Viewing 1 to 25 of 25
Technical Paper
Priya Prasad, Tah Chuan Low, Clifford C. Chou, George G. Lim, Srini Sundararajan
: This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional lumped-mass structure and dummy model to study barrier-to-car side impacts. The test procedures utilized to develop model input data are also described. The model results are compared to crash test results from a series of six barrier-to-car crash tests. Sensitivity analysis using the validated model show the necessity to account for dynamic structural rate effects when using quasi-statically measured vehicle crush data.
Technical Paper
Tah Chuan Low, Priya Prasad
: A series of rigid wall tests have been conducted at three impact velocities to quantify the dynamic response of the Side Impact Dummy (SID) developed by US DOT. This paper reports the chest, pelvis and head responses of the dummy at various filter frequencies and describes the development and verification of the three-dimensional mathematical model of the Side Impact Dummy utilizing the rigid wall test results. The mathematical model uses the mass distribution and the linkage system of the current Part 572, Hybrid II dummy which forms the basic platform of the SID. The unique chest of the dummy is modeled by two systems of linkages simulating the rib cage and the jacket. Also included in the model is the internal hardware of the chest, e.g. a damper, rib stopper and a clavicle simulator at the upper spine. The material and linkage models are based on static and dynamic tests of the dummy components.
Technical Paper
Priya Prasad
Abstract This paper compares and contrasts the modeling features present in the MVMA2D and the MADYM02D occupant simulation models. Simulations of a series of sled tests with a Hybrid II test dummy restrained with a 3-point belt system have been conducted using the MADYM02D model. The simulation results agree with the test results.
Technical Paper
Jesse S. Ruan, Raed El-Jawahri, Saeed Barbat, Priya Prasad
Human abdominal response and injury in blunt impacts was investigated through finite element simulations of cadaver tests using a full human body model of an average-sized adult male. The model was validated at various impact speeds by comparing model responses with available experimental cadaver test data in pendulum side impacts and frontal rigid bar impacts from various sources. Results of various abdominal impact simulations are presented in this paper. Model-predicted abdominal dynamic responses such as force-time and force-deflection characteristics, and injury severities, measured by organ pressures, for the simulated impact conditions are presented. Quantitative results such as impact forces, abdominal deflections, internal organ stresses have shown that the abdomen responded differently to left and right side impacts, especially in low speed impact.
Technical Paper
Nripen Saha, Stephen Calso, Djamal Midoun, Priya Prasad
Global engineering is increasingly becoming a practice within the automotive industry. Due to added engineering and manufacturing benefits, more and more new vehicles are being developed with common structure to meet the consumer needs in many local regions. While vehicle development and manufacturing process is becoming global, automotive safety regulations in various parts of the world have not been as uniform. A good example is the differing requirements for dynamic side impact protection of new vehicles. United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and European Union (EU) have each produced their own distinct test procedures such as, different barrier faces, impact configurations, and anthropomorphic test devices (dummies). Although both test procedures have the same final objective estimate occupant responses in side impacts, they differ greatly in execution and emphasis on occupant response requirements.
Technical Paper
Saeed D. Barbat, Priya Prasad
This paper first describes an experimental analytical approach and numerical procedures used to establish crushable foam material constants needed in finite element (FE) analysis. Dynamic compressive stress-strain data of a 2 pcf Dytherm foam, provided by ARCO Chemical, is used to determine the material parameters which appears in the foam constitutive equation. A finite element model simulating a 15 mph spherical headform impact with a foam sample 6 in. x 6 in. x 1 in. fixed against a rigid plate is developed. The predicted force-deflection characteristic is validated against test data to characterize the initial loading and final unloading stiffnesses of the foam during impact. Finite element modeling and analysis of 15 mph spherical headform impact with component sections of upper interior structures of a passenger compartment is presented.
Technical Paper
Jesse S. Ruan, Priya Prasad
The potential of head injury in frontal barrier impact tests was investigated by a mathematical model which consisted of a finite element human head model, a four segments rigid dynamic neck model, a rigid body occupant model, and a lumped-mass vehicle structure model. The finite element human head model represents anatomically an average adult head. The rigid body occupant model simulates an average adult male. The structure model simulates the interior space and the dynamic characteristics of a vehicle. The neck model integrates the finite element human head to the occupant body to give a more realistic kinematic head motion in a barrier crash test. Model responses were compared with experimental cadaveric data and vehicle crash data for the purpose of model validation to ensure model accuracy. Model results show a good agreement with those of the tests.
Technical Paper
Saeed D. Barbat, Hyun-Yong Jeong, Priya Prasad
This paper describes the steps and procedures involved in the development, calibration, and validation of a finite element model of a deformable featureless headform (Hybrid III head without nose). Development efforts included: a headform scan to verify geometric accuracy, quantification of general-purpose construction of the finite element model from the scanned data, viscoelastic parameters for the constitutive model definition of the headform skin, and models of drop tests with impact speeds of 9.775, 14.484, 19.312, and 24.140 km/h (6.074, 9, 12, and 15 mph). The predictions of all pertinent headform responses during the calibration were in excellent agreement with related experiments. The validity of the headform model and the headform impact methodology were verified in both component and full vehicle environments. This was accomplished through comparisons of finite element simulations with tests of the headform responses at 24.140 km/h (15 mph) impact.
Technical Paper
Stanley H. Backaitis, Maurice E. Hicks, Priya Prasad, Tony Laituri, Jeffrey Nadeau
Locations of key body segments of Hybrid III dummies used in FMVSS 208 compliance tests and NCAP tests were measured and subjected to statistical analysis. Mean clearance dimensions and their standard deviations for selected body segments of driver and passenger occupants with respect to selected vehicle surfaces were determined for several classes of vehicles. These occupant locations were then investigated for correlation with impact responses measured in crash tests and by using a three dimensional human-dummy mathematical model in comparable settings. Based on these data, the importance of some of the clearance dimensions between the dummy and the vehicle surfaces was determined. The study also compares observed Hybrid III dummy positions within selected vehicles with real world occupant positions reported in published literature.
Technical Paper
Li Chai, Thiag Subbian, Adnan Khan, Saeed Barbat, Chris O'Connor, Robert McCoy, Priya Prasad
This paper describes the development and validation of a finite element model of the SID-IIs beta+-prototype dummy using a nonlinear explicit finite element code. The geometry of the SID-IIs dummy is modeled with shell and solid elements from digital scans. The material properties are derived from dynamic tests and the model validation is conducted on component, subassembly and full assembly levels. Component level validation of the head/neck, arm, ribs, and lumbar spine is presented. The model validation of the thorax and pelvis subassemblies as well as pendulum calibration tests (shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis) and rigid-wall sled tests of the fully assembled dummy mode is also presented. The model response compares favorably with experimental data and provides a reasonable level of confidence in the model biofidelity.
Technical Paper
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan, Priya Prasad
Lower-body injury data for adults in real-world frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) were collected, analyzed, and modeled via statistical methods. Two levels of lower-body injury were considered: maximum serious-to-fatal (MAIS3+) and moderate-to-fatal (MAIS2+). In the analysis, we observed that a substantial fraction of all lower-body injured occupants had no recorded floor/toe pan intrusion: 47% of all MAIS3+ injured occupants; 69% of all MAIS2+ injured occupants. In the statistical modeling, we developed binary logistic regression models to fit the MAIS3+ and MAIS 2+ injury data. The statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05) were the speed change of the crash, postcrash floor/toe pan intrusion, level of restraint, occupant age, and occupant gender.
Technical Paper
Jesse S. Ruan, Raed El-Jawahri, Stephen W. Rouhana, Saeed Barbat, Priya Prasad
The biofidelity of the Ford Motor Company human body finite element (FE) model in side impact simulations was analyzed and evaluated following the procedures outlined in ISO technical report TR9790. This FE model, representing a 50th percentile adult male, was used to simulate the biomechanical impact tests described in ISO-TR9790. These laboratory tests were considered as suitable for assessing the lateral impact biofidelity of the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis of crash test dummies, subcomponent test devices, and math models that are used to represent a 50th percentile adult male. The simulated impact responses of the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis of the FE model were compared with the PMHS (Post Mortem Human Subject) data upon which the response requirements for side impact surrogates was based. An overall biofidelity rating of the human body FE model was determined using the ISO-TR9790 rating method.
Technical Paper
King H. Yang, Jingwen Hu, Nicholas A. White, Albert I. King, Clifford C. Chou, Priya Prasad
Numerical analyses frequently accompany experimental investigations that study injury biomechanics and improvements in automotive safety. Limited by computational speed, earlier mathematical models tended to simplify the system under study so that a set of differential equations could be written and solved. Advances in computing technology and analysis software have enabled the development of many sophisticated models that have the potential to provide a more comprehensive understanding of human impact response, injury mechanisms, and tolerance. In this article, 50 years of publications on numerical modeling published in the Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings and Journal were reviewed. These models were based on: (a) author-developed equations and software, (b) public and commercially available programs to solve rigid body dynamic models (such as MVMA2D, CAL3D or ATB, and MADYMO), and (c) finite element models.
Technical Paper
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan, Priya Prasad
A set of risk equations was derived to estimate the probability of sustaining a moderate-to-serious injury to the knee-thigh-hip complex (KTH) in a frontal crash. The study consisted of four parts. First, data pertaining to knee-loaded, whole-body, post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were collected from the literature, and the attendant response data (e.g., axial compressive load applied to the knee) were normalized to those of a mid-sized male. Second, numerous statistical analyses and mathematical constructs were used to derive the set of risk equations for adults of various ages and genders. Third, field data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) were analyzed for subsequent comparison purposes.
Technical Paper
Tony R. Laituri, Donald Sullivan, Kaye Sullivan, Priya Prasad
A theoretical math model was created to assess the net effect of aging populations versus evolving system designs from the standpoint of thoracic injury potential. The model was used to project the next twenty-five years of thoracic injuries in Canada. The choice of Canada was topical because rulemaking for CMVSS 208 has been proposed recently. The study was limited to properly-belted, front-outboard, adult occupants in 11-1 o'clock frontal crashes. Moreover, only AIS3+thoracic injury potential was considered. The research consisted of four steps. First, sub-models were developed and integrated. The sub-models were made for numerous real-world effects including population growth, crash involvement, fleet penetration of various systems (via system introduction, vehicle production, and vehicle attrition), and attendant injury risk estimation. Second, existing NASS data were used to estimate the number of AIS3+ chest-injured drivers in Canada in 2001.
Technical Paper
Jesse S. Ruan, Raed El-Jawahri, Saeed Barbat, Stephen W. Rouhana, Priya Prasad
This study applies a detailed finite element model of the human body to simulate occupant knee impacts experienced in vehicular frontal crashes. The human body model includes detailed anatomical features of the head, neck, chest, thoracic and lumbar spine, abdomen, and lower and upper extremities. The material properties used in the model for each anatomic part of the human body were obtained from test data reported in the literature. The total human body model used in the current study has been previously validated in frontal and side impacts. Several cadaver knee impact tests representing occupants in a frontal impact condition were simulated using the previously validated human body model. Model impact responses in terms of force-time and acceleration-time histories were compared with test results. In addition, stress distributions of the patella, femur, and pelvis were reported for the simulated test conditions.
Technical Paper
Jesse S. Ruan, Raed El-Jawahri, Saeed Barbat, Stephen W. Rouhana, Priya Prasad
Changes in vehicle safety design technology and the increasing use of seat-belts and airbag restraint systems have gradually changed the relative proportion of lower extremity injuries. These changes in real world injuries have renewed interest and the need of further investigation into occupant injury mechanisms and biomechanical impact responses of the knee-thigh-hip complex during frontal impacts. This study uses a detailed finite element model of the human body to simulate occupant knee impacts experienced in frontal crashes. The human body model includes detailed anatomical features of the head, neck, shoulder, chest, thoracic and lumbar spine, abdomen, pelvis, and lower and upper extremities. The material properties used in the model for each anatomic part of the human body were obtained from test data reported in the literature. The human body model used in the current study has been previously validated in frontal and side impacts.
Technical Paper
Sung-Tae Hong, Jwo Pan, Tau Tyan, Priya Prasad
Macroscopic constitutive behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycombs under dynamic inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction are investigated by experiments. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same for a fixed ratio of the normal to shear displacement rate. The experimental results suggest that the macroscopic yield surface of the honeycomb specimens as a function of the impact velocity under the given dynamic inclined loads is not governed by the isotropic hardening rule of the classical plasticity theory. As the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state.
Technical Paper
Saeed Barbat, Xiaowei Li, Phillip Przybylo, Priya Prasad
This paper describes a CAE-based methodology used to identity major factors influencing vehicle structural performance and crash energy management in full-frontal vehicle-to-vehicle collisions. Finite element models of an “average” SUV and an “average” full-size passenger vehicle were used in this study. The determining factors of vehicle compatibility in multi-vehicle collisions are relative mass, relative stiffness and relative geometry. Four parameters of the average SUV, mass, fore rail length, fore rail thickness, and fore rail height were selected as design variables. A uniformly spaced Optimal Latin Hypercube sampling technique was employed to probe the design space of these variables using thirteen simulation runs. Dash intrusions in the passenger vehicle and the absorbed collision energy in both vehicles were selected as response variables.
Technical Paper
Jesse Ruan, Raed El-Jawahri, Li Chai, Saeed Barbat, Priya Prasad
Human thoracic dynamic responses and injuries associated with frontal impact, side impact, and belt loading were investigated and predicted using a complete human body finite element model for an average adult male. The human body model was developed to study the impact biomechanics of a vehicular occupant. Its geometry was based on the Visible Human Project (National Library of Medicine) and the topographies from human body anatomical texts. The data was then scaled to an average adult male according to available biomechanical data from the literature. The model includes details of the head, neck, ribcage, abdomen, thoracic and lumbar spine, internal organs of the chest and abdomen, pelvis, and the upper and lower extremities. The present study is focused on the dynamic response and injuries of the thorax.
Technical Paper
Tony R. Laituri, N. Sriram, Brian P. Kachnowski, Brion R. Scheidel, Priya Prasad
In the 1999 Supplemental Notice for Proposed Rulemaking (SNPRM) for Advanced Airbags, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) sought comments on the maximum speed at which the high-speed, unbelted occupant test suite will be conducted, i.e., 48 kph vs. 40 kph. To help address this question, an analysis of constraints was performed via extensive mathematical modeling of a theoretical restraint system. First, math models (correlated with several existing physical tests) were used to predict the occupant responses associated with 336 different theoretical dual-stage driver airbag designs subjected to six specific Regulated and non-Regulated tests.
Technical Paper
Trilok S. Dhaliwal, Philippe Beillas, Clifford C. Chou, Priya Prasad, King H. Yang, Albert I. King
Little has been reported in the literature on the compressive properties of muscle. These data are needed for the development of finite element models that address impact of the muscles, especially in the study of pedestrian impact. Tests were conducted to characterize the compressive response of muscle. Volunteers, cadaveric specimens and a Hybrid III dummy were impacted in the posterior and lateral aspect of the lower leg using a free flying pendulum. Volunteer muscles were tested while tensed and relaxed. The effects of muscle tension were found to influence results, especially in posterior leg impacts. Cadaveric response was found to be similar to that of the relaxed volunteer. The resulting data can be used to identify a material law using an inverse method.
Technical Paper
Lan Wang, Richard Banglmaier, Priya Prasad
Risk curves are developed for several crash data sets, expressing the probabilities of injury as a function of HIC, Extension Moment, Neck Tension and Maximum Deflection, respectively. The statistical method uses concept of thresholds that are interval censored and right censored. A combined evaluation method is used to select a “best” curve among the curves derived from various methods.
Technical Paper
Philippe Beillas, Paul C. Begeman, King H. Yang, Albert I. King, Pierre-Jean Arnoux, Ho-Sung Kang, Kambiz Kayvantash, Christian Brunet, Claude Cavallero, Priya Prasad
The Lower Limb Model for Safety (LLMS) is a finite element model of the lower limb developed mainly for safety applications. It is based on a detailed description of the lower limb anatomy derived from CT and MRI scans collected on a subject close to a 50th percentile male. The main anatomical structures from ankle to hip (excluding the hip) were all modeled with deformable elements. The modeling of the foot and ankle region was based on a previous model Beillas et al. (1999) that has been modified. The global validation of the LLMS focused on the response of the isolated lower leg to axial loading, the response of the isolated knee to frontal and lateral impact, and the interaction of the whole model with a Hybrid III model in a sled environment, for a total of nine different set-ups. In order to better characterize the axial behavior of the lower leg, experiments conducted on cadaveric tibia and foot were reanalyzed and experimental corridors were proposed.
Technical Paper
Jesse Ruan, Priya Prasad
Variations in human skull thickness affecting human head dynamic impact responses were studied by finite element modeling techniques, experimental measurements, and histology examinations. The aims of the study were to better understand the influences of skull thickness variations on human head dynamic impact responses and the injury mechanisms of human head during direct impact. The thicknesses of the frontal bone of seven human cadaver skulls were measured using ultrasonic technology. These measurements were compared with previous experimental data. Histology of the skull was recorded and examined. The measured data were analyzed and then served as a reference to vary the skull thickness of a previously published three-dimensional finite element human head model to create four models with different skull thickness. The skull thicknesses modeled are 4.6 mm, 5.98 mm, 7.68 mm, and 9.61 mm.
Viewing 1 to 25 of 25


    • Range:
    • Year: