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Viewing 1 to 30 of 35
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1085
Camille Baelden, Tian Tian
Piston rings are large contributors to friction losses in internal combustion engines. To achieve higher engine efficiency, low friction ring packs that can maintain good sealing performance must be designed. To support this effort, simulation tools have been developed to model the performance of piston rings during engine operation. However, the challenge of predicting oil consumption, blow by, and ring pack friction with sufficient accuracy remains. This is mostly due to the complexity of this system. Ring dynamics, deformation, interaction with liner and piston, gas and lubricant flow must all be studied together to make relevant predictions. In this paper, a new curved beam finite element model of piston rings is proposed. Ring structural deformation and contact with the liner are treated on two separate grids. A comparison with ring models in the literature and analytical solutions shows that it can provide accurate results efficiently.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1642
Liang Liu, Tian Tian
Based upon a hydrodynamic lubrication model used in journal bearing simulation, a one-dimensional flow continuity algorithm was developed in modeling ring-liner lubrication. By applying a “universal” differential equation to the entire ring-liner interface, the starting and ending points of full film can be located automatically. Considering the oil flow difference in the regions partially filled by oil between the ring/liner lubrication and bearing lubrication, the traditional assumption that the streams of oil and oil-vapor/air attach to both surfaces was relaxed in this model. Corresponding to this improvement, a transition region was introduced to smooth out the discontinuity of convection flow at the interface between a region fully filled by oil and a region partially filled by oil. Moreover, a distribution of standard pressure, which is crucial in formulating the universal differential equation, was proposed.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1641
Liang Liu, Tian Tian
The lubrication of the piston ring-pack is directly related to the engine friction and oil consumption. Non-axisymmetric characteristics of the power cylinder system, most noticeably cylinder bore distortion, piston secondary motion, and ring gaps, can introduce circumferential variations to ring/liner lubrication and overall performance of the ring-pack in friction and oil consumption. In order to be able to optimize the piston ring-pack in a more fundamental way, it is necessary to develop physical understanding of the effects of these non-axisymmetric properties and effective numerical tools. In this study, a comprehensive model has been developed for the lubrication of a piston ring-pack. By employing a finite element analysis, this model is capable of evaluating the in-plane structural response of a ring to external forces. A newly developed one-dimensional hydrodynamic lubrication sub-model is implemented to calculate the lubrication force at each cross-section.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1665
Mathieu Picard, Hiroyuki Hidaka, Tian Tian, Takayuki Nishino, Eiji Arai, Masaki Ohkubo
The rotary engine provides high power density compared to piston engine, but one of its downside is higher oil consumption. In order to better understand oil transport, a laser induced fluorescence technique is used to visualize oil motion on the side of the rotor during engine operation. Oil transport from both metered oil and internal oil is observed. Starting from inside, oil accumulates in the rotor land during inward motion of the rotor created by its eccentric motion. Oil seals are then scraping the oil outward due to seal-housing clearance asymmetry between inward and outward motion. Cut-off seal does not provide an additional barrier to internal oil consumption. Internal oil then mixes with metered oil brought to the side of the rotor by gas leakage. Oil is finally pushed outward by centrifugal force, passes the side seals, and is thrown off in the combustion chamber.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1664
Mathieu Picard, Camille Baelden, Tian Tian, Takayuki Nishino, Eiji Arai, Hiroyuki Hidaka
The rotary engine provides high power density compared to piston engine, but one of its downside is higher oil consumption. A model of the oil seals is developed to calculate internal oil consumption (oil leakage from the crankcase through the oil seals) as a function of engine geometry and operating conditions. The deformation of the oil seals trying to conform to housing distortion is calculated to balance spring force, O-ring and groove friction, and asperity contact and hydrodynamic pressure at the interface. A control volume approach is used to track the oil over a cycle on the seals, the rotor and the housing as the seals are moving following the eccentric rotation of the rotor. The dominant cause of internal oil consumption is the non-conformability of the oil seals to the housing distortion generating net outward scraping, particularly next to the intake and exhaust port where the housing distortion valleys are deep and narrow.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1321
Haijie Chen, Kai Liao, Tian Tian
A twin-land oil control ring (TLOCR) model is used to evaluate TLOCR friction and the results are compared to the experiment measurement in a single cylinder floating liner engine under motoring condition. The model is based on a correlation between the hydrodynamic pressure and film thickness, which is generated using a deterministic model. The well-known three-regime lubrication is predicted with the model for ring with different ring tensions under various engine running conditions. A good match is found for the model and experiment results.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972892
Jan-Roger Linna, Henrik Målberg, Paul J. Bennett, Peter J. Palmer, Tian Tian, Wai K. Cheng
A research program designed to measure the contribution from fuel absorption in the thin layer of oil, lubricating the cylinder liner, to the total and speciated HC emissions from a spark ignition engine has been performed. The logic of the experiment design was to test the oil layer mechanism via variations in the oil layer thickness (through the lubricant formulations), solubility of the fuel components in the lubricants, and variations in the crankcase gas phase HC concentration (through crankcase purging). A set of preliminary experiments were carried out to determine the solubility and diffusivity of the fuel components in the individual lubricants. Engine tests showed similar HC emissions among the tested lubricants. No consistent increase was observed with oil viscosity (oil film thickness), contrary to what would be expected if fuel-oil absorption was contributing significantly to engine-out HC. Similarly, no effect of crankcase purging could be observed.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970835
Tian Tian, Remi Rabute, Victor W. Wong, John B. Heywood
The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
1997-05-01
Technical Paper
971699
Kent Frolund, Jesper Schramm Phd, Bouke Noondby, Tian Tian, Victor W Wong
The single-point LIF-measurement technique has been applied to a four-cylinder spark-ignition production engine for investigation of the oil film layer between the piston, piston rings and the cylinder wall. The lubrication process was studied during engine warm-up and it was found that a scaling law could be successfully used. This scaling law enables simple scaling of the oil film thickness of the compression ring, scraper ring and on the liner during warm-up, assuming the oil film thickness and cylinder liner temperature are known for the steady-state operating condition. Thereby the value of traditional measured steady-state lubrication data is enhanced.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940696
Victor W. Wong, Tian Tian, Hua Lang, James P. Ryan, Yoshiki Sekiya, Yoichi Kobayashi, Shunichi Aoyama
This paper presents a numerical model of the rotational and lateral dynamics of the piston (secondary motion) and piston slap in mixed lubrication. Piston dynamic behavior, frictional and impact forces are predicted as functions of crank angle. The model considers piston skirt surface waviness, roughness, skirt profile, thermal and mechanical deformations. The model considers partially-flooded skirt and calculates the pressure distributions and friction in the piston skirt region for both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Model predictions are compared with measurements of piston position using gap sensors in a single-cylinder engine and the comparison between theory and measurement shows remarkable agreement.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962032
Tian Tian, Victor W. Wong, John B. Heywood
A complete one-dimensional mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict oil film thickness and friction of the piston ring-pack. An average flow model and a roughness contact model are used to consider the effects of surface roughness on both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Effects of shear-thinning and liner temperature on lubricant viscosity are included. An inlet condition is applied by considering the unsteady wetting location at the leading edge of the ring. A ‘film non-separation’ exit condition is proposed to replace Reynolds exit condition when the oil squeezing becomes dominant. Three lubrication modes are considered in the model, namely, pure hydrodynamic, mixed, and pure boundary lubrication. All of these considerations are crucial for studying the oil transport, asperity contact, and friction especially in the top dead center (TDC) region where the oil control ring cannot reach.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982658
Benoist Thirouard, Tian Tian, Douglas P. Hart
A two-dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system was developed to visualize the oil distribution and study the oil transport in the piston ring pack of a single-cylinder diesel engine through an optical window on the liner. The system gives high spatial and intensity resolutions so that detailed oil distribution on the piston as well as between the rings and the liner can be studied. This work primarily focused on investigating different oil transport mechanisms on piston crown land and second land under various engine operating conditions. Oil accumulation on the crown land was observed under certain operating conditions and top ring up-scraping was deemed to be the source for this oil accumulation. Two mechanisms for the oil flow on the second land were identified, namely, inertia driven oil flow in the axial direction and oil dragging by gas flow in the circumferential direction. Finally, the effects of ring rotation were investigated.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3823
Steve Przesmitzki, Adam Vokac, Tian Tian
The paper presents a detailed study of a unique lubricating oil transport and exchange path that is important for friction, wear, and oil consumption in a 4 stroke spark ignition engine, namely the oil flow from the piston to the cylinder liner. The study consisted of experiments with a test engine utilizing 2D LIF (Two Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence) techniques to view real time oil transport and exchange, along with computer modeling. The effects of engine speed, load, and oil ring design were included as part of the research. The test conditions ranged from 800 RPM to 4500 RPM, while the load was varied from closed throttle to wide open throttle. Several different oil control ring designs were utilized, including U-Flex, Twin-Land, and 3-Piece. Oil transport and exchange from the piston to the liner was observed under several different engine conditions, typically moderate to high engine speeds and low loads.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1934
Adam Vokac, Tian Tian
Faced with increasing concern for lubricating oil consumption and engine friction, it is critical to understand the oil transport mechanisms in the power cylinder system. Lubricating oil travels through distinct regions along the piston ring pack before being consumed in the combustion chamber, with the oil distribution and dominant driving forces varying substantially for each of these regions. In this work, the focus is on the lowest region in the piston ring pack, namely the third land, which is located between the second compression ring and the oil control ring. A detailed 2D LIF (Two Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence) study has been performed on the oil distribution and flow patterns of the third land throughout the entire cycle of a single cylinder spark ignition engine. The impact of speed and load were experimentally observed with the LIF generated real time high-resolution images, as were changes in piston and ring design.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3112
Liang Liu, Tian Tian, Rémi Rabuté
A comprehensive and robust analytical tool was developed to study three-dimensional (3D) ring-bore and ring-groove interactions for piston rings with either symmetric or asymmetric cross-section. The structural response of the ring is modeled with 3D finite element beam method, and the interfaces between the ring and the bore as well as between the ring and the groove are modeled with a simple asperity contact model. Given the ring free shape and the geometry of the cross-section, this analytical tool can be used to evaluate the ring-bore and ring-groove conformability as well as ring twist angle distribution under different constraints. Conversely, this tool can be used to calculate the free shape to provide the desired ring-bore contact pressure distribution for specific applications.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2912
Yeunwoo Cho, Tian Tian
A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of a number of distinct paraffin hydrocarbons, a set of equations governing the oil vapor density variations were derived by applying mass conservation law to the amount of oil vaporized from the piston and the amount of oil vapor transported within the piston ring pack. The model was applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine. First, the case with the maximum oil supply to all the piston regions was studied. The results showed that, under this condition, the oil consumption from piston vaporization alone was far greater than the typical oil consumption value measured in the engine.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2909
Ertan Yilmaz, Tian Tian, Victor W. Wong, John B. Heywood
As a part of the effort to comply with increasingly stringent emission standards, engine manufacturers strive to minimize engine oil consumption. This requires the advancement of the understanding of the characteristics, sources, and driving mechanisms of oil consumption. This paper presents a combined theoretical and experimental approach to separate and quantify different oil consumption sources in a production spark ignition engine at different speed and load conditions. A sulfur tracer method was used to measure the dependence of oil consumption on engine operating speed and load. Liquid oil distribution on the piston was studied using a Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique. In addition, important in-cylinder parameters for oil transport and oil consumption, such as liner temperatures and land pressures, were measured.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1952
Benoist Thirouard, Tian Tian
Engine oil consumption is one of the primary interests for the automotive industry in controlling emissions and reducing service cost. Due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of oil transport along the piston, reducing oil consumption from the ring pack of internal combustion engines has been extremely challenging for engine manufacturers and suppliers. Consequently, a thorough experimental characterization of oil transport processes is critical to 1) reduce lead-time and cost of new piston ring pack development, 2) provide the physically based oil transport models needed to develop analytical tools for oil consumption prediction. In this work, a two-dimensional multiple-dye Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) visualization system was successfully implemented in a diesel and a spark-ignition engine.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1953
Benoist Thirouard, Tian Tian
Engine oil consumption is one of the primary interests for the automotive industry in controlling emissions and reducing service cost. Due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms and flow patterns of oil transport along the piston, reducing oil consumption from the ring pack of internal combustion engines has been extremely challenging for engine manufacturers and suppliers. In work prior to this study (see Part I [1]), individual oil transport processes such as oil flows on the piston lands in both axial and circumferential directions, oil flows through the ring grooves and gaps and oil flows between the piston and the liner have been identified and characterized. One of the major difficulties remaining for oil transport analysis was the lack of description of how the oil transport mechanisms previously investigated affect, through the multitude of flow paths, the oil balance in the various sub-regions and the net oil flow toward the combustion chamber.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0794
Steve Przesmitzki, Tian Tian
This paper presents the follow up to previous work done by Przesmitzki and Tian [1] studying large increases in blow-by in a spark ignition engine during transient load changes. This study examines the sensitivity of such blow-by spikes to differing intake pressures, and the time spent under both high and low intake pressure. The study consisted of experiments with a single cylinder test engine utilizing 2D LIF (Two Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence) techniques to view real time oil transport and exchange, along with computer modeling to explain certain phenomenon observed during the experiments. The previous work found that a very large blow-by spike could occur upon a transition from low engine load to a high engine load. The hypothesis was the top ring groove was being filled with oil during low engine load. Thereafter, it was hypothesized a transition to high load resulted in radial collapse of the top ring, and the subsequent blow by spike.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1613
Haijie Chen, Yong Li, Tian Tian
This paper presents a model for the lubrication and friction between a twin land oil control ring and the liner within an engine cycle. This model is based on the deterministic method, which considers micro geometry of the liner finish and its effects on both hydrodynamic lubrication and asperity contact. In this particular application, the liner surface micro features are solely responsible for hydrodynamic pressure generation due to the flat face profile of a typical twin land oil control ring, contrasting to the traditional average model where ring surface macro geometry is most important in generating hydrodynamic pressure.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1614
Haijie Chen, Tian Tian
This paper discusses the influences of several cylinder liner honing surface geometrical features on the interaction between the piston twin land oil control ring (TLOCR) and the cylinder liner by using the deterministic hydrodynamic model [1] and the twin land oil control ring model [2]. Additionally, the key design parameters of the TLOCR, including ring tension and land axial width are studied. The results show significant effects of three liner honing surface features beyond height distribution, including plateau wavelength, groove density and honing angle in hydrodynamic pressure generation. The study in oil control ring design parameters reveals that both ring tension and land axial width have important influences on friction and oil consumption, and their competing effects are discussed subsequently.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1615
Yong Li, Haijie Chen, Tian Tian
A general deterministic hydrodynamic lubrication model [1] was modified to study the interaction between a Twin Land Oil Control Ring (TLOCR) and a liner with cross-hatch liner finish. Efforts were made to customize the general model to simulate the particular sliding condition of TLOCR/liner interaction with proper boundary conditions. The results show that model is consistent, robust, and efficient. The lubricant mass conservation was justified and discussed. Then analysis was conducted on the lubricant transport between the deep grooves/valleys and plateau part of the surface to illustrate the importance of deep grooves in oil supply to the plateau part and hydrodynamic pressure generation. Furthermore, since the TLOCR land running surface is completely flat and parallel to the nominal liner axis, the liner finish micro geometry is fully responsible for the hydrodynamic pressure rise, which was found to be sufficient to support significant portion of the total ring radial load.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1612
Fiona McClure, Tian Tian
A dry piston secondary dynamics model has been developed. This model includes the detailed piston and cylinder bore hot shape geometries, and piston deformations due to combustion pressure, axial inertia and interaction with the cylinder bore, but neglects the effects of the hydrodynamic lubrication at the piston - cylinder bore interface in order to achieve faster calculation times. The piston - cylinder bore friction is calculated using a user supplied friction coefficient. This model provides a very useful, fast tool for power cylinder system analysis, provided its limitations are understood.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0647
Jeffrey Jocsak, Yong Li, Tian Tian, Victor W. Wong
Frictional losses in the piston ring-pack of an engine account for approximately half of the total frictional losses within the power cylinder of an engine. Three-dimensional honing groove texture was modeled, and its effect on piston ring-pack friction and engine brake thermal efficiency was investigated. Adverse effects on engine oil consumption and durability were also considered. Although many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes are now being developed to reduce friction and oil consumption, the effects of surface finish on ring-pack performance is not well understood. A rough surface flow simulation program was developed to calculate flow and stress factors that adjust the solution of the Reynolds equation for the effects of surface roughness as has been done in the literature. Rough surface contact between the ring and liner was modeled using a previously published methodology for asperity contact pressure estimation between rough surfaces.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1054
Steve Przesmitzki, Tian Tian
This paper presents a study of lubricating oil transport and exchange in a four-stroke spark ignition engine while undergoing transient load changes. The study consisted of experiments with a single cylinder test engine utilizing 2D LIF (Two Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence) techniques to view real time oil transport and exchange, along with computer modeling to describe certain phenomenon observed during the experiments. The computer modeling results included ring dynamics and corresponding gas flows through different regions of the power cylinder. Under steady-state conditions and constant speed during the experiments, more oil was observed on the piston at low load than at high load. Therefore, a transition from low load to high load resulted in oil leaving the piston, and a transition from high load to low load resulted in oil being added to the piston.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1043
Zachary Westerfield, Pasquale Totaro, Dallwoo Kim, Tian Tian
Abstract The piston skirt is an important contributor of friction in the piston assembly. This paper discusses friction contributions from various aspects of the piston skirt. A brief study of piston skirt patterns is presented, with little gains being made by patterning the piston skirt coating. Next the roughness of the piston skirt coating is analyzed, and results show that reducing piston skirt roughness can have positive effects on friction reduction. Finally, an introductory study into the profile of the piston skirt is presented, with the outcome being that friction reduction is possible by optimizing the skirt profile.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1048
Zachary Westerfield, Yang Liu, Dallwoo Kim, Tian Tian
Abstract The oil control ring (OCR) controls the supply of lubricating oil to the top two rings of the piston ring pack and has a significant contribution to friction of the system. This study investigates the two most prevalent types of OCR in the automotive market: the twin land oil control ring (TLOCR) and three piece oil control ring (TPOCR). First, the basis for TLOCR friction on varying liner roughness is established. Then the effect of changing the land width and spring tension on different liner surfaces for the TLOCR is investigated, and distinct trends are identified. A comparison is then done between the TLOCR and TPOCR on different liner surfaces. Results showed the TPOCR displayed different patterns of friction compared the TLOCR in certain cases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1046
Pasquale Pio Totaro, Zachary Westerfield, Tian Tian
Abstract The piston’s skirt shape is a key design parameter since it critically influences lateral displacement, tilting movement, oil transport and consequently engine performances. This study proposes an alternative skirt profile that aims to reduce frictional losses between the piston and cylinder liner. Qualitatively, the proposed profile, aims to reduce solid-to-solid contact friction by increasing the total hydrodynamic forces generated on the skirt to balance side forces, and to prevent both sides of the skirt to interact with the liner simultaneously. The new skirt’s profile has been first studied and optimized using a piston secondary motion model and then prototyped and tested on a floating liner test bench, showing a 12% average reduction in total piston FMEP.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0642
Eric Zanghi, Tian Tian
Understanding oil transport mechanisms is critical to developing better tools for oil consumption and piston skirt lubrication [1]. Our existing Two-Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2DLIF) system with an acquisition rate of 1 frame every one or two cycles was proven to be effective to display oil accumulation patterns and their evolution over many cycles in the piston ring pack system [2,3,4]. Yet, the existing system is unable to resolve instantaneous oil flow patterns in the piston-liner interface. In this work, a high-speed LIF system was developed. After a number of iterations the finalized high speed LIF system includes a 23 W, 100 kHz, 532 nm laser and a high speed camera capable of 100,000 FPS at 384 × 264 pixel resolution. After each component was selected, optimization of the quality of images taken from the system began.
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