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2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1151
Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cicalese, Giuseppe Cantore, Alessandro D'Adamo
Abstract In order to improve fuel conversion efficiency, currently made spark-ignited engines are characterized by the adoption of gasoline direct injection, supercharging and/or turbocharging, complex variable valve actuation strategies. The resulting increase in power/size ratios is responsible for substantially higher average thermal loads on the engine components, which in turn result in increased risks of both thermo-mechanical failures and abnormal combustion events such as surface ignition or knock. The paper presents a comprehensive numerical methodology for the accurate estimation of knock tendency of SI engines, based on the integration of different modeling frameworks and tools. Full-cycle in-cylinder analyses are used to estimate the point-wise heat flux acting on the engine components facing the combustion chamber.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1148
Stefano Fontanesi, Stefano Paltrinieri, Giuseppe Cantore
Abstract The paper critically discusses Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) potential to investigate cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) in internal combustion engines. Particularly, the full load/peak power engine speed operation of a high-performance turbocharged GDI unit, for which ample cycle-to-cycle fluctuations were observed during experimental investigations at the engine test bed, is analyzed through a multi-cycle approach covering 25 subsequent engine cycles. In order to assess the applicability of LES within the research and development industrial practice, a modeling framework with a limited impact on the computational cost of the simulations is set up, with particular reference to the extent of the computational domain, the computational grid size, the choice of boundary conditions and numerical sub-models [1, 2, 3].
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1065
Stefano Fontanesi, Elena Severi, Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis
In the present paper, two different methodologies are adopted and critically integrated to analyze the knock behavior of a last generation small size spark ignition (SI) turbocharged VVA engine. Particularly, two full load operating points are selected, exhibiting relevant differences in terms of knock proximity. On one side, a knock investigation is carried out by means of an Auto-Regressive technique (AR model) to process experimental in-cylinder pressure signals. This mathematical procedure is used to estimate the statistical distribution of knocking cycles and provide a validation of the following 1D-3D knock investigations. On the other side, an integrated numerical approach is set up, based on the synergic use of 1D and 3D simulation tools. The 1D engine model is developed within the commercial software GT-Power™. It is used to provide time-varying boundary conditions (BCs) for the 3D code, Star-CD™.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0031
Stefano Fontanesi, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Paltrinieri, Giuseppe Cantore, Christopher Rutland
The paper reports the application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to LES calculations for the analysis of combustion and knock tendency in a highly downsized turbocharged GDI engine that is currently under production. In order to qualitatively match the cyclic variability of the combustion process, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the closed-valve portion of the cycle is used with cycle-dependent initial conditions from a previous multi-cycle analysis [1, 2, 3]. Detailed chemical modelling of fuel's auto-ignition quality is considered through an ad-hoc implemented look-up table approach, as a trade-off between the need for a reasonable representation of the chemistry and that of limiting the computational cost of the LES simulations. Experimental tests were conducted operating the engine at knock-limited spark advance (KLSA) and the proposed knock model was previously validated for such engine setup [3].
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0020
Enrico Mattarelli, Stefano Fontanesi, Carlo Rinaldini, Gerardo Valentino, Stefano Iannuzzi, Elena Severi, Valeri Golovitchev
Enhanced calibration strategies and innovative engine combustion technologies are required to meet the new limits on exhaust gas emissions enforced in the field of marine propulsion and on-board energy production. The goal of the paper is to optimize the control parameters of a 4.2 dm3 unit displacement marine DI Diesel engine, in order to enhance the efficiency of the combustion system and reduce engine out emissions. The investigation is carried out by means of experimental tests and CFD simulations. For a better control of the testing conditions, the experimental activity is performed on a single cylinder prototype, while the engine test bench is specifically designed to simulate different levels of boosting. The numerical investigations are carried out using a set of different CFD tools: GT-Power for the engine cycle analysis, STAR-CD for the study of the in-cylinder flow, and a customized version of the KIVA-3V code for combustion.
2005-10-12
Technical Paper
2005-32-0093
Giuseppe CANTORE, Stefano FONTANESI, Vincenzo GAGLIARDI, Simone MALAGUTI
The paper aims at providing information about the in-cylinder flow structure and its evolution of a high speed direct injection (HSDI) four valve per cylinder engine for off-highway applications. Fully transient CFD analyses by means of state-of-the-art tools and methodologies are carried out for the whole intake and compression strokes, in order to evaluate port effects on both engine permability and in-cylinder flow field evolution. Organized mean motions (i.e., swirl, tumble and squish) are investigated, trying to establish general rules in the port design optimization process, addressing relationships between the relative port orientation and the in-cylinder flow structure. Different port configurations are compared, each deriving from the rotation of the BASE port configuration on two different planes, the former being perpendicular to the cylinder axis, while the latter being parallel to the cylinder axis.
2005-10-12
Technical Paper
2005-32-0094
Stefano FONTANESI, Vincenzo GAGLIARDI, Simone MALAGUTI, Enrico MATTARELLI
The paper aims at providing information about the influence of the combustion chamber shape on the combustion process evolution in a high speed direct injection (HSDI) small unit displacement engine for off-highway applications. Small HSDI Diesel engines require a deep optimisation process in order to maximize specific power output, while limiting pollutant emissions without additional expensive pollutant aftertreatment equipments. Making reference to a current production engine, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of combustion chamber design on both engine performances and combustion efficiency. The actual piston omega-shape is progressively distorted in order to assess the influence of some of the main bowl-features on both mean-flow evolution, mixture formation and pollutants.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0393
Alessandro d'Adamo, Fabio Berni, Sebastiano Breda, Mattia Lugli, Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cantore
Abstract Engine downsizing is gaining popularity in the high performance engine market sector, where a new generation of highly downsized engines with specific power outputs around or above 150 HP/litre is emerging. High-boost and downsizing, adopted to increase power density and reduce fuel consumption, have to face the increased risks of pre-ignition, knock or mega-knock. To counterbalance autoignition of fuel/air mixture, such engines usually operate with high fuel enrichments and delayed (sometimes negative) spark advances. The former is responsible for high fuel consumption levels, while the latter reduces performance and induces an even lower A/F ratio (below 11), to limit the turbine inlet temperature, with huge negative effects on BSFC.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1080
Stefano Fontanesi, Stefano Paltrinieri, Alessandro Tiberi, Alessandro D'Adamo
The paper reports the application of LES multi-cycle analysis for the characterization of cycle to cycle variability (hereafter CCV) of a highly downsized DISI engine for sport car applications. The analysis covers several subsequent engine cycles operating the engine at full load, peak power engine speed. Despite the chosen engine operation is usually considered relatively stable, relevant fluctuations were experimentally measured in terms of in-cylinder pressure evolution and combustion phasing.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1082
Stefano Fontanesi, Stefano Paltrinieri, Alessandro D'Adamo, Giuseppe Cantore, Christopher Rutland
The paper reports the application of a look-up table approach within a LES combustion modelling framework for the prediction of knock limit in a highly downsized turbocharged DISI engine. During experimental investigations at the engine test bed, high cycle-to-cycle variability was detected even for relatively stable peak power / full load operations of the engine, where knock onset severely limited the overall engine performance. In order to overcome the excessive computational cost of a direct chemical solution within a LES framework, the use of look-up tables for auto-ignition modelling perfectly fits with the strict mesh requirements of a LES simulation, with an acceptable approximation of the actual chemical kinetics. The model here presented is a totally stand-alone tool for autoignition analysis integrated with look-up table reading from detailed chemical kinetic schemes for gasoline.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1088
Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cicalese, Alessandro Tiberi
The paper describes an integrated methodology for the accurate characterization of the thermal behavior of internal combustion engines, with particular reference to a high performance direct injected SI engine for sport car applications. The engine is operated at full load and maximum power revving speed, which is known to be critical from the point of view of thermal stresses on the engine components. In particular, two different sets of 3D-CFD calculations are adopted: on one side, full-cycle in-cylinder analyses are carried out to estimate the point wise thermal heat flux due to combustion on the engine components facing the combustion chamber. On the other side, full-engine multi-region CHT calculations covering the engine coolant jacket and the surrounding metal components are used to compute the point wise temperature distribution within the engine head, liner and block.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1107
Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cicalese, Elena Severi
In-cylinder large scale and small scale structures are widely recognized to strongly influence the mixing process in HSDI Diesel engines, and therefore combustion and pollutant emissions. In particular, swirl motion intensity and temporal evolution during the intake and compression strokes must be correctly estimated to properly target the spray jets. The experimental characterization of the attitude of a valve/port assembly to promote swirl is traditionally limited to the steady flow bench, in which the analysis is carried out for fixed valve positions / fixed pressure drops and with no piston. Since flow bench analyses cannot reproduce the highly complex instantaneous flow conditions typical of actual engine operations, the use of fully-transient in-cylinder numerical simulations can become extremely useful to correctly address the engine ability to promote adequate flow structures and patterns.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2499
Fabio Berni, Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cantore
Abstract A new generation of highly downsized SI engines with specific power output around or above 150 HP/liter is emerging in the sport car market sector. Technologies such as high-boosting, direct injection and downsizing are adopted to increase power density and reduce fuel consumption. To counterbalance the increased risks of pre-ignition, knock or mega-knock, currently made turbocharged SI engines usually operate with high fuel enrichments and delayed (sometimes negative) spark advances. The former is responsible for high fuel consumption levels, while the latter induce an even lower A/F ratio (below 11), to limit the turbine inlet temperature, with huge negative effects on BSFC. A possible solution to increase knock resistance is investigated in the paper by means of 3D-CFD analyses: water/methanol emulsion is port-fuel injected to replace mixture enrichment while preserving, if not improving, indicated mean effective pressure and knock safety margins.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0581
Alessandro D'Adamo, Sebastiano Breda, Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cantore
Abstract Engine knock is emerging as the main limiting factor for modern spark-ignition (SI) engines, facing increasing thermal loads and seeking demanding efficiency targets. To fulfill these requirements, the engine operating point must be moved as close as possible to the onset of abnormal combustion events. The turbulent regime characterizing in-cylinder flows and SI combustion leads to serious fluctuations between consecutive engine cycles. This forces the engine designer to further distance the target condition from its theoretical optimum, in order to prevent abnormal combustion to severely damage the engine components just because of few individual heavy-knocking cycles. A RANS-based model is presented in this study, which is able to predict not only the ensemble average knock occurrence but also a knock probability. This improves the knock tendency characterization, since the mean knock onset alone is a poorly meaningful indication in a stochastic event such as engine knock.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0578
Giuseppe Cicalese, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi
Abstract New SI engine generations are characterized by a simultaneous reduction of the engine displacement and an increase of the brake power; such targets are achieved through the adoption of several techniques such as turbocharging, direct fuel injection, variable valve timing and variable port lengths. This design approach, called “downsizing”, leads to a marked increase in the thermal loads acting on the engine components, in particular on those facing the combustion chamber. Hence, an accurate evaluation of the thermal field is of primary importance in order to avoid mechanical failures. Moreover, the correct evaluation of the temperature distribution improves the prediction of pointwise abnormal combustion onset.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0545
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Stefano Fontanesi, Elena Severi, Fabio Berni
Abstract It is widely recognized that spatial and temporal evolution of both macro- and micro- turbulent scales inside internal combustion engines affect air-fuel mixing, combustion and pollutants formation. Particularly, in spark ignition engines, tumbling macro-structure induces the generation of a proper turbulence level to sustain the development and propagation of the flame front. As known, 3D-CFD codes are able to describe the evolution of the in-cylinder flow and turbulence fields with good accuracy, although a high computational effort is required. For this reason, only a limited set of operating conditions is usually investigated. On the other hand, thanks to a lower computational burden, 1D codes can be employed to study engine performance in the whole operating domain, despite of a less detailed description of in-cylinder processes. The integration of 1D and 3D approaches appears hence a promising path to combine the advantages of both.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0601
Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Nicola Giovannoni, Francesco Testa, Adrian Irimescu, Simona Merola, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract The occurrence of knock is the most limiting hindrance for modern Spark-Ignition (SI) engines. In order to understand its origin and move the operating condition as close as possible to onset of this potentially harmful phenomenon, a joint experimental and numerical investigation is the most recommended approach. A preliminary experimental activity was carried out at IM-CNR on a 0.4 liter GDI unit, equipped with a flat transparent piston. The analysis of flame front morphology allowed to correlate high levels of flame front wrinkling and negative curvature to knock prone operating conditions, such as increased spark timings or high levels of exhaust back-pressure. In this study a detailed CFD analysis is carried out for the same engine and operating point as the experiments. The aim of this activity is to deeper investigate the reasons behind the main outcomes of the experimental campaign.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2408
Nicola Giovannoni, Sebastiano Breda, Stefano Paltrinieri, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Francesco Pulvirenti
Abstract In spark-ignited direct-injected engines, the formation of fuel pools on the piston is one of the major promoters of unburnt hydrocarbons and soot: in order to comply with the increasingly stringent emission regulations (EU6 and forthcoming), it is therefore necessary to limit fuel deposit formation. The combined use of advanced experimental techniques and detailed 3D-CFD simulations can help to understand the mechanisms driving fuel pool formation. In the paper, a combined experimental and numerical characterization of pool formation in a GDI engine is carried out to investigate and understand the complex interplay of all the mentioned factors. In particular, a low-load low-rpm engine operation is investigated for different ignition phasing, and the impact of both fuel formulation and instantaneous piston temperature variations in the CFD analyses are evaluated.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0050
Francesco Testa, Vincenzo Gagliardi, Marco Ferrari, Stefano Fontanesi, Andrea Bertani
Abstract It is well known that 3D CFD simulations can give detailed information about fluid and flow properties in complex 3D domains while 1D CFD simulation can provide important information at a system level, i.e. about the performance of the entire engine. The drawbacks of the two simulation methods are that the former requires high computational cost while the latter is not able to capture complex local 3D features of the flow. Therefore, the two simulation methods are to be seen as complementary, indeed a coupling of the two approaches can benefit from the pros of the two methods while minimizing the cons. In particular, with a multi-scale modeling approach (1D-3D) it is possible to simulate large and complex domains by modeling the complex part with a 3D approach and the rest of the domain with a 1D approach.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0031
Simone Malaguti, Stefano Fontanesi, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Paolo Sementa, Francesco Catapano
The paper investigates the idle operating condition of a current production turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injected (GDI) high performance engine both from an experimental and a numerical perspective. Due to the low engine speed, to the low injection pressure and to the null contribution of the turbocharger, the engine condition is far from the standard points of investigation. According to the low heat flux due to combustion, temperature levels are low and reduced fuel evaporation is expected. Consequently, fuel spray evolution within the combustion chamber and spray/wall interaction are key points for the understanding of the combustion process. In order to properly investigate and understand the many complex phenomena, a wide set of engine speeds was experimentally investigated and, as far as the understanding of the physics of spray/wall interaction is concerned, many different injection strategies are tested.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0555
Salvatore Iaccarino, Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Adrian Irimescu, Simona Merola
Abstract The increasing limitations in engine emissions and fuel consumption have led researchers to the need to accurately predict combustion and related events in gasoline engines. In particular, knock is one of the most limiting factors for modern SI units, severely hindering thermal efficiency improvements. Modern CFD simulations are becoming an affordable instrument to support experimental practice from the early design to the detailed calibration stage. To this aim, combustion and knock models in RANS formalism provide good time-to-solution trade-off allowing to simulate mean flame front propagation and flame brush geometry, as well as “ensemble average” knock tendency in end-gases. Still, the level of confidence in the use of CFD tools strongly relies on the possibility to validate models and methodologies against experimental measurements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0549
Insuk Ko, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract In recent years, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is spotlighted as an engineering tool and severe research efforts are carried out on its applicability to Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, there is a general lack of definitive conclusions on LES quality criteria for ICE. This paper focuses on the application of LES quality criteria to ICE and to their correlation, in order to draw a solid background on future LES quality assessments for ICE. In this paper, TCC-III single-cylinder optical engine from University of Michigan is investigated and the analysis is conducted under motored condition. LES quality is mainly affected by grid size and type, sub-grid scale (SGS) model, numeric schemes. In this study, the same grid size and type are used in order to focus on the effect on LES quality of SGS models and blending factors of numeric scheme only.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0569
Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cicalese, Alessandro D'Adamo
Abstract CFD and FE tools are intensively adopted by engine manufacturers in order to prevent thermo-mechanical failures reducing time- and cost-to market. The capability to predict correctly the physical factors leading to damages is hence essential for their application in the industrial practice. This is even more important for last generation SI engines, where the more and more stringent need to lower fuel consumption and pollutant emissions is pushing designers to reduce engine displacement in favor of higher specific power, usually obtained by means of turbocharging. This brings to a new generation of SI engines characterized by higher and higher adiabatic efficiency and thermo-mechanical loads. A recent research highlighted the different behavior of the thermal boundary layer of such engines operated at high revving speeds and high loads if compared to the same engines operated at low loads and revving speeds or even engines with a lower specific power.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0132
Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cicalese, Alessandro D'Adamo, Gianluca Pivetti
The paper presents a combined experimental and numerical activity carried out to improve the accuracy of conjugate heat transfer CFD simulations of a high-performance S.I. engine water cooling jacket. Due to the complexity of the computational domain, which covers both the coolant jacket and the surrounding metal cast (both head and block), particular care is required in order to find a tradeoff between the accuracy and the cost-effectiveness of the numerical procedure. In view of the presence of many complex physical phenomena, the contribution of some relevant CFD parameters and sub-models is separately evaluated and discussed. Among the formers, the extent of the computational domain, the choice of a proper set of boundary conditions and the detailed representation of the physical properties of the involved materials are separately considered.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2196
Giuseppe Cicalese, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi, Alessandro D'Adamo, Enrico Andreoli
Abstract High power-density Diesel engines are characterized by remarkable thermo-mechanical loads. Therefore, compared to spark ignition engines, designers are forced to increase component strength in order to avoid failures. 3D-CFD simulations represent a powerful tool for the evaluation of the engine thermal field and may be used by designers, along with FE analyses, to ensure thermo-mechanical reliability. The present work aims at providing an integrated in-cylinder/CHT methodology for the estimation of a Diesel engine thermal field. On one hand, in-cylinder simulations are fundamental to evaluate not only the integral amount of heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls, but also its point-wise distribution. To this specific aim, an improved heat transfer model based on a modified thermal wall function is adopted to estimate correctly wall heat fluxes due to combustion.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2190
Alessandro D'Adamo, Marco Del Pecchia, Sebastiano Breda, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi, Jens Prager
Abstract CFD simulations of reacting flows are fundamental investigation tools used to predict combustion behaviour and pollutants formation in modern internal combustion engines. Focusing on spark-ignited units, most of the flamelet-based combustion models adopted in current simulations use the fuel/air/residual laminar flame propagation speed as a background to predict the turbulent flame speed. This, in turn, is a fundamental requirement to model the effective burn rate. A consolidated approach in engine combustion simulations relies on the adoption of empirical correlations for laminar flame speed, which are derived from fitting of combustion experiments. However, these last are conducted at pressure and temperature ranges largely different from those encountered in engines: for this reason, correlation extrapolation at engine conditions is inevitably accepted. As a consequence, relevant differences between proposed correlations emerge even for the same fuel and conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0063
Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Marco Del Pecchia, Simona Merola, Adrian Irimescu
Abstract The recent interest in alternative non-fossil fuels has led researchers to evaluate several alcohol-based formulations. However, one of the main requirements for innovative fuels is to be compatible with existing units’ hardware, so that full replacement or smart flexible-fuel strategies can be smoothly adopted. n-Butanol is considered as a promising candidate to replace commercial gasoline, given its ease of production from bio-mass and its main physical and chemical properties similar to those of Gasoline. The compared behavior of n-butanol and gasoline was analyzed in an optically-accessible DISI engine in a previous paper [1]. CFD simulations explained the main outcomes of the experimental campaign in terms of combustion behavior for two operating conditions. In particular, the first-order role of the slower evaporation rate of n-butanol compared to gasoline was highlighted when the two fuels were operated under the same injection phasing.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0040
Insuk Ko, Kyoungdoug Min, Federico Rulli, Alessandro D'Adamo, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi
Abstract The increasing interest in the application of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to Internal Combustion Engines (hereafter ICEs) flows is motivated by its capability to capture spatial and temporal evolution of turbulent flow structures. Furthermore, LES is universally recognized as capable of simulating highly unsteady and random phenomena driving cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) and cycle-resolved events such as knock and misfire. Several quality criteria were proposed in the recent past to estimate LES uncertainty: however, definitive conclusions on LES quality criteria for ICEs are still far to be found. This paper describes the application of LES quality criteria to the TCC-III single-cylinder optical engine from University of Michigan and GM Global R&D; the analyses are carried out under motored condition.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2403
Alessandro d'Adamo, Sebastiano Breda, Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cantore
Abstract The paper reports an activity aiming at characterizing cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) of the spark-ignition (SI) process in a high performance engine. The numerical simulation of spark-ignition and of early flame kernel evolution are major challenges, mainly due to the time scales of the spark discharge process and to the reduced spatial scales of flame kernel. Typical mesh resolutions are insufficient to resolve the process and a dedicated treatment has to be provided at a subgrid level if the ignition process is to be properly modelled. The focus of this work is on the recent ISSIM-LES (Imposed Stretch Spark-Ignition Model) ignition model, which is based on an extension of the flame surface density (FSD) transport equation for a dedicated flame kernel treatment at subgrid scales. The FSD equation is solved immediately after spark discharge.
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