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1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972959
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Tomohiro Minagawa, Shigeharu Kobori
A thermodynamic two-zone model which assumes a stoichiornetric burned gas region and unburned air region is presented in an attempt to calculate more precise rate of heat release of diesel combustion. A comparison is made of the rate of heat release obtained by the two-zone model with that obtained by the conventional single-zone model. It shows around 10 % increase in the rate of heat release with the two-zone model. The effect of state equation of gas is also examined with the single-zone model and the use of a real gas law in stead of the perfect gas law is found to yield minor difference in the rate of heat release at a high boost operating condition.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980501
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Masataka Akiyoshi, Hidenori Kosaka
To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a simple quasi-steady spray model coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions and validity of this model is assessed by a comparison with existing experimental data. The calculated results indicate that the competition between the heat absorption of fuel and the hot air entrainment determines the equivalence ratio of mixtures favorable for the ignition to occur in the shortest time.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970896
Shi-Wen Li, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shigeharu Kobori, Yoshiteru Enomoto
The local heat fluxes from impinging combusting and evaporating diesel sprays to the wall of a square combustion chamber were measured in a rapid compression machine. It was revealed that the ratio of local heat flux between the combusting and evaporating spray, q̇c/q̇e, is of the same order of magnitude as (Tc-Tw)/(Te-Tw) and its values estimated by a two-zone model agree roughly with the measured ones. The time-mean local heat flux during the spray impingement was found to be approximately proportional to the 0.8th power of the injection velocity and the heat-transfer phenomenon depends largely on whether the ignition starts before or after the impingement.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962087
Yasuo Moriyoshi, Hideaki Morikawa, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Tomokazu Hayashi
Local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration affects combustion characteristics in the lean burn system and also in the stratified charge combustion system. To investigate such combustion systems, the effects of inhomogeneous mixtures were examined using a carefully controlled experimental system. In this study, a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge by using a removable partition inside the chamber, was developed. Flow and combustion characteristics were examined by indicated pressure analysis, Schlieren photography, ion probe measurements and local equivalence ratios measurements while varying the combination of initial equivalence ratios on each side of the partition. As a result, combustion characteristics of charge stratified, very lean propane-air mixture were clarified.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922208
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shigeharu Kobori, Seok Hong Noh, Yoshiteru Enomoto
Local heat flux from the flame to the combustion chamber wall, q̇, was measured the wall surfaces of a rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate diesel combustion. Temperature of the flame zone, T1, was calculated by a thermodynamic two-zone model using measured values of cylinder pressure and flame volume. A local heat transfer coefficient was proposed which is defined as q̇/(T1-Tw). Experiments showed that the local heat transfer coefficient depends slightly on the temperature difference, T1-Tw, but depends significantly on the velocity of the flame which contacts the wall surface.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922210
Young-Ho Won, Hidenori Kosaka, Takeyuki Kamimoto
Soot concentration is very high in the periphery near the head of an unsteady spray flame which is achieved in a quiescent atmosphere in a rapid compression machine. To reduce soot concentration in this region, it was intended to improve fuel-air mixing by letting the flame impinge on a turbulence-generating plate. Two types of turbulence-generating plates, one donut-type, the other cross-type, were tested. Soot concentration in the flame was imaged using the laser shadow technique. The effect of injection pressure on soot reduction by the flame impingement was also investigated. The overall soot concentration is reduced significantly in the case when the flame impinges on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 50 mm (333 nozzle diameters) from the nozzle exit. The flame impingement on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 333 nozzle diameters makes soot reduction little dependent on injection pressures.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920114
Young-Ho Won, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka
: The formation and oxidation processes of soot particles in unsteady spray flames were investigated in a quiescent atmosphere using 2-D laser sheet visualization. The mid-plane of a flame was illuminated twice during a short time-interval by a laser sheet from a double-pulsed YAG laser. An image pair of the scattered light from soot particles was taken by two intensified gated cameras in succession. The velocity vectors of soot clouds at various location in the sooting region were estimated using the spatial correlation between the image pair. The results of temporal and spatial variation of velocity and scattering intensity in the evolving soot clusters made it clear that soot is mainly formed in the periphery of the flame tip where the air entrainment is less and flame temperature favors soot formation.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920107
Hidenori Kosaka, Young-Ho Won, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The structure of dense sprays was investigated using 2-D imaging techniques. To investigate the mechanism of atomization, the liquid phase in a non-evaporating spray was visualized by a thin laser sheet formed by a single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser at the distance from 4 to 19 mm from the nozzle orifice with the injection pressure and the surrounding gas density as parameters. A new technique for the visualization of vapor phase in an evaporating spray, the SSI (Silicone particle Scattering Imaging) method, was proposed to investigate the structure of the vapor phase regions of the spray.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930066
Yasuo Moriyoshi, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Miki Yagita
A prediction model of the cycle-to-cycle variation of the in-cylinder flow in IC engines which employs the time averaged k-ε turbulence model is proposed. The concept is based on an assumption that the power spectrum of the cycle-to-cycle variation can be deduced from the power spectra of both the mean velocity and turbulence intensity. To validate this model, in-cylinder velocity measurement in a transparent cylinder engine with a 2-valve cylinder-head is made using an LDV system. Comparisons of in-cylinder flow fields between the calculation and measurement show a good agreement in the cycle-to-cycle variation as well as the turbulence intensity. Finally, this model is applied to three kinds of flow fields to examine how the cycle-to-cycle variation may be effected. As a result, it is found that the swirl flow is effective to reduce the cycle-to-cycle variation, while the tumbling flow enhances the turbulence generation around the compression TDC.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920630
Akio Takamura, Takashi Ohta, Susumu Fukushima, Takeyuki Kamimoto
An experimental evaluation of the reliability of the Zeuch's method was carried out. The following were derived: 1) cavitation limits the minimum back pressure available; 2) the injection rate measured by the Zeuch's method agrees with that by the W.Bosch's method; 3) the effect of dynamic pressure of the injected fuel jet has a negligible effect on the pressure sensor which is attached to the chamber wall; and 4) the high-frequency noise after the end of injection observed in the Zeuch's measurement can be effectively removed by either a low-pass filter or an inverse Fourier transform processing.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941953
Chi-Nan Yeh, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka, Shigeharu Kobori
A new method to determine simultaneously the temperature and the fuel vapor concentration inside an evaporating spray was described by using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. A TMPD doped base fuel composed of C12H26: 22%, C13H28: 54% and C14H30: 30% was injected into the combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine which is filled with a high temperature and high pressure nitrogen. The laser sheet was used for incident light, which was reflected by a prism located inside the combustion chamber and propagated through the center of an evaporating spray. The laser induced fluorescence intensity was imaged by a high speed-gated intensifier from a direction perpendicular to the incident light. The results shows that mixtures with high equivalence ratio are observed in the central region, while low equivalence ratio mixtures are observed in the periphery of the spray. It is also observed that the temperature of richest mixture is 50 K as low as the surrounding gas temperature.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952514
Shigeharu Kobori, Takeyuki Kamimoto
A rapid compression-expansion machine was developed, which can simulate intake, compression, expansion and exhaust strokes in a single Diesel cycle by an electrically controlled and hydraulically actuated driving system. The whole system which is composed of a hydraulic actuator, fuel injector and a valve driving device, is sequentially controlled by a micro-computer. The machine features; 1) accurate control of piston position at TDC, 2) no effect of lubricant on HC emission due to the use of dry piston rings; 3) independent control of local wall temperature; and 4) high power output to drive heavy piston at high frequency. The single cycle operation permits Diesel combustion experiments under a wide range of operating conditions and easy access of optical diagnostics with minimized amount of test fuel. The performance test showed that the machine can drive a DI Diesel type piston with a 100 mm bore at a maximum frequency of 16.7 Hz at a maximum compression pressure of 15 MPa.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952433
Hidenori Kosaka, Takao Suzuki, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The turbulent dispersion of particles in an unsteady two dimensional particle-laden jet was simulated by a discrete vortex method coupling with a model of gas/particles interaction. Numerical analysis of a spray yielded the distributions of vorticity, fuel mass concentration and local Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of droplets in a spray. The predicted distribution of local SMD of droplets in a spray demonstrated that the size of droplets in the spray periphery is larger than that of droplets in the center region of spray. This trend of distribution of drop size coincided with that of measured one. The predicted distributions of drop size and vorticity revealed that the larger droplets are easily centrifuged to the periphery of the spray. The effects of the pattern of injection rate on the mixing process in a transient spray were also investigated.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960321
Shigeharu Kobori, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka
In an attempt to achieve lean combustion in Diesel engines which has a potential for simultaneous reduction in no and soot, the authors developed a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter as small as 0.06 mm. Combustion tests were carried out using a rapid compression-expansion machine which has a DI Diesel type combustion chamber equipped with the micro-hole nozzle. A comparison with the result of a conventional nozzle experiment revealed that the ignition delay was shortened by 30 %, and in spite of that, both peaks of initial premixed combustion and diffusion combustion increased significantly. The combustion in the case of the micro-hole nozzle experiment was accompanied with a decrease in soot emission, whereas an increase in NO emission.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932657
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Yoshiyuki Yamane, Hidenori Kosaka, Haruki Kobayashi
To understand further the mixing process between the injected fuel and air in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, the turbulent mixing process in a one-phase, two-dimensional transient jet was theoretically studied using the discrete vortex simulation. First, the simulation model was evaluated by comparisons between calculated and experimental data on two-dimensional turbulent jets. Second, the trajectories of the injected fluid elements marked with different colors were graphically demonstrated. Also the process of entrainment of the surrounding fluid into the jet was visually presented using colored tracers.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932653
Hidenori Kosaka, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The cross-sectional distribution of fuel vapor concentration in an evaporating spray was measured quantitatively by a new scattering imaging technique, silicone particle scattering imaging method, which was proposed in a previous paper[1]. When fuel containing silicone oil injected into a nitrogen environment at high temperature, the volatile base fuel in the droplets vaporized rapidly, leaving behind small droplets of silicone oil suspended in the vapor-gas mixture. The silicone oil droplets were illuminated by a thin laser sheet, and the scattered light was imaged by a CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of vapor concentration was estimated from the scattering image of the silicone oil droplets by Mie scattering theory. The results demonstrated clearly the inhomogeneity of the fuel vapor concentration. The distribution of vapor concentration was discontinuous, and islands of rich mixture with a scale of several millimeters existed in the center region of the spray.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932652
Chi-Nan Yeh, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shigeharu Kobori, Hidenori Kosaka
To measure the fuel vapor concentration in an unsteady evaporating spray injected into nitrogen atmosphere, the exciplex-forming method, which produces spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phase, was applied in this study. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative applicability of the technique in a high temperature and high pressure atmosphere during the fuel injection period. One is to examine the thermal decomposition of TMPD dopant at a high temperature and a high pressure nitrogen atmosphere during a short period of time. The other is to calibrate the relationship between fluorescence intensity and vapor concentration of TMPD at different vapor temperatures. And then, the qualitative measurement of fuel vapor concentration distributions in diesel sprays was made by applying the technique.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941924
Shi-Wen Li, Hidenori Kosaka, Takeyuki Kamimoto
Air-entrainment characteristics of non-evaporating sprays and flames were measured by means of high-speed photography including ordinary shadowgraphy of sprays, back diffused light illumination photography and laser shadow photography of flames. Effects of injection pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on air-entrainment characteristics were investigated parametrically. The amount of air entrained into a flame was calculated by a two-zone thermodynamic model with data obtained from the photographs and the pressure measurement in the combustion chamber. The air-entrainment characteristics of flames were compared with those of the corresponding sprays. It showed that immediately after the start of ignition, the air entrainment into a flame increased more rapidly as compared with the corresponding spray and then, with the development of diffusion combustion, the air entrainment gradually approached that of the spray.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1945
Christopher Kolodziej, Ekathai Wirojsakunchai, David E. Foster, Niklas Schmidt, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Terunao Kawai, Mike Akard, Tomoshi Yoshimura
The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760551
Shin Matsuoka, Katsukiko Yokota, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Masanori Igoshi
In this study, the authors show their analytical model of the fuel injection system in a diesel engine, which is constructed to be as accurate but as simple as possible and to have good application in the development of new fuel injection systems. In the first part, the authors initially describe the model assumptions, classification of injection phenomena, and fundamental equations considering the compressibility, inertia and viscocity of hydraulics and the movements of valves and other components to improve the accuracy of the systems. Secondly, regarding the experimental constants and physical properties of the fuel, the authors show the method of selection they used to simplify the analytical model and to get good agreement as a result but without losing physical meanings.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-1257
Satoshi Ishikawa, Yukimitsu Ohmori, Susumu Fukushima, Takao Suzuki, Akio Takamura, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The injection rate meter based on W. Zeuch's method was improved to meet the recent requirement for precise measurement of the multiple injection rate and amount in CDI (Common rail Direct Injection) diesel engines. A pressure sensor with a high sensitivity was added to measure the small pressure increase due to the pilot injection and after injection. At the same time a flow meter having a high accuracy was installed in the discharge pipe line to obtain a correction factor to the modulus of elasticity of volume. As a result it became possible to measure the multiple injection amount at an accuracy of ±0.2mm3/stroke in a range up to 40mm3/stroke.
2000-06-19
Technical Paper
2000-01-1892
Tomohiro Minagawa, Hidenori Kosaka, Takeyuki Kamimoto
To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a discrete droplet spray model (DDM) coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions. Predicted results show that the fuel mixture injected at the start of injection, which travels along midway between the spray axis and the spray periphery, contributes heavily to the first ignition in a spray. The equivalence ratio and temperature of the first ignited mixture are kept nearly constant until the start of hot ignition. The temperature of the first ignited mixture is kept at a constant value of higher temperature than the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature of the mixture before the hot ignition starts. The equivalence ratio of the first ignited mixture is around 1.6 at initial gas temperatures between 750 K and 850 K.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0236
Hidenori Kosaka, Volker H. Drewes, Luca Catalfamo, Allen A. Aradi, Norimasa Iida, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The time of, and location where ignition first occurs in a diesel fuel spray were investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM) using the two–dimensional techniques of silicone oil particle scattering imaging (SSI), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde has been hypothesized to be one of the stable intermediate species marking the start of oxidation reactions in a transient spray under compression ignition conditions. In this study, the LIF images of the formaldehyde formed in a diesel fuel spray during ignition process have been successfully obtained for the first time by exciting formaldehyde with the 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. SSI images of the vaporizing spray, and the LIF images of formaldehyde were obtained together with the corresponding time record of combustion chamber pressures at initial ambient temperatures ranging from 580 K to 790 K.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0527
Tadashi Ikeda, Yukimitsu Ohmori, Akio Takamura, Yoshio Sato, LI Jun, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The accuracy of the injection rate meter based on W. Zeuch's method in the measurement of multiple injection rate and amount was calibrated using a small cam driven piston that is driven by an electric motor. For the pre- or early-injection, a sensor with a high sensitivity can be applied to measure the small pressure increase due to the small injection amount. In case of the multiple injection that has the post and/or late injection, a pressure sensor with a low sensitivity must cover not only the large pressure increase due to the main injection but also the small pressure increase due to the post and/or late injection because the output of the high sensitivity sensor is saturated after the main injection. So the linearity of the low sensitivity pressure sensor was calibrated with the cam driven piston prior to the experiment with the actual injection system.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890436
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Miki Yagita
The present paper describes the particulate formation in diesel flames considering the flame structure and its similarity to that of gaseous turbulent diffusion flames. A comparison of spatial variations of soot concentration, equivalence ratio and flame temperature between diesel flames and turbulent diffusion flames reveals the facts that soot particles are mostly farmed in a region where the equivalence ratio is near stoichiometric and the flame temperature is the highest in both flames, and that in diesel flames this region exists generally near the flame tip. A close inspection of high speed photographs of diesel flames suggests the three major routes of soot emission from diesel engines: quenching of flamelets detached from the flame tip due to 1) the flame impingement onto the wall; and 2) cooling of the flamelets by the bulk air; and 3) survival of soot containing flamelets inside the flame.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890316
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Haruyuki Yokota, Haruki Kobayashi
A new technique is developed for the in-situ measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in non-evaporating transient dense sprays. This method analyzes the image of a shadowpicture of a spray based on the incident light extinction principle, and allows the sizing of Sauter mean diameter of whole droplets in a transient spray with any shape. In addition, this method allows the measurement of the local droplet size in a quasi-steady region of an axisymmetric spray if the conservation equations regarding mass and momentum are included in the calculation and data analysis. A calibration was carried out using glass beads as test particles: this was proved to have an accuracy of Sauter mean diameter measurement within 10%, on average. Applications of the new technique to both diesel and gasoline (EFI) sprays have been made.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890317
Akio Takamura, Susumu Fukushima, Yukimitsu Omori, Takeyuki Kamimoto
A new instrument for the measurement of fuel injection rate in diesel engines was developed. The instrument, whose measurement principle is based on the Zeuch's method, i.e., the constant volume method, incorporates a device for the precise calibration of the volume elasticity of the fuel. This instrument was proved experimentally to have a capability of measuring injection rate with ± 1% accuracy up to an injection pump rotating speed of 2500rpm.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960834
Hidenori Kosaka, Takahiro Nishigaki, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Takashi Sano, Akira Matsutani, Shinichi Harada
The OH and soot in an unsteady flame, which was achieved in a rapid compression machine, were visualized simultaneously by the laser-induced fluorescence and laser-induced scattering techniques. The fuel mixture consisting of 90% paraffin hydrocarbon (reference fuel) and 10% polypropylene-glycol was used to reduce the optical attenuation caused by dense soot cloud. The simultaneous images of the fluorescence from OH and scattering from soot show that the soot and OH exist separately from each other in the leading portion of the spray flame, and the OH is formed earlier than the soot in the near field region of spray flame.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910261
Yasuo Moriyoshi, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hideo Ohtani, Miki Yagita
Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910223
Young-Ho Won, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Haruki Kobayashi, Hidenori Kosaka
The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
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