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Viewing 1 to 30 of 33
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0312
Ruth Gao, Ligong Pan, Tau Tyan, Kumar Mahadevan, Omar Ghouati, Horst Lanzerath, Mark Kessen
The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of the hydro-forming process and the effect of strain rate on crash performance and develop a modeling approach to improve the accuracy of crash prediction. Work hardening, thinning and strain rate effects are investigated in both component and full vehicle analyses to understand their sensitivities. Gages measured and material properties tested from post-formed tubes are compared with hydro-forming simulation results to confirm accuracy of the modeling methodology proposed in the paper. Front crash simulation using strain rate and forming effects are correlated with the test data for both component and full vehicle analyses and conclusion has been drawn from this comparison.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0314
Ben-Ren Tang, Sarba Guha, Tau Tyan, Jiamaw Doong, Len Shaner, Dilip Bhalsod
A fuel tank is one of the most critical components in a vehicle crash because it may link to passenger safety. The effect of fuel pressure on the tank boundary in a dynamic impact condition is constantly being studied both numerically and experimentally. In hard braking conditions with a partially filled tank, the fuel slams on to the front wall of the tank. During high-speed impact on the other hand, there is significant bulging of the fuel tank if it is nearly full, while vortices and cavities may form with partial filling. In these cases, the internal fuel and vapor pressure distribution can change; thus, affecting the distribution of stress on the tank. The objective of this paper is to study these phenomena using the currently available ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) methodology and thus improve fuel tank design by a direct application of CAE.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0316
J. Michael Chang, Miinshiou Huang, Tau Tyan, G. Li, L. Gu
The optimization method and CAE analysis have been widely used in structure design for crash safety. Combining the CAE analysis and optimization approach, vehicle structure design for crash can be implemented more efficiently. One of the recent safety desirables in structure design is to reduce vehicle pitch and drop. At frontal impact tests with unbelted occupants, the interaction between occupant's head and interior header/sun visor, which is caused by excessive vehicle pitch and drop, is not desired in vehicle crash development. In order to comply with the federal frontal crash requirements for unbelted occupant, it is necessary to manage the vehicle pitch and drop by improving structure design. In this paper, a systematic process of CAE analysis with optimization approach is applied for discovering the major structural components affecting vehicle pitch and drop.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0317
Miguel A. Eguia, Tau Tyan
The dynamic response of a front lower control arm (LCA) is very important in crash safety. In the event of a crash, the deformation of the LCA affects the frame rail's ability to crush and absorb energy on impact. Therefore, the deformation and rupture of the LCA during a crash may indirectly influence the deceleration pulse which is needed for safety sensor calibration of airbag deployment [1]. Depending on compliance, bushings have a significant effect on the deformation and rupture of the LCA. During a high speed impact test, the bushings allow the LCA to rotate at the joints or points where the LCA connects to the frame. The development of new LCA and bushing designs, constructed of different materials and geometries, require a standard test to measure their performance. The overall goal of this study was to develop a standardized procedure to test the stiffness, deformation, and strength of LCA bushings.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0573
Tau Tyan, Yu-Kan Hu, Dana Sun, Leonard Shaner, Matt Niesluchowski, Nand Kochhar, Guofei Chen, Ming Shi
Abstract Motivated by a combination of increasing consumer demand for fuel efficient vehicles, more stringent greenhouse gas, and anticipated future Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, automotive manufacturers are working to innovate in all areas of vehicle design to improve fuel efficiency. In addition to improving aerodynamics, enhancing internal combustion engines and transmission technologies, and developing alternative fuel vehicles, reducing vehicle weight by using lighter materials and/or higher strength materials has been identified as one of the strategies in future vehicle development. Weight reduction in vehicle components, subsystems and systems not only reduces the energy needed to overcome inertia forces but also triggers additional mass reduction elsewhere and enables mass reduction in full vehicle levels.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0009
Ryan Craig, Tony (YI) Qu, Ligong Pan, Tau Tyan, Jiamaw Doong, Syed Ahmad, Yi Zhang
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0044
Guofei Chen, Ming F. Shi, Tau Tyan
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been widely accepted as a material of choice in the automotive industry to balance overall vehicle weight and stringent vehicle crash test performance targets. Combined with efficient use of geometry and load paths through shape and topology optimization, AHSS has enabled vehicle manufacturers to obtain the highest possible ratings in safety evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In this study, vehicle CAE side impact models were used to evaluate three side impact crash test conditions (IIHS side impact, NHTSA LINCAP and FMVSS 214 side pole) and the IIHS roof strength test condition and to identify several key components affecting the side impact test performance. HyperStudy® optimization software and LS-DYNA® nonlinear finite element software were utilized for shape and gauge optimization.
1997-04-08
Technical Paper
971531
Tau Tyan, Chi-Chin Wu, Sharath Varadappa
Statistic shows the majority of real world frontal collisions involve only partial overlap of the vehicle front end. Thus the European Experimental Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has established a safety standard and test procedure utilizing a deformable barrier for offset impacts. The offset deformable barrier (ODB) is designed to represent the characteristics of a vehicle front end. Therefore, it can replace a target vehicle and the offset test can be conducted economically. Many component, sub-assembly and full vehicle system tests have been conducted in Ford using the EEVC ODB. Based on the various tests, the barrier responds differently depending on the front end design and the size of an impacting vehicle. Sometimes the front end of a test vehicle punches through the barrier. Also rupture of aluminum sheets and tearing of honeycomb materials are often observed in post-test barriers.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0356
J. Michael Chang, Mohammed Rahman, Mohammad Ali, Tau Tyan, Marwan El-Bkaily, James Cheng
Vehicle pitch and drop play an important role for occupant neck and head injury at frontal impact. The excessive vehicle header drop, due to vehicle pitch and drop during crash, induces aggressive interaction between occupant head and sun visor/header that causes serious head and neck injuries. For most of body-on-frame vehicles, vehicle pitch and drop have commonly been observed at frontal impact tests. It is because the vehicle body is pulled downward by frame rails, which bend down during crash. Hence, the challenges of frame design are not only to absorb crash energy but also to manage frame deformation for minimizing vehicle pitch and drop. In this paper, the finite element method is used to analyze frame deformation at full frontal impact. To ensure the quality of CAE model, a full vehicle FEA model is correlated to barrier tests. In addition, a study of CAE modeling affecting vehicle header drop is performed.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0355
Guofei Chen, Xiao Ming Chen, Ming F. Shi, Wayne Li, Tau Tyan
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) along with innovative design and manufacturing processes are effective ways to improve crash energy management. Crash trigger hole is another technology which can been used on front rails for controlling crash buckling mode, avoiding crash mode instability and minimizing variations in crash mode due to imperfections in materials, part geometry, manufacturing, and assembly processes etc. In this study, prototyped crash columns with different trigger hole shapes, sizes and locations were physically tested in frontal crash impact tests. A corresponding crash computer simulation model was then created to perform the correlation study. The testing data, such as crash force-displacement curves and dynamic crash modes, were used to verify the FEA crash model and to study the trigger sensitivity and effects on front rail crash performance.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0361
Miinshiou Huang, Miguel Eguia, Tau Tyan
Finite element models of cast aluminum and stamped steel lower control arms (LCAs) were created to simulate subsystem tests of LCA with bushings and brackets. Several modeling methods were used to simulate the dynamic responses of cast aluminum LCAs, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. Factors that are essential for modeling stamped steel components found in previous studies [1, 2] including strain rate, forming, and welding effects are incorporated in the stamped steel LCA models. Difficulties in modeling LCAs subsystem, possible remedies, and further improvements are also discussed in this paper.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0358
Omowale Casselle, Tau Tyan
The frontal rail is one of the most important components of a vehicle in determining crash performance, especially for a body on frame vehicle. Prior research [1] has shown that the frontal rail absorbs a significant amount of impact energy in a crash condition. In order to optimize crash performance, a component level sensitivity study was conducted to determine the effect different types of triggers would have on the performance of the frontal rail. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity of trigger size, trigger shape, and trigger orientation as well as to improve corresponding trigger modeling methodology by comparing crushed components to crushed CAE models. In this sensitivity study, the location of the triggers was held fixed, while the size, shape, and orientation were varied. The metric that will be used to compare the performance of these different trigger shapes is the overall stiffness of the frontal rail.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0359
Wayne Li, Tau Tyan, Yijung Chen
Strain rate effects have been identified as one of the most critical factors for the modeling of vehicle components in many previous investigations. The strain rate data available to the authors have been processed to obtain the input decks of a required material law in prior investigations. With the application of strain rate modeling, the strain rate database needs to be expanded. In order to continuously improve the safety CAE quality and efficiency, especially the prediction of a vehicle's pulse in a crash event, the effort has been made to include more strain rate data and extend the material database for safety CAE applications. In this study, strain rate data provided by Ispat Inland Inc. for AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program are processed. The material processed in this study include HSS590-CR, 440W-GA, BH300-GI, HSLA350-GI, DP600-HR, TRIP590-EG, TRIP600-CR, TRIP780-CR.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0352
Miguel A. Eguia, Miinshiou Huang, Tau Tyan
The conversion between cast aluminum lower control arms (LCAs) and stamped steel LCAs has prompted the need for new LCA designs to achieve parallel levels of performance. Component tests procedures and CAE modeling methodologies need to be utilized to assess future LCA designs across a variety of vehicle lines to meet or exceed performance criteria. Therefore the overall goal of this study was to develop a standardized test procedure to test the stiffness, deformation and strength of LCAs. In addition, CAE modeling methodologies to better model LCAs will be developed. The test procedures and CAE modeling methodologies would then be used to set performance targets for future LCA designs. To standardize the LCA test procedure, component test fixtures were developed in this work. The objective of the fixtures is to test LCAs with similar boundary conditions they would experience in vehicle crash. Three different test modes are examined in this project.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0353
Meagan Gonzalez, Karthik Chitoor, Heung-Soo Kim, Tau Tyan, Guofei Chen, Ming Chen, Ming Shi
The front rail plays an important role in the performance of body-on-frame (BOF) vehicles in frontal crashes. New developments in materials and forming technology have led to the exploration of different configurations to improve crash performance. This paper presents the initial stages of an ongoing study to investigate the effects of the cross section of steel columns on crash performance in automotive applications. Because accurate prediction of the performance of these rails can help reduce the amount of physical crash testing necessary, the focus of this paper is on appropriate testing and modeling procedures for different rail configurations. In the first part of this paper, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) methodology is presented with respect to correlation with real world tests. The effects of various parameters are described, along with the optimum configuration for model correlation.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0688
Ryan Craig, Yijung Chen, Tau Tyan, Jeff Laya, James Cheng
For a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle, the frame is the major structural subsystem to absorb the impact energy in a frontal vehicle impact. It is also a major contributor to energy absorption in rear impact events as well. Thus, the accuracy of the finite element frame model has significant influence on the quality of the BOF vehicle impact predictability. This study presents the latest development of the frame modeling methodology on the simulation of BOF vehicle impact performance. The development is divided into subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). This paper presents the first phase, subsystem testing and modeling, of the frame modeling development. Based on the major deformation modes in frontal impact, the frame is cut into several sections and put on the sled to conduct various tests. The success of the sled test highly depends on whether the sled results can replicate the deformation modes in the full vehicle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0689
Yijung Chen, Ryan Craig, Tau Tyan, Jeff Laya, James Cheng
This study focuses on the modeling of a frame in a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle to improve the prediction of vehicle response in crashes. The study is divided into three phases - component (frame material modeling), subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). In the component level, we investigate the available strain rate data, the performance of various material models in crash codes and the effect of the strain rate in crash simulation. In the subsystem phase, we incorporate the strain rate modeling and expand the scope to include both the forming and the welding effects in the subsystem CAE model to improve the correlation between CAE and test. Finally the improved frame modeling methodology with strain rate, forming and welding effects is adopted in full vehicle model. It is found that the proposed frame modeling methodology is crucial to improve the pulse prediction of a full vehicle in crashes.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0692
Chelliah Madasamy, Tau Tyan, Omar Faruque, Thierry Guimberteau
The authors have proposed a new formulation to characterize the mechanical properties of spot welds under dynamic loadings including separation. In this paper, the authors primarily discuss a systematic procedure to determine the parameters of the proposed spot weld model from test data using a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach and statistical analyses. All analysis pertaining to the spot weld modeling under impact loading has been performed using RADIOSS, a commercially available explicit FE crash solver. In this study, the spot weld connection was modeled using a two-node beam-type spring element with 6 DOF at each node, and the sheet metal was modeled using a four-node shell element. The main objective was to develop a spot weld modeling methodology that is accurate and robust enough to be used in a full vehicle model which is composed of hundreds of different parts and will be crashed under different test conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0691
Chelliah Madasamy, Tau Tyan, Omar Faruque
Spot welding is the primary joining method used for the construction of the automotive body structure made of steel. A major challenge in the crash simulation today is the lack of a simple yet reliable modeling approach to characterize spot weld separation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a spot weld modeling methodology to characterize spot weld separation in crash simulation. A generalized two-node spring element with 6 DOF at each node is used to characterize the spot weld nugget. To represent the connection of the nugget with the surrounding plates, tied contacts are defined between the spring element nodes and the shell elements of the plate. Three general separation criteria are proposed for the spot weld that include the effects of speed and coupled loading conditions. The separation criteria are implemented into a commercially available explicit finite element code.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1125
Guofei Chen, Ming F. Shi, Tau Tyan
To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using dual phase steels for components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections of the components need to be optimized. In this study, Altair HyperMorph™ and HyperStudy® optimization software were used in defining the shape design variables and the optimization problem setup, and non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA® software was used in crush simulations. Correlated crash simulation models were utilized and the square cross-section was selected as the baseline. The optimized cross-sections for bending and axial crush performance resulted in significant mass and cost savings, particularly with the application of dual phase steels.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0988
Gurunath Vemulakonda, Ben-Ren Tang, Raj Jayachandran, Deborah Wan, Sarbasubha-Guha Thakurta, J. Michael Chang, Tau Tyan, James Cheng, Jiamaw Doong, Len Shaner, Dilip Bhalsod
There are a wide variety of approaches to model the automotive seat and occupant interaction. This paper traces the studies conducted for simulating the occupant to seat interaction in frontal and/or rear crash events. Starting with an initial MADYMO model, a MADYMO-LS/DYNA coupled model was developed. Subsequently, a full Finite Element Analysis model using LS/DYNA was studied. The main objective of the studies was to improve the accuracy and efficiency of CAE models for predicting the dummy kinematics and structural deformations at the restraint attachment locations in laboratory tests. The occupant and seat interaction was identified as one of the important factors that needed to be accurately simulated. Quasi-static and dynamic component tests were conducted to obtain the foam properties that were input into the model. Foam specimens and the test setup are discussed. Different material models in LS/DYNA were evaluated for simulating automotive seat foam.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0978
Guofei Chen, Ming F. Shi, Tau Tyan
Because of their excellent crash energy absorption capacity, dual phase (DP) steels are gradually replacing conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels for critical crash components in order to meet the more stringent vehicle crash safety regulations. To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using DP steels for crash components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections need to be optimized. Correlated crush simulation models were employed for the cross-section study. The models were developed using non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA and correlated to dynamic and quasi-static axial and bending crush tests on hexagonal and octagonal cross-sections made of DP590 steel. Several design concepts were proposed, the axial and bending crush performance in DP780 and DP980 were compared, and the potential mass savings were discussed.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0979
Sung-Tae Hong, Jwo Pan, Tau Tyan, Priya Prasad
Macroscopic constitutive behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycombs under dynamic inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction are investigated by experiments. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same for a fixed ratio of the normal to shear displacement rate. The experimental results suggest that the macroscopic yield surface of the honeycomb specimens as a function of the impact velocity under the given dynamic inclined loads is not governed by the isotropic hardening rule of the classical plasticity theory. As the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0981
Meagan Gonzalez Noble, Miinshiou Huang, Tau Tyan, Leonard Shaner, Omar Ghouati, Horst Lanzerath, Binghua Wu, Barry Dombek
Hydroformed components are replacing stamped parts in automotive frames and front end and roof structures to improve the crash performance of vehicles. Due to the increasing application of hydroformed components, a better understanding of the crash behavior of these parts is necessary to improve the correlation between full-vehicle crash tests and FEM analysis. Accurately predicting the performance of hydroformed components will reduce the amount of physical crash testing necessary to develop the new components and new vehicles as well as reduce cycle time. Virgin material properties are commonly used in FEM analysis of hydroformed components, which leads to erroneous prediction of the full-vehicle crash response. Changes in gauge and material properties during the hydroforming process are intuitive and can be reasonably predicted by using forming simulations. The effects of the forming process have been investigated in the FEA models that are created for crash analyses.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0982
J. Michael Chang, Tau Tyan, Marwan El-bkaily, James Cheng, Amar Marpu, Qiang Zeng, Julien Santini
Explicit method is commonly used in crashworthiness analysis due to its capability to solve highly non-linear problems without numerous iterations and convergence problems. However, the time step for explicit methods is limited by the time that the physical wave crosses the element. Therefore, to avoid large amount of CPU time, the explicit method is usually used for non-linear dynamic problems with a short period of simulation duration. For problems under quasi-static loading conditions at pre-crash and post-crash, implicit method could be more efficient than explicit methods because the required computation time is much shorter. Due to the recent advance of crash codes, which allows both implicit and explicit computations to be performed in the same code, crash engineers are able to use explicit computation for crash simulation as well as implicit computation for some of the pre-crash quasi-static loading or post-crash spring back simulations.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0471
Ruth Gao, Cathy Xi, Tau Tyan, Kumar Mahadevan, Jiamaw Doong
The forming effects along with strain rate, actual material properties and weld effects have been found to be very critical for accurate prediction of crash responses especially the prediction of local deformation. As a result, crash safety engineers started to consider these factors in crash models to improve the accuracy of CAE prediction and reduce prototype testing. The techniques needed to incorporate forming simulation results, including thickness change, residual stresses and strains, in crash models have been studied extensively and are well known in automotive CAE community. However, a challenge constantly faced by crash safety engineers is the availability of forming simulation results, which are usually supplied by groups conducting forming simulations. The forming simulation results can be obtained by either using incremental codes with actual stamping processes or one-step codes with final product information as a simplified approach.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0612
Chelliah Madasamy, Thierry Guimberteau, Tau Tyan, Omar Faruque
This paper presents an investigation into the behavior of spot-welded steel connections based on a DOE approach. This work is a part of spot-weld modeling methodology development work being performed at Ford. Control factors such as material, coating, gage size, and noise factors such as loading direction (angle), and speed are considered in this study. Different levels of each variable are included to cover a wide range of practical applications. The test methodology used to generate the responses for the spot-weld coupons have been discussed in a companion paper [1]. From the force-displacement curves obtained from the test, the responses such as peak force, displacement at peak force, and rupture displacement are identified. These responses are then statistically analyzed to identify the relative importance and effect of the design factors. Finally, response surface models are developed to determine responses across different levels of each variable.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0608
Chelliah Madasamy, Tau Tyan, Omar Faruque, Pey Wung
Spot-welds are the primary joining methods for steel sheet metals used in the manufacturing of automobile body structure. Often the impact responses are significantly affected by the characteristic properties, such as stiffness, failure strength, etc of spot-welds. In view of this, understanding the behavior and the properties of spot-welds under static and impact loadings are critical for accurate CAE analysis of vehicle impact events. To this end, a comprehensive DOE based spot-weld testing has been undertaken by considering a wide variety of variables. The test data thus obtained were analyzed to determine the requisite mechanical properties of spot-welds as a function of the key variables such as gage, yield strengths, speed, etc. Spot-weld connections have been tested for gages ranging from 0.7 to 3.0 mm using a unique specimen configuration developed at Ford.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0257
Yijung Chen, Tau Tyan, Omar Faruque
This study summarizes the latest development of the methodologies for testing and CAE modeling of the engine mount. A systematic approach is used in this study with detailed component, subsystem and full system level investigations. The component level study reveals the entangling phenomenon of the inertial and rate effects in the engine mount dynamic characteristics. In the subsystem, the interaction between the engine mount and its surrounding structure is explored. The full system study is primarily used to validate the CAE methodology for engine mounts developed in the component and subsystem level studies. Four full vehicle barrier crash tests, with different crash modes and speeds, are employed in this validation phase to evaluate the performance of the engine mount CAE methodology.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0256
Yijung Chen, Tau Tyan, Omar Faruque
This study is a systematic investigation of the body mounts' dynamic characteristics in component, sub-system and full system levels and its application in the frontal impact analysis of a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle. Concluded from the component study, the body mount is modeled by non-linear spring with built-in damage and rupture properties. The sub-system study reveals the importance of modeling the interaction between the body mount and its surrounding structure. A general-purpose interaction modeling is developed to provide a realistic CAE simulation of this interaction behavior. The full system is mainly for methodology validation. Four 90-degree frontal and the one IIHS offset frontal crash tests are used to evaluate the performance of the body mount in low and high speeds and its capability of predicting the body mount and the floor pan failures.
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