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Viewing 1 to 28 of 28
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930985
Eugene Danielson, David Turner, Joseph Elwart, Walter Bryzik
High thermal stresses in the cylinder heads of low heat rejection (LHR) engines can lead to low cycle fatigue failure in the head. In order to decrease these stresses to a more acceptable level, novel designs are introduced. One design utilizes scallops in the bridge area, and three others utilize a high-strength, low thermal conductivity titanium faceplate inserted into the firedeck (combustion face) of a low heat rejection engine cylinder head. The faceplates are 5mm thick disks that span the firedeck from the injector bore to approximately 10mm outside of the cylinder liner. Large-scale finite element models for these four different LHR cylinder head configurations were created, and used to evaluate their strength performance on a pass/fail basis. The complex geometry of this cylinder head required very detailed three-dimensional analysis techniques, especially in the valve bridge area. This area is finely meshed to allow for accurate determination of stress gradients.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920544
Eugene Danielson, Joseph Elwart, Walter Bryzik, David Turner
Abstract A large scale, high resolution, finite element methodology for analysis of generic thermomechanical behavior of complex, low heat rejection engine components has been developed. This paper describes this process and presents an example evaluation of a low heat rejection cylinder head. Because of symmetry considerations, a one cylinder section of the head was modeled. However, the geometric nature of this cylinder head section required very precise three-dimensional analysis techniques. The completed three-dimensional model contains 40,696 elements and 48,536 nodes. The results of this example model show high stresses at the valve bridge and injector bore. These stresses result from a constrained thermal expansion of the head, and are generally compressive and radial in nature. A comparison of three different material types indicated that two of the three exceeded, and one was below the elastic limit.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932411
Naeim A. Henein, Walter Bryzik, Clive Taylor, Angelo Nichols
Several dynamic parameters for the diagnosis of reciprocating combustion engines are investigated. Emphasis is made on the effect of sampling. The dynamic parameters include the frequency analysis, autocorrelation function, the frequency analysis of the autocorrelation function, variation of the angular velocity peaks, variation of the angular velocity depressions, variation of the angular velocity from before to after top dead center, velocity index and acceleration index. Two sampling techniques are used to measure the instantaneous angular velocity of a six cylinder, four-stroke-cycle diesel engine, under healthy and faulty conditions. The most effective dynamic parameters for engine diagnostics are determined.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940950
Eugene Danielson, David Gonska, Walter Bryzik
Abstract In our prior analytical work concerning a finite element methodology for thermal stress analysis of minimum cooled low heat rejection (LHR) engine cylinder heads, a very fine mesh with strict aspect ratio and element density criteria was used. In this current study, these criteria were relaxed and two other finite element models with different element densities were used to solve the same thermal stress problem. The thermal and stress results of the relaxed models are compared to those of the earlier very fine mesh results. It is the aim of this paper to show in a semi-quantified manner, how mesh density can affect thermal stress solutions in LHR engine heads. Hopefully this will enable other analysts working in this area to make some judgement on mesh density before starting an actual modelling effort, resulting in a savings of time and manpower resources.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950982
Melvin Woods, Walter Bryzik, Ernest Schwarz
The successful design of engine components for high temperature applications is very dependent on the use of advanced finite element methods. Without the use of thermal and structural modeling techniques it is virtually impossible to establish the reliable design specifications to meet the application requirements. Advanced modeling and design of two key engine components, the cylinder head thermal insulating headface plate and the capped air gap insulated piston, are presented. Prior engine test experience contributes to further understanding of the important factors in recognizing successful design solutions. It has been found that the modeling results are only as good as the modeling assumptions and that all modeling boundary conditions and constraints must be reviewed carefully.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960773
Peter Schihl, Walter Bryzik, Arvind Atreya
A phenomenological zero-dimensional spray penetration model was developed for diesel-type conditions for a constant volume chamber. The spray was modeled as a protruding cone which is well-mixed at its tip after passing through initial primary and secondary breakup zones. The resulting cone model is strictly dependent on injection parameters; density ratio, injection and chamber pressure, nozzle characteristics, and cone angle. The proposed model was compared with data from three different sources and performed well in most cases except for low density environments.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
961040
Peter Schihl, Walter Bryzik, Arvind Atreya
The methodology for predicting the transient mixing rate is presented for a direct injection, quiescent chamber diesel. The mixing process is modeled as a zero-dimensional, large-scale phenomena which accounts for injection rate, cylinder geometry, and engine operating condition. As a demonstration, two different injection schemes were investigated for engine speeds of 1600, 2100, and 2600 rpm. In the first case, the air-fuel ratio was fixed while the injection rate was allowed to vary, but for the second case, the injection duration was fixed and the air-fuel ratio was allowed to vary. For the former case, the resulting mixing rate was also compared with the experimentally determined fuel burning rate. These two quantities appeared to be correlated in some manner for the various engine speeds under investigation.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
961050
Nagesh Mavinahally, Roy Kamo, Walter Bryzik, Michael Reid, Victor Wong
This paper investigates theoretically the benefits of the Miller cycle diesel engine with and without low heat rejection on thermodynamic efficiency, brake power, and fuel consumption. It further illustrates the effectiveness of thin thermal barrier coatings to improve the performance of military and commercial IC engines. A simple model which includes a friction model is used to estimate the overall improvement in engine performance. Miller cycle is accomplished by closing the intake valve late and the engine components are coated with PSZ for low heat rejection. A significant improvement in brake power and thermal efficiency are observed.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960507
Eugene Danielson, Walter Bryzik
The authors have conducted extensive finite element (FE) thermal and stress analysis on the heads of low heat rejection diesel engines. Throughout these analyses, model mesh construction was based on conventional rule-of-thumb criteria. In this paper a simple analytical methodology is presented for selecting a mesh to conduct thermal analysis. This is intended to remove some of the arbitrary appearance of these prior meshes. Results of the FE thermal solution based on a mesh using this methodology is compared to a known convergent FE thermal solution.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0931
Lurun Zhong, N.A. Henein, Walter Bryzik
Abstract The disturbances in the cylinder gas pressure trace caused by combustion in internal combustion engines have an impact on the shape of the rate of heat (energy) release (RHR). It is necessary to smooth the pressure trace before carrying out the RHR calculations and making any interpretations for the combustion process. Different smoothing methods are analyzed and their features compared. Furthermore, the selection of the smoothing starting point and its effect on the smoothing quality of pressure data are described. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is applied to determine the frequency of the disturbances in power spectrum and obtain the optimal specified smoothing parameter (SSP). The experimental data was obtained on a single-cylinder research diesel engine, running under simulated turbocharged steady state conditions. The experiments covered a wide range of engine operating parameters such as injection pressures, injection timing, and EGR ratios.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0956
Radu Florea, Dinu Taraza, Naeim A. Henein, Walter Bryzik
EGR is a proven technology used to reduce NOx formation in both compression and spark ignition engines by reducing the combustion temperature. In order to further increase its efficiency the recirculated gases are subjected to cooling. However, this leads to a higher load on the cooling system of the engine, thus requiring a larger radiator. In the case of turbocharged engines the large variations of the pressures, especially in the exhaust manifold, produce a highly pulsating EGR flow leading to non-steady-state heat transfer in the cooler. The current research presents a method of determining the pulsating flow field and the instantaneous heat transfer in the EGR heat exchanger. The processes are simulated using the CFD code FIRE (AVL) and the results are subjected to validation by comparison with the experimental data obtained on a 2.5 liter, four cylinder, common rail and turbocharged diesel engine.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0933
Lurun Zhong, Naeim A. Henein, Walter Bryzik
A new tool has been used to arrive at appropriate split injection strategy for reducing the cranking period during the cold start of a multi-cylinder engine at decreasing ambient temperatures. The concept behind this tool is that the combination of different injection parameters that produce the highest IMEP should be able to improve the cold startability of the diesel engine. In this work the following injection parameters were considered: 1) injection timing, 2) split injection fraction, 3) dwell time and 4) total fuel mass injected per cycle. A commercial engine cyclic simulation code has been modified for diesel engine cycle simulation at lower ambient temperatures. The code was used to develop IMEP control maps. The maps were used to identify the parameters that would give the best IMEP. The strategies that have been identified have been validated experimentally in a multi-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a common rail fuel injection system.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1440
Philipe Saad, Lloyd Kamo, Milad Mekari, Walter Bryzik, Victor Wong, Nicolas Dmitrichenko, Rudolf Mnatsakanov
This paper presents tribological modeling, experimental work, and validation of tribology parameters of a single cylinder turbocharged diesel engine run at various loads, speeds, intake boost pressures, and cylinder liner temperatures. Analysis were made on piston rings and liner materials, rings mechanical and thermal loads, contact pressure between rings and liner, and lubricant conditions. The engine tribology parameters were measured, and used to validate the engine tribology models. These tribology parameters are: oil film thickness, coefficient of friction between rings and liner, friction force, friction power, friction torque, shear rate, shear stress and wear of the sliding surfaces. In order to measure the oil film thickness between rings and liner, a single cylinder AVL turbocharged diesel engine was instrumented to accept the difference in voltage drop method between rings, oil film, and liner.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1460
Dinu Taraza, Naeim A. Henein, Radu Ceausu, Walter Bryzik
The simulation of I.C. Engines operation, especially during transients, requires a fairly accurate estimation of the internal mechanical losses of the engine. The paper presents generic friction models for the main friction components of the engine (piston-ring-liner assembly, bearings and valve train), considering geometry of the engine parts and peculiarities of the corresponding lubrication processes. Separate models for the mechanical losses introduced by the injection system, oil and water pumps are also developed. All models are implemented as SIMULINK modules in a complex engine simulation code developed in SIMULINK and capable to simulate both steady state and transient operating conditions. Validation is achieved by comparison with measurements made on a four cylinder, common rail diesel engine, on a test bench capable to run controlled transients.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710821
Walter Bryzik
The increased use of turbocharged diesel engines for automotive applications has accentuated the need for accurate power correction functions. The study's purpose was to evaluate the effect of dry ambient intake air pressure, ambient intake air temperature, engine speed, and humidity upon the performance of a turbocharged diesel engine. Each effect is examined individually and weighted in a final relationship for standardized horsepower. Power correction formulas, in a form readily comparable to typical correction functions, are derived from the results. Testing was conducted through the use of various special test procedures, calibrations, and test equipment. With computer aid, test evaluation was conducted by utilizing various analytical and graphical methods. An accuracy comparison between actual and calculated values of power correction is presented.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770718
Walter Bryzik, Charles O. Smith
The study relates air/fuel ratio, fuel injection timing, and engine speed to exhaust smoke levels and performance of the diesel engine. Additional data were obtained under supercharged and turbocharged inlet air conditions to investigate the applicability of the derived relationships under these conditions. Limited data using a variance in fuel type were obtained. Insight into the basic mechanism of smoke formation in diesel engines was gained. The relative percentages of fuel injected before ignition (i.e., premixed fuel) and after initiation of combustion (i.e., unmixed diffusion burning fuel) were found to be extremely significant in determining smoke levels. A smoke factor (the ratio of equivalence ratio in the combustion chamber at initial ignition to overall equivalence ratio) was formulated and found to be useful in predicting smoke phenomena in diesel engines.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0970
Dennis N. Assanis, Walter Bryzik, Nabil Chalhoub, Zoran Filipi, Naeim Henein, Dohoy Jung, Xiaoliu Liu, Loucas Louca, John Moskwa, Scott Munns, James Overholt, Panos Papalambros, Stephen Riley, Zachary Rubin, Polat Sendur, Jeffrey Stein, Gregory Zhang
An integrated vehicle system simulation has been developed to take advantage of advances in physical process and component models, flexibility of graphical programming environments (such as MATLAB-SIMULINK), and ever increasing capabilities of engineering workstations. A comprehensive, transient model of the multi-cylinder engine is linked with models of the torque converter, transmission, transfer case and differentials. The engine model is based on linking the appropriate number of single-cylinder modules, with the latter being thermodynamic models of the in-cylinder processes with built-in physical sub-models and transient capabilities to ensure high fidelity predictions. Either point mass or multi-body vehicle dynamics models can be coupled with the powertrain module to produce the ground vehicle simulation.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0228
Peter J. Schihl, Walter Bryzik, Ernest Schwarz, Arvind Atreya
A two phase, global combustion model has been developed for quiescent chamber, direct injection diesel engines. The first stage of the model is essentially a spark ignition engine flame spread model which has been adapted to account for fuel injection effects. During this stage of the combustion process, ignition and subsequent flame spread/heat release are confined to a mixing layer which has formed on the injected jet periphery during the ignition delay period. Fuel consumption rate is dictated by mixing layer dynamics, laminar flame speed, large scale turbulence intensity, and local jet penetration rate. The second stage of the model is also a time scale approach which is explicitly controlled by the global mixing rate. Fuel-air preparation occurs on a large-scale level throughout this phase of the combustion process with each mixed fuel parcel eventually burning at a characteristic time scale as dictated by the global mixing rate.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0921
Dinu Taraza, Naeim Henein, Walter Bryzik
This paper presents a global friction model of a diesel engine. The model accounts for the individual contributions of the main components of the mechanical losses and the influence of specific design and operating parameters on the mechanical losses. The main components considered in the model are: the piston-ring assembly, the valve train, the bearings and auxiliaries (injection pump, oil pump and coolant pump). For each of these components, the model was developed based on geometric parameters, operating conditions and the physics governing the friction. The individual models were assembled in a global friction model of a multicylinder diesel engine, and a computer code was developed to simulate the total mechanical losses of the engine. The experimental validation of the model was obtained by comparing the simulated crankshaft's speed variation with the instantaneous speed measured by a shaft encoder.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1237
Zhiping Han, Naeim Henein, Bogdan Nitu, Walter Bryzik
Combustion instability and white smoke emissions are serious problems during cold starting of diesel engines. In this investigation, a model has been applied to predict misfiring based on an analysis of the autoignition process. The effect of injection timing on combustion instability during the cold start transient, at different ambient temperatures is investigated, both theoretically and experimentally. Maps have been developed to show the zones where misfiring would occur. The experimental work was conducted on a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine in a cold room. The room temperature covered a range from 21 ° C to -10 ° C. The cycle-by-cycle data analysis was made and results plotted on the developed maps. The experimental results correlated fairly well with the model prediction. Based on the analysis, a new strategy for cold starting can be developed to reduce combustion instability and white smoke emissions.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0985
Mircea Teodorescu, Dinu Taraza, Naeim A. Henein, Walter Bryzik
The paper analyses the particularities of the lubricating conditions at the contact between the cam and a flat tappet in the valve train of an internal combustion engine and develops a method for the calculation of the friction force. The existing lubrication models show the predominance of the entraining speed and oil viscosity on the thickness of the oil film entrapped between cam and tappet, predicting a very small value (less than 0.1 μm) of the oil film thickness (OFT). The oil viscosity increases exponentially with pressure in the Hertzian contact, determining non-Newtonian behavior of the oil in the contact zone. Using the model developed by Greenwood and Tripp [11] for the contact of two rough surfaces and the Eyring model [2] for the oil it is shown that non-Newtonian behavior of the oil prevails and that the OFT plays a secondary role on the friction force.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0699
L. Zhong, I. P. Singh, J. Han, Ming-Chia Lai, N. A. Henein, Walter Bryzik
The performance of the Common Rail diesel injection system (CRS) is investigated experimentally in a single cylinder engine and a test rig to determine the cycle-to-cycle variation in the injection pressure and its effects on the needle opening and rate of fuel delivery. The engine used is a single cylinder, simulated-turbocharged diesel engine. Data for the different injection and performance parameters are collected under steady state conditions for 35 consecutive cycles. Furthermore, a mathematical model has been developed to calculate the instantaneous fuel delivery rate at various injection pressures. The experimental results supported with the model computations indicated the presence of cycle-to-cycle variations in the fuel injection pressure and needle lift. The variations in the peak-cylinder gas pressure, rate of heat release, cylinder gas temperature and IMEP are correlated with the variation in the injection rate.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0080
Hengqing Liu, N.A. Henein, Walter Bryzik
Diesel engine cold-start problems include long cranking periods, hesitation and white smoke emissions. A better understanding of these problems is essential to improve diesel engine cold-start. In this study computer simulation model is developed for the steady state and transient cold starting processes in a single-cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The model is verified experimentally and utilized to determine the key parameters that affect the cranking period and combustion instability after the engine starts. The behavior of the fuel spray before and after it impinges on the combustion chamber walls was analyzed in each cycle during the cold-start operation. The analysis indicated that the accumulated fuel in combustion chamber has a major impact on engine cold starting through increasing engine compression pressure and temperature and increasing fuel vapor concentration in the combustion chamber during the ignition delay period.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-0073
Peter Schihl, John Tasdemir, Ernest Schwarz, Walter Bryzik
A zero-dimensional heat release model has been formulated for small bore, automotive-type, direct injection diesel engines and compared with high-speed data acquired from a prototype single-cylinder engine. This comparison included a significant portion of the full-load torque curve and various light-loads with variable speed, injection timing sweeps, and injection pressures. In general, the agreement between the predicted net heat release rate profiles and the experimentally, indirectly-determined profiles was acceptable from a mean cylinder pressure point-of-view while employing a single constant for the turbulent mixing dissipation rate. The proposed model also revealed that moderate swirl rates included in this study had little impact on the gross fuel burning rate profile especially at higher load conditions.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890296
Walter Bryzik, Melvin E. Woods, Ernest Schwarz, Paul Glance
Significant progress has been achieved in the development of advanced high-temperature, insulated, in-cylinder components for high-power-output miliraty diesel engines. Computer aided modeling and small-bore engine component testing have both been utilized extensively during the exploratory development process. Specific insulated optimal designs for the piston, cylinder headface, and cylinder liner have been identified. The designs all utilize thermal barrier coatings, titanium alloy, and interfacial air-gaps to provide thermal resistance. Finite element modeling including diesel cycle simulation has been utilized to screen and optimize material and design concepts relative to program objectives, while small-bore engine testing has been utilized to demonstrate component integrity. An improved slurry densified thermal barrier coating has been demonstrated by testing on a high temperature small-bore engine.
1987-02-01
Technical Paper
870018
Roy Kamo, Walter Bryzik, Paul Glance
Since the early inception of the adiabatic diesel engine in 1974, marked progress has taken place as a result of research efforts performed all over the world. The use of ceramics for heat engines in production applications has been limited to date, but is growing. Ceramic use for production heat engine has included: combustion prechambers, turbochargers, exhaust port liners, top piston ring inserts, glow plugs, oxygen sensors; and additional high temperature friction and wear components. The potential advantages of an adiabatic engine vary greatly with specific application (i.e., commercial vs. military, stationary vs. vehicular, etc.), and thus, a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses (and associated risks) of advanced adiabatic concepts with respect to materials, tribology, cost, and payoff must be obtained.
1985-02-25
Technical Paper
850356
K. L. Hoag, M. C. Brands, Walter Bryzik, U.S. Army
Joint development of the adiabatic engine by Cummins Engine Company and the U. S. Army began with a feasibility analysis ten years ago. The effort was initially driven by the expectation of substantial performance improvement, a reduction in cooling system size, and several additional benefits. Program emphasis turned quickly to experimentation with the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of the adiabatic engine in working hardware. Several significant achievements were realized as have been reported earlier. Further development of the adiabatic engine is expected to be more evolutionary, paced by available technology in the areas of materials and tribology. Analysis capability necessary for insulated engine development has been found to be inadequate. Additional effort has gone into the development and validation of insulated engine analysis tools, both for cycle simulation and structural modeling.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0483
Dongying Jiang, Yuanyuan Liu, Chang Qi, Zheng-Dong Ma, Basavaraju B. Raju, Walter Bryzik
An advanced design methodology is developed for innovative composite structure concepts which can be used in the Army's future ground vehicle systems to protect vehicle and occupants against various explosives. The multi-level and multi-scenario blast simulation and design system integrates three major technologies: a newly developed landmine-soil-composite interaction model; an advanced design methodology, called Function-Oriented Material Design (FOMD); and a novel patent-pending composite material concept, called BTR (Biomimetic Tendon-Reinforced) material. Example results include numerical simulation of a BTR composite under a blast event. The developed blast simulation and design system will enable the prediction, design, and prototyping of blast-protective composite structures for a wide range of damage scenarios in various blast events.
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