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Viewing 1 to 30 of 36
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1417
Bastian Maass, Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart
More and more stringent emission regulations require advanced control technologies for combustion engines. This goes along with increased monitoring requirements of engine behaviour. In case of emissions behaviour and fuel consumption the actual combustion efficiency is of highest interest. A key parameter of combustion conditions is the in-cylinder pressure during engine cycle. The measurement and detection is difficult and cost intensive. Hence, modelling of in-cylinder conditions is a promising approach for finding optimum control behaviour. However, on-line controller design requires real-time scenarios which are difficult to model and current modelling approaches are either time consuming or inaccurate. This paper presents a new approach of in-cylinder condition prediction. Rather than reconstructing in-cylinder pressure signals from vibration transferred signals through cylinder heads or rods this approach predicts the conditions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0697
Hui Xie, Richard Stobart, Per Tunestal, Lars Eriksson, Yiqun Huang, Patrick Leteinturier
The aim of this paper is to compile the state of the art of engine control and develop scenarios for improvements in a number of applications of engine control where the pace of technology change is at its most marked. The first application is control of downsized engines with enhancement of combustion using direct injection, variable valve actuation and turbo charging. The second application is electrification of the powertrain with its impact on engine control. Various architectures are explored such as micro, mild, full hybrid and range extenders. The third application is exhaust gas after-treatment, with a focus on the trade-off between engine and after-treatment control. The fourth application is implementation of powertrain control systems, hardware, software, methods, and tools. The paper summarizes several examples where the performance depends on the availability of control systems for automotive applications.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1303
Jiamei Deng, Bastian Maass, Richard Stobart, Edward Winward, Zhijia Yang
One of the most critical challenges currently facing the diesel engine industry is how to improve fuel economy under emission regulations. Improvement in fuel economy can be achieved by precisely controlling Air/Fuel ratio and by monitoring fuel consumption in real time. Accurate and repeatable measurements of fuel rate play a critical role in successfully controlling air/fuel ratio and in monitoring fuel consumption. Volumetric and gravimetric measurements are well-known methods for measuring fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. However, these methods are not suitable for obtaining fuel flow rate data used in real-time control/measurement. In this paper, neural networks are used to solve the problem concerning discontinuous data of fuel flow rate measured by using an AVL 733 s fuel meter. The continuous parts of discontinuous fuel flow rate are used to train and validate a neural network, which can then be used to predict the discontinuous parts of the fuel flow rate.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1344
Zhijia Yang, Thomas Steffen, Richard Stobart, Edward Winward
Abstract In order to identify predictive models for a diesel engine combustion process, combustion cylinder pressure together with other fuel path variables such as rail pressure, injector current and sleeve pressure of 1000 continuous cycles were sampled and collected at high resolution. Using these engine steady state test data, three types of modeling approach have been studied. The first is the Auto-Regressive-Moving-Average (ARMA) model which had limited prediction ability for both peak combustion pressure (Pmax) and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP). By applying correlation analysis, proper inputs were found for a linear predictive model of Pmax and IMEP respectively. The prediction performance of this linear model is excellent with a 30% fit number for both Pmax and IMEP. Further nonlinear modeling work shows that even a nonlinear Neural Network (NN) model does not have improved prediction performance compared to the linear predictive model.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1350
Zhijia Yang, Richard Stobart, Edward Winward, Thomas Steffen
Abstract A three-pulse fuel injection mode has been studied by implementing two-input-two-output (2I2O) control of both peak combustion pressure (Pmax) and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). The engine test results show that at low engine speed, the first main injection duration and the second main injection duration are able to be used to control Pmax and IMEP respectively. This control is exercised within a limited but promising area of the engine map. However, at high engine speed, Pmax and IMEP are strongly coupled together and then can not be separately controlled by the two control variables: the first and the second main injection duration. A simple zero-dimensional (0D) combustion model together with correlation analysis method was used to find out why the coupling strength of Pmax and IMEP increases with engine speed increased.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1113
Yiliang Zhu, Richard Stobart, Jiamei Deng
Variable compression ratio in conjunction with a control system is an effective way to improve performance and reduce emissions in a diesel engine. There are various methods that may be employed that include geometry changes and varying valve timing to change the effective compression ratio. In this paper, a simulation study is presented that is based on a modern, multi-cylinder, fixed compression ratio diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The engine is represented using the GT-Power code, and includes a predictive combustion model. The aim of the investigation is to identify the impact of variable compression ratio on fuel economy and emission reduction and whether realistic optimal conditions exist. This paper describes how a formal design of experiments procedure is used to define the simulation conditions. Cost functions are defined with different weights for fuel consumption, NOx and soot emissions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1807
Ran Bao, Richard Stobart
Abstract Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of a vehicle which is subject to frequent braking events such as a city bus. As one way to achieve this goal, pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into tanks during braking, and then reuses the compressed air to power an air starter to realize a regenerative Stop-Start function. Unlike the pure electric or hybrid electric passenger car, the pneumatic hybrid city bus uses the rear axle to achieve regenerative braking function. In this paper we discuss research into the blending of pneumatic regenerative braking and mechanical frictional braking at the rear axle. The aim of the braking function is to recover as much energy as possible and at the same time distribute the total braking effort between the front and rear axles to achieve stable braking performance.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1452
Ran Bao, Richard Stobart
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1620
Guangyu Dong, Xiaoran Han, Richard Stobart, Shuo Lu
In this paper an initial dynamic analysis of the Libralato rotary engine prototype is conducted based on a joint engine model. Through the investigation of the Libralato thermodynamic cycle and the geometry characteristics of the engine structure, a multi-chamber core engine model is developed via GT-Power, a commercial software. The whole engine working volume is divided into 5 parts, including an intake chamber, a compression chamber, a combustion chamber, an expansion chamber and a virtual chamber which is used to correct the actual volume variation of the expansion chamber at the end of expansion stroke. The performance of the developed model is validated by experimental results. Then an initial analysis on the engine thermodynamic cycle, the engine operation characteristics and the gas exchange process is conducted. Furthermore, a multi-body mechanism model is designed to analyze the mechanical properties of the engine.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0315
Zhijia Yang, Richard Stobart, Edward Winward
Most modern diesel engines are equipped with common fuel rail system. The common fuel rail pressure and start of injection are two important fuel path control variables which are needed to be carefully calibrated over all engine operation range. They both have big effects on engine emissions, fuel consumptions and combustion noise performance. Though there are mature techniques such as design of experiment, model based calibration together with optimization method for engine calibration task, the engine test points are still many and the calibration costs are still high. Besides, the outputs of the calibration are look up tables or maps which are used in engine open loop control strategy in engine control system. Open loop control system has no adaptive and disturbance rejection ability. So the initially optimally calibrated look up control tables will gradually become less and less optimal when the engine is aging.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0318
Zhijia Yang, Thomas Steffen, Richard Stobart
When a diesel engine is running at steady state, the diesel combustion process still has some level of variation from cycle to cycle, even if engine load and all control inputs are fixed. This variation is a disturbance for the speed governor, and it could lead to less than optimal engine performance in terms of fuel economy, exhaust gas emission and noise emission. The most effective way to reduce this steady state combustion variation is by applying fuel path feedback control. The control action can be performed at a fixed frequency, or at a defined cycle event time. Intra-cycle control has the highest capacity to suppress the combustion deviation, as it measures the current cycle combustion performance and compensates for it within the same cycle using a very fast control response. Correct knowledge and a model of the disturbance sources and combustion variation patterns are essential in the design process of this intra-cycle control strategy.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1158
Thomas Steffen, Richard Stobart, Zhijia Yang
The injection timing of a Diesel internal combustion engine typically follows a prescribed sequence depending on the operating condition using open loop control. Due to advances in sensors and digital electronics it is now possible to implement closed loop control based on in cylinder pressure values. Typically this control action is slow, and it may take several cycles or at least one cycle (cycle-to-cycle control). Using high speed sensors, it becomes technically possible to measure pressure deviations and correct them within the same cycle (intra-cycle control). For example the in cylinder pressure after the pilot inject can be measured, and the timing of the main injection can be adjusted in timing and duration to compensate any deviations in pressure from the expected reference value. This level of control can significantly reduce the deviations between cycles and cylinders, and it can also improve the transient behavior of the engine.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0893
Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart, Cunjia liu, Edward Winward
For diesel engines, fuel path control plays a key role in achieving optimal emissions and fuel economy performance. There are several fuel path parameters that strongly affect the engine performance by changing the combustion process, by modifying for example, start of injection and fuel rail pressure. This is a multi-input multi-output problem. Linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a good approach for such a system with optimal solution. However, fuel path has fast dynamics. On-line optimisation MPC is not the good choice to cope with such fast dynamics. Explicit MPC uses off-line optimisation, therefore, it can be used to control the system with fast dynamics.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
98C055
Richard Stobart
The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is already available commercially and is demonstrating the very significant benefit of improved fuel consumption. The costs associated with the hybrid vehicle are still high, and for novel types of auxiliary power unit are still undefined. Measures to improve the performance of HEV technology are emerging and include the traffic and navigation information which forms part of the telematics infrastructure. One of the key issues in enhancing HEV performance is journey prediction. Journey time and energy requirements can be products of a telematics system but form the basis for a significant performance enhancement to an HEV.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0270
Richard Stobart, Sandra Hounsham, Rohitha Weerasinghe
The idea of thermal energy recovery from vehicle engine exhaust flow is now well supported and funded. Through a number of research projects, several component technologies have been identified. Rankine cycle, turbo-compounding and thermo-electric systems have all attracted interest. Fuel economy improvements vary depending on the drive cycle and the capability of the underlying technologies, but have been reported as high as 25%. Our work at Sussex on a form of Rankine cycle has revealed generic issues about the control of thermal recovery and the associated modelling requirements. Typical issues include the balancing the rate of heat input to the recovery system with the loss of useful work from large temperature differences. The size of components dictates the control authority over the system and consequently its ability to follow changing conditions.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0054
Evangelos Gonatas, Richard Stobart
The process of controlling tailpipe emissions leads to the need to understand the dynamic behaviour of the after-treatment devices. The model provides the basis for design prediction, on-line diagnosis and real time control. Although a number of models have been presented in the literature, their efficient performance continues to require further development and validation to meet increasingly demanding requirements. Models have been developed that use the basic physical framework including thermal behaviour, fluid mechanics and basic chemistries. As more demands are placed on models, more phenomena need to be taken into account and in particular, progressively more of the chemistry of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) itself. In this paper we present a black-box model for a three-way catalytic converter that has been developed and tested using real experimental data.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1632
Ming Jia, Zhijun Peng, Maozhao Xie, Richard Stobart
Diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines with early injection can result in significant spray/wall impingement which seriously affects the fuel efficiency and emissions. In this paper, the spray/wall interaction models which are available in the literatures are reviewed, and the characteristics of modeling including spray impingement regime, splash threshold, mass fraction, size and velocity of the second droplets are summarized. Then three well developed spray/wall interaction models, O'Rourke and Amsden (OA) model, Bai and Gosman (BG) model and Han, Xu and Trigui (HXT) model, are implemented into KIVA-3V code, and validated by the experimental data from recent literatures under the conditions related to diesel HCCI engines. By comparing the spray pattern, droplet mass, size and velocity after the impingement, the thickness of the wall film and vapor distribution with the experimental data, the performance of these three models are evaluated.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1711
Matt Best, Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart, James Marco
Traditionally, university research in engine technology has been focused on fundamental engine phenomena. Increasingly however, research topics are developing in the form of systems issues. Examples include air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) management, after-treatment systems, engine cooling, hybrid systems and energy recovery. This trend leads to the need for engine research to be conducted using currently available products and components that are re-configured or incrementally improved to support a particular research investigation. A production engine will include an electronic control unit (ECU) that must be understood and utilised or simply removed and circumvented. In general the intellectual property (IP) limitations places on ECUs by their suppliers mean that they cannot be used. The supplier of the ECU is usually unable to reveal any detail of the implementation. As a consequence any research using production hardware is seriously disadvantaged from the beginning.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0082
Anita Chaudhari, Alexandros Plianos, Richard Stobart
This paper presents a control system design strategy for a novel fuel cell - internal combustion engine hybrid power system. Dynamic control oriented models of the system components are developed. The transient behavior of the system components is investigated in order to determine control parameters and set-points. The analysis presented here is the first step towards development of a controller for this complex system. The results indicate various possibilities for control design and development. A control strategy is discussed to achieve system performance optimization.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0309
Sandra Hounsham, Richard Stobart, Adam Cooke, Peter Childs
Energy recovery from IC engines has proved to be of considerable interest across the range of vehicle applications. The motivation is substantial fuel economy gain that can be achieved with a minimal affect on the “host” technology of the vehicle. This paper reviews the initial results of a research project whose objective has been to identify system concepts and control methods for thermal recovery techniques. A vapour power cycle is the means of energy transfer. The architecture of the system is considered along with support of the fuel economy claims with the results of some hybrid vehicle modelling. An overview of the latest experimental equipment and design of the heat exchanger is presented. The choice of control architecture and strategy, whose goal is overall efficiency of the engine system, is presented and discussed. Some initial control results are presented.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1018
Alexandros Plianos, Richard Stobart
The two-stage turbocharging technique is an effective way to improve performance and reduce emissions in diesel engines. In this paper, we consider a diesel engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve and two turbochargers in series. The low pressure turbine is of fixed geometry and the high pressure turbine is a variable geometry turbine (VGT). The control objective is to regulate air-to-fuel (AFR), EGR exhaust fraction and the power ratio of the two turbines by coordinated manipulation of the EGR and VGT actuators. Unlike engines with a single turbocharger, in two-staged turbocharged engines, regulation of the power ratio of the turbines is also needed in order to adequately define the equilibrium point of the engine airpath. First, a mean value engine model (MVEM) is proposed to physically describe the air path dynamics. With rich excitation of the controls in the MVEM, we identify several linear models for different areas of the engine speed-torque envelope.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0662
Richard Stobart, Rohitha Weerasinghe
The pursuit of fuel economy is forcing technology change across the range of control and engine management technologies. Improved thermal management has been addressed in order to promote fast warm-up, improved exhaust gas after-treatment performance, and lower variance in combustion through a consistent and high cylinder head temperature. Temperature management of exhaust gas is of increasing interest because of the need to maintain efficiency in after-treatment devices. More effective temperature management places requirements on heat exchange systems, and offers the potential for bottoming and heat recovery cycles that use energy transferred from the exhaust stream. Turbo-compounding is already established in heavy duty engines, where a reduction in exhaust gas temperature is the consequence of an additional stage of expansion through an exhaust turbine. A new project in electric turbo-compounding offers flexibility in the control of energy extracted from the exhaust stream[1].
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0971
Alexandros Plianos, Richard Stobart, Ali Achir
In this paper, a robust adaptive optimal tracking control design for the air-path system of diesel engines with uncertain parameters and external driver commands is proposed. First, an optimal controller based on the analytic solution of a performance index is derived. It achieves tracking of suitable references (corresponding to low emissions and fuel consumption) for both the air-fuel ratio and the fraction of the recirculated exhaust gas. Then, a fuzzy estimation algorithm is used to identify the plant parameters and consequently to adapt the controller online. The simulated diesel engine is a medium duty Caterpillar 3126B with six cylinders, equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger and an exhaust gas recirculation valve. The proposed controller design is based on the reduced third order mean value model and implemented as a closed-form nonlinear model predictive control law on the full order model.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1333
Richard Stobart, Dan Milner
The pursuit of improved fuel economy is becoming an increasingly important objective for automotive manufacturers. The field of thermo-electrics is highlighted as a promising technology. The figure of merit, Z is the primary measure of the effectiveness of a thermo-electric material, and the values now being offered by researchers have reached the level where new applications become attractive. It is feasible to consider such modules incorporated into a thermoelectric generator to recover waste heat from exhaust gas flow – an available energy stream that has traditionally been neglected as unusable. As a precursor to a costly experimental study it is desirable to accurately simulate the application of a thermo-electric system to a vehicle exhaust to understand both the feasibility and potential drawbacks.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1525
Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart
Variable valve actuation in heavy duty diesel engines is not well documented, because of diesel engine feature, such as, unthrottled air handling, which gives little room to improve pumping loss; a very high compression ratio, which makes the clearance between the piston and valve small at the top dead center. In order to avoid strike the piston while maximizing the valve movement scope, different strategies are adopted in this paper: (1) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, exhaust valve opening is changed; (2) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, late exhaust valve opening: (3) While inlet valve opening is fixed, inlet valve closing is changed; (4) Delayed Inlet valve and exhaust valve openings and closings; (5) Changing exhaust valve timing; (6) changing inlet valve timing; (7) Changing both inlet and exhaust timing, will be used.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0617
Dezong Zhao, Edward Winward, Zhijia Yang, John Rutledge, Richard Stobart
Abstract Engine electrification is a critical technology in the promotion of engine fuel efficiency, among which the electrified turbocharger is regarded as the promising solution in engine downsizing. By installing electrical devices on the turbocharger, the excess energy can be captured, stored, and re-used. The electrified turbocharger consists of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and an electric motor (EM) within the turbocharger bearing housing, where the EM is capable in bi-directional power transfer. The VGT, EM, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve all impact the dynamics of air path. In this paper, the dynamics in an electrified turbocharged diesel engine (ETDE), especially the couplings between different loops in the air path is analyzed. Furthermore, an explicit principle in selecting control variables is proposed. Based on the analysis, a model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) decoupling controller is designed to regulate the air path dynamics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0550
Zhijia Yang, Edward Winward, Gary O'Brien, Richard Stobart, Dezong Zhao
Abstract The intrinsic model accuracy limit of a commonly used Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) mass flow rate model in diesel engine air path control is discussed in this paper. This EGR mass flow rate model is based on the flow of a compressible ideal gas with unchanged specific heat ratio through a restriction cross-area within a duct. A practical identification procedure of the model parameters is proposed based on the analysis of the engine data and model structure. This procedure has several advantages which include simplicity, low computation burden and low engine test cost. It is shown that model tuning requires only an EGR valve sweep test at a few engine steady state operating points.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1170
George Dixon, Thomas Steffen, Richard Stobart
Abstract The TC48 project is developing a state-of-the-art, exceptionally low cost, 48V Plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) demonstration drivetrain suitable for electrically powered urban driving, hybrid operation, and internal combustion engine powered high speed motoring. This paper explains the motivation for the project, and presents the layout options considered and the rationale by which these were reduced. The vehicle simulation model used to evaluate the layout options is described and discussed. The modelling work was used in order to support and justify the design choices made. The design of the vehicle's control systems is discussed, presenting simulation results. The physical embodiment of the design is not reported in this paper. The paper describes analysis of small vehicles in the marketplace, including aspects of range and cost, leading to the justification for the specification of the TC48 system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0232
Zhijia Yang, Edward Winward, Song Lan, Richard Stobart
Abstract Two identical commercial Thermo-Electric Modules (TEMs) were assembled on a plate type heat exchanger to form a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) unit in this study. This unit was tested on the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) flow path of a test engine. The data collected from the test was used to develop and validate a steady state, zero dimensional numerical model of the TEG. Using this model and the EGR path flow conditions from a 30% torque Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) engine test, an optimization of the number of TEM units in this TEG device was conducted. The reduction in fuel consumption during the transient test cycle was estimated based on the engine instantaneous Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The perfect conversion of TEG recovered electrical energy to engine shaft mechanical energy was assumed. Simulations were performed for a single TEG unit (i.e. 2 TEMs) to up to 50 TEG units (i.e. 100 TEMs).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0423
Olivier Grondin, Richard Stobart, Houcine Chafouk, Jean Maquet
Constraints change as pollutant standards or embedded diagnosis demands require improvements in model accuracy and their suitability for control algorithm synthesis. From thermodynamic mathematical modelling to non-parametric models, a wide range of techniques has been investigated for the last thirty years involving both physicists and control engineers. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of current modelling techniques oriented control analysis and design for compression ignition engines. Short examples illustrate each techniques and existing applications are considered. Comparison of various engine models exhibit the trend to include more physical knowledge inside model-based control design.
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