenomenon.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0008
Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida, Gyubaek Cho, Jamsran Narankhuu
CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine is using CNG as a main fuel, and injects diesel only a little as an ignition priming. In this study, remodeling an existing diesel engine into dual-fuel engine that can inject diesel with high pressure by CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection), and injecting CNG at intake port for premixing. The results show that CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine satisfied coordinate torque and power with conventional diesel engine. And CNG alternation rate is over 89% in all operating ranges of CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine. PM emission is lower 94% than diesel engine, but NOx emission is higher than diesel engine. The output of dual fuel mode is 95% by the diesel mode. At this time, amount of CO₂ and PM are decreased while CO, NOx, and THC are increased. In NEDC mode, exhaust gases except NOx are decreased.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0061
Yongil Oh, Ocktaeck Lim, Gangchul Kim, Norimasa Iida
The research shows the experimental results for a free piston linear engine according to operation conditions of the linear engine and the structure of linear generator for generating electric power. The powerpack used in this paper consists of the two-stroke free piston linear engine, linear generators and air compressors. Each parameter of fuel input heat, equivalence ratio, spark timing delay, electrical resistance and air gap length were set up to identify the combustion characteristics and to examine the performance of linear engine. The linear engine was fueled with propane. In the course of all linear engine operations, intake air was inputted under the wide open throttle state. Air and fuel mass flow rate were varied by using mass flow controller and these were premixed by pre-mixing device. Subsequently, pre-mixture was directly supplied into each cylinder.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0076
Dong Won Jung, Norimasa Iida
This study computationally investigates the combined effects of EGR and boost pressure on HCCI autoignition using iso-octane, PRF50 and n-heptane. The computations were conducted using the single-zone model of CHEMKIN included in CHEMKIN-PRO with detailed chemical-kinetics mechanisms for iso-octane, PRF and n-heptane from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To better reproduce the state of EGR addition in real engine, the EGR composition is determined after several combustion cycles under the constant amount of fuel. All data points were acquired with a CA50 of 5°CA aTDC by adjusting initial temperature to remove the effect of combustion phasing, which can influence on HCCI autoignition from any effect of the EGR and boost pressure themselves. The results show that EGR increases the burn duration and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate with lower peak of maximum heat-release rates for all fuels even for a boost pressure, which accelerates a HCCI autoignition propensity.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0077
Narankhuu Jamsran, Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
This work has been investigated the potential of in-cylinder EGR stratification for reducing the pressure rise rate of DME HCCI engines, and the coupling of both thermal stratification and fuel stratification. The numerical analyses were done by using five-zone version of CHEMKIN-II kinetics rate code, and kinetic mechanics for DME. The effects of inert components were used for the presence of EGR in calculation. Three cases of EGR stratification were tested on both thermal stratification and fuel stratification at the fixed initial temperature, pressure and fueling rate at BDC. In order to explore the appropriate stratification of EGR, EGR width was employed from zero to thirty percent. Firstly, EGR homogeneity case which means EGR width zero was examined. Secondly, EGR is located densely in hotter zone for combining with thermal stratification or in richer zone for a combination with fuel stratification. Lastly, the case was judged inversely with the second case.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930603
Norimasa Iida
A single action rapid compression machine was developed to observe the soot formation and oxidation processes in a diesel spray flame. Two color method was applied to analyze the flame temperature and KL factor from the flame image taken by high speed camera. Variation in gas oxygen concentration of the surrounding gas was achieved by adding different quantities of pure oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and argon gases to charged air within a range from 17 to 25 vol.% oxygen to examine the effects of the surrounding gas composition and the temperature, and of the flame temperature on soot formation and extinction. The initial gas temperature has much effect not only on the ignition but on soot formation speed. The higher oxygen concentration gives the higher flame temperature and the faster soot oxidation rate in the flame. Carbon dioxide has a soot reduction effect in spite of its lower flame temperature.
1997-10-27
Technical Paper
978472
Hajime Oguma, Takayoshi Ichikura, Norimasa Iida
ATAC is “bulk-like” and/or “non-propagating” combustion caused by compression autoignition of premixture, and it is stable even in the lean region. And ATAC engine is expected to be an engine using alternative fuels which are difficult to apply to usual engines because of their low cetane number. In this study, a two-stroke ATAC engine test was carried out to evaluate an adaptability of alternative fuels for lean burn. Methanol, ethanol, DME, methane and propane were used as the test fuels, and the influence of fuel characteristics on autoignition timing, combustion duration and autoignition temperature were investigated in the lean region. Using oxygenated fuels, the lean limit of ATAC operation region shifts to lean side. ATAC autoignition temperature is not depend on equivalence ratio, delivery ratio and engine speed, and it is only decided by the kind of fuel. The order of the ATAC autoignition temperature is methanol, ethanol, DME, gasoline from lower side.
1997-10-27
Technical Paper
978449
Norimasa Iida
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion requires high EGR rate and high intake temperature. HCCI combustion has not yet been made to operate at conditions other than low speed and low load in a four-stroke engine. Two stroke engine, however, have produced reasonable power in the HCCI combustion or active thermo-atmosphere combustion (ATAC) mode. In this paper, the nature of ATAC is discussed by spectroscopic observation to determine why the ATAC (under favorable condition) produces very low cyclic irregularity and low NO emission. ATAC low heat rejection engine and ATAC with alternative fuels are discussed.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940684
Norimasa Iida
To analyze the combustion mechanism of the so-called Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC) in a two-stroke S.I. engine, a measuring system to obtain images of radical luminescence in the combustion chamber was developed. The ATAC engine tested was equipped with a quartz windows as the cylinder head. The instantaneous luminescence from radical species was observed using an image intensifier with a single band pass filter for both conventional and ATAC operating conditions. At ATAC operation, emissions from OH radicals were observed before heat release began, and after that, emissions from CH were observed. It was found that the ignition was initiated over the entire area of the combustion chamber and “bulk-like” and/or “non propagating” combustion occurred during ATAC engine operation.
2005-10-12
Technical Paper
2005-32-0062
Masato Ikemoto, Yuichiro Kojima, Norimasa Iida
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine attracts much attention because of its high thermal efficiency and low NOx, PM emissions. On the other hand, Di-Methyl Ether (DME) is expected as one of alternative fuel for the internal combustion engines. In this study, four-stroke HCCI engine running on DME is developed to make it realistic application in production engines. This paper shows construction of the control method using both internal EGR at high temperature and external EGR at low temperature and estimates the performance of developed HCCI engine. Besides combustion characteristics of DME and the effects of EGR are researched with experiment and numerical calculation with elementary reactions. As a result, developed HCCI engine got comparable high thermal efficiency to conventional diesel engine but much lower Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) than that. Meanwhile it can be said that DME is suitable fuel for the HCCI engines in combustion characteristics.
2005-10-12
Technical Paper
2005-32-0021
Takahiro SAKO, Satoshi S. MORIMOTO, Hiroumi Fujimoto, Ryoji OKADA, Norimasa IIDA
The possibility of turbocharging into a natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is investigated experimentally and by simulation. Experiments are performed using a four-cylinder naturally aspirated engine fitted with an external supercharger and a butterfly valve for back pressure control to simulate a turbocharger with efficiency of 0.64. Based on the test results, the performance and emission characteristics are studied in detail through numerical one-dimensional cycle simulations. The results indicate that the thermal efficiency can be improved by raising the engine compression ratio and lowering the turbocharging pressure. At an engine compression ratio of 21 and turbocharging pressure of 1.9 bar, the brake thermal efficiency reaches 0.43, with NOx emissions of only 10 ppm or less.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0045
Tetsuo Ohmura, Masato Ikemoto, Norimasa Iida
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is possible to achieve high thermal efficiency and low emissions. One of the main challenges with HCCI engines is structuring the systems to control combustion phasing, crank angle of 50% heat release (CA50), for keeping high thermal efficiency and avoiding an excessive rate of pressure rise which causes knocking, when operating conditions vary. Though some HCCI combustion control systems, for example Variable Valve Timing System and Variable Compression Ratio System, have been suggested, these control systems are complex and heavy. In this study, for the development of a lightweight and small-sized generator HCCI engine fuelled with Dimethyl Ether (DME) which is low-emission and easy to autoignite, a simple HCCI combustion control system is suggested, and the control system is evaluated experimentally.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0046
Jumpei Ozaki, Norimasa Iida
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of in-cylinder gas temperature stratification on reducing the pressure-rise rate in HCCI combustion. HCCI combustion was investigated using an optically accessible engine and direct visualization of the combustion chemiluminescence. The engine was fueled with Di-Methyl Ether. Computational work was conducted on the gas compression and expansion strokes in HCCI engine with simple 0-dimensinal multi-zones model. When fuel inhomogeneous charging in experiment, maximum heat release rate decreased. Combustion duration got longer. Maximum pressure-rise rate decreased. Chemiluminescence, of which transition was identified from the side of intake valve to the side of exhaust valve, was observed. It is need for total moderate heat release to get local moderate combustion with not overall but continuous combustion in chamber.
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