Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Author:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 23 of 23
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
931021
Walter Bryzik, Ernest Schwarz, Roy Kamo, Melvin Woods
A high output experimental single cylinder diesel engine that was fully coated and insulated with a ceramic slurry coated combustion chamber was tested at full load and full speed. The cylinder liner and cylinder head mere constructed of 410 Series stainless steel and the top half of the articulated piston and the cylinder head top deck plate were made of titanium. The cylinder liner, head plate and the piston crown were coated with ceramic slurry coating. An adiabaticity of 35 percent was predicted for the insulated engine. The top ring reversal area on the cylinder liner was oil cooled. In spite of the high boost pressure ratio of 4:1, the pressure charged air was not aftercooled. No deterioration in engine volumetric efficiency was noted. At full load (260 psi BMEP) and 2600 rpm, the coolant heat rejection rate of 12 btu/hp.min. was achieved. The original engine build had coolant heat rejection of 18.3 btu/hp-min and exhaust energy heat rejection of 42.3 btu/hp-min at full load.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980164
Dinu Taraza, Naeim A. Henein, Walter Bryzik
The local variation of the crankshaft's speed in a multicylinder engine is determined by the resultant gas-pressure torque and the torsional deformation of the crankshaft. Under steady-state operation, the crankshaft's speed has a quasi-periodic variation and its harmonic components may be obtained by a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Based on a lumped-mass model of the shafting, correlations are established between the harmonic components of the speed variation and the corresponding components of the engine torque. These correlations are used to calculate the gas-pressure torque or the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from measurements of the crankshaft's speed.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980885
Nagesh S. Mavinahally, Roy Kamo, Lloyd Kamo, Walter Bryzik, Michael Ried
This paper deals with the analysis of heat release characteristics of an insulated turbocharged, six cylinder, DI contemporary diesel engine. The engine is fully insulated with thin thermal barrier coatings. Effect of insulation on the heat release was experimentally verified. Tests were carried over a range of engine speeds at 100%, 93%, 75% and 50% of rated torque. Fuel injection system was instrumented to obtain injection pressure characteristics. The study shows that rate of heat release, particularly in the major portion of the combustion, is higher for the insulated engine. Improvement in heat release and performance are primarily attributed to reduction in heat transfer loss due to the thin thermal barrier coating. Injection pressure at the rated speed and torque was found to be 138 MPa and there was no degradation of combustion process in the insulated engine. Improvements in BSFC at 93% load are 3.25% and 6% at 1600 and 2600 RPM, respectively.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970203
Lloyd S. Kamo, Ardy S. Kleyman, Walter Bryzik, Milad Mekari
Experimental results focused towards developing tribological surface coatings coupled with liquid lubricant boundary layer effects, for advanced high temperature military diesel engine applications are presented. The primary focus of this work is in the area of advanced, low heat rejection (LHR) high output diesel engines, where high temperature boundary lubrication between the piston ring and the cylinder liner wall surface is critical for successful engine operation. The target temperature focused upon in our research is an operating top ring reversal (TRR) temperature of approximately 538°C. The technology advancement used for this application involves treating porous iron oxide/titanium oxide (Fe2O3/TiO2) and molybdenum (Mo) based composite thermal sprayed coatings with chemical binders to improve coating strength, integrity, and tribological properties. This process dramatically decreases open porosity to form an almost monolithic appearing coating at the surface1.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970204
Roy Kamo, Walter Bryzik, Michael Reid, Melvin Woods
Thermal barrier coatings are becoming increasingly important in providing thermal insulation for heat engine components. Thermal insulation reduces in-cylinder heat transfer from the engine combustion chamber as well as reducing component structural temperatures. Containment of heat also contributes to increased in-cylinder work and offers higher exhaust temperatures for energy recovery. Lower component structural temperatures will result in greater durability. Advanced ceramic composite coatings also offer the unique properties that can provide reductions in friction and wear. Test results and analysis to evaluate the performance benefits of thin thermal barrier coated components in a single cylinder diesel engine are presented.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940951
Melvin E. Woods, Walter Bryzik, Ernest Schwarz
An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has successfully completed a 100 hour endurance test. The combustion chamber components were insulated with thermal barrier coatings. The engine components included a titanium piston, titanium headface plate, titanium cylinder liner insert, M2 steel valve guides and monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts. The tribological system was composed of a ceramic chrome oxide coated cylinder liner, chrome carbide coated piston rings and an advanced polyolester class lubricant. The top piston compression ring Included a novel design feature to provide self-cleaning of ring groove lubricant deposits to prevent ring face scuffing. The prototype test engine demonstrated 52 percent reduction in radiator heat rejection with reduced intake air aftercooling and strategic forced oil cooling.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950980
Victor W. Wong, Wolf Bauer, Roy Kamo, Walter Bryzik, Michael Reid
This paper investigates theoretically the effects of heat transfer characteristics, such as crank-angle phasing and wall temperature swings, on the thermodynamic efficiency of an IC engine. The objective is to illustrate the fundamental physical basis of applying thin thermal barrier coatings to improve the performance of military and commercial IC engines. A simple model illustrates how the thermal impedance and thickness of coatings can be manipulated to control heat transfer and limit the high temperatures in engine components. A friction model is also included to estimate the overall improvement in engine efficiency by the proper selection of coating thickness and material.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-1236
Lloyd Kamo, Melvin Woods, Walter Bryzik, Milad Mekari
The future of maintaining a superior mobile military ground vehicle fleet rests in high power density propulsion systems. As the U.S. Government desires to convert its powerplant base to heavy fuel operation, there arises the opportunity to incorporate new advanced materials into these heavy fuel engines. These newer materials serve the purpose of decreasing powerplant weight and develop new component designs to take advantage of improved strength and temperature capability of those materials. In addition, the military continues the effort for a non-watercooled Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engine. This type of engine demands the use of ceramic and advanced ceramic composite material hardware. Furthermore, today's higher pressure fuel injection systems, coupled with reduced air/fuel ratio as a means of increasing horsepower to size and weight, will require thermal protection or change in material specification for many of the engine's components.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-1237
Lloyd Kamo, Roy Kamo, Walter Bryzik, Milad Mekari, Y.S. Jin, S.H. Li
The high temperature tribology issue for uncooled Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engines where the cylinder liner piston ring interface exceeds temperatures of 225°C to 250°C has existed for decades. It is a problem that has persistently prohibited advances in non-watercooled LHR engine development. Though the problem is not specific to non-watercooled LHR diesel engines, it is the topic of this research study for the past two and one half years. In the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, a tremendous amount of research had been placed upon the development of the LHR diesel engine. LHR engine finite element design and cycle simulation models had been generated. Many of these projected the cylinder liner piston ring top ring reversal (TRR) temperature to exceed 540°C[1]. In order for the LHR diesel to succeed, a tribological solution for these high TRR temperatures had to be developed.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0972
Roy Kamo, Nagesh S. Mavinahally, Lloyd Kamo, Walter Bryzik, Earnest E. Schwartz
Thin thermal barrier ceramic coatings were applied to a standard production direct injection diesel engine. The resultant fuel economy when compared to the standard metallic engine at full load and speed (2600) was 6% better and 3.5% better at 1600 RPM. Most coated diesel engines todate have not shown significant fuel economy one way or the other. Why are the results more positive in this particular case? The reasons were late injection timing, high injection pressure with high injection rates to provide superior heat release rates with resultant lower fuel consumption. The recent introduction of the high injection pressure fuel injection system makes it possible to have these desirable heat release rates at the premixed combustion period. Of course the same injection characteristics were applied to the standard and the thin thermal barrier coating case. The thin thermal barrier coated engine displayed superior heat release rate.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1104
Lloyd Kamo, Philipe Saad, Rudolf Mnatsakanov, Walter Bryzik, Milad Mekari
Abstract Adiabatics, Inc. with the support of the U.S. Army Tank Automotive & Armaments Command has examined the feasibility of using Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) films and Iron Titanate (Fe2TiO5 or IT) for sliding contact surfaces in Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engines. DLCs have long been a popular candidate for use in sliding contact tribo-surfaces where a perceived reduction of friction losses will result in increased engine efficiency [1]. There exists a broad range of technologies for applying DLC films. This paper examines several types of these technologies and their future application to automotive internal combustion engines. Our work focuses upon DLC use for LHR military diesel engines where operating temperatures and pressures are higher than conventional diesel engines. However, a direct transfer of this technology to automotive diesel or gasoline engines exists for these thin films.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890143
Roy Kamo, Dennis N. Assanis, Walter Bryzik
Contrary to the thick thermal barrier coating approach used in adiabatic diesel engines, the authors have investigated the merits of thin coatings. Transient heat transfer analysis indicates that the temperature swings experienced at combustion chamber surfaces depend primarily on material thermophysical properties, i.e., conductivity, density, and specific heat. Thus, cyclic temperature swings should be alike whether thick or thin (less than 0.25 mm) coatings are applied, Furthermore, thin coatings would lead to lower mean component temperatures and would be easier to apply than thick coatings. The thinly-coated engine concept offers several advantages including improved volumetric efficiency, lower cylinder liner wall temperatures, improved piston-liner tribological behavior, and improved erosion-corrosion resistance and thus greater component durability.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890296
Walter Bryzik, Melvin E. Woods, Ernest Schwarz, Paul Glance
Significant progress has been achieved in the development of advanced high-temperature, insulated, in-cylinder components for high-power-output miliraty diesel engines. Computer aided modeling and small-bore engine component testing have both been utilized extensively during the exploratory development process. Specific insulated optimal designs for the piston, cylinder headface, and cylinder liner have been identified. The designs all utilize thermal barrier coatings, titanium alloy, and interfacial air-gaps to provide thermal resistance. Finite element modeling including diesel cycle simulation has been utilized to screen and optimize material and design concepts relative to program objectives, while small-bore engine testing has been utilized to demonstrate component integrity. An improved slurry densified thermal barrier coating has been demonstrated by testing on a high temperature small-bore engine.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900687
Paul Sutor, Ewa A. Bardasz, Walter Bryzik
Polyol ester-based diesel engine lubricants which achieve maximum theoretical high-temperature performance have been developed in our laboratories during the past three years. New lubricant basestocks and additives are currently being developed to perform under more severe thermal conditions, anticipated in low heat rejection diesel engines at the turn of the century. In this paper, the status of our current laboratory development and evaluation of new diesel engine lubricants, with high-temperature applicability beyond polyol esters, is summarized. Our final work in the polyol ester class of lubricants, through single-cylinder engine tests, is also presented.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910457
Melvin E. Woods, Ernest Schwarz, Walter Bryzik
An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has been selected based on a trade-off between thermal insulating performance and available technology. The engine concept heat rejection performance is limited by available ring-liner tribology and requires cylinder liner cooling to control the piston top ring reversal temperature. This engine concept is composed of a titanium piston, headface plate and cylinder liner insert with thermal barrier coatings. Monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts, and thermal barrier coated valves and intake-exhaust ports complete the insulation package. The tribological system is composed of chrome oxide coated cylinder, M2 steel top piston ring, M2 steel valve guides, and an advanced polyol ester class lubricant.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790645
R. Kamo, Walter Bryzik
Recent developments of high performance ceramics have given a new impetus for the advancement of heat engines. The thermal efficiencies of the Otto, Diesel, Brayton and the Stirling cycle can now be improved by higher operating temperatures, reduced heat loss, and exhaust energy recovery. Although physical and chemical properties of the high performance ceramics have been improved significantly, they still fall short of meeting the requirements necessary for application and commercialization of advanced heat engine concepts. Aside from the need for greater strength, the problems of consistency, quality, design, material inspection, insulative properties, oxidation and other important features must be solved before high performance ceramics can be considered a viable material for advanced heat engines. Several approaches in developing an adiabatic engine design in the laboratory are shown.
1988-02-01
Technical Paper
880193
Paul C. Glance, Walter Bryzik, Jayant Mahishi, Jeff Spehar
In the past two years, significant progress has been made in the application of ceramic-matrix composite materials to low heat rejection engine components. However, past R&D programs have identified a number of critical areas which require additional effort including: Life Prediction Methodology, Non-Destructive Testing, Design Methods, Data Base Development, and Verification of Design Rules. This paper discusses an integrated design methodology for addressing these research needs. The paper concludes with a specific example of a ceramic fiber-reinforced metal matrix composite piston which has been designed for application to advanced adiabatic engines.
1987-02-01
Technical Paper
870018
Roy Kamo, Walter Bryzik, Paul Glance
Since the early inception of the adiabatic diesel engine in 1974, marked progress has taken place as a result of research efforts performed all over the world. The use of ceramics for heat engines in production applications has been limited to date, but is growing. Ceramic use for production heat engine has included: combustion prechambers, turbochargers, exhaust port liners, top piston ring inserts, glow plugs, oxygen sensors; and additional high temperature friction and wear components. The potential advantages of an adiabatic engine vary greatly with specific application (i.e., commercial vs. military, stationary vs. vehicular, etc.), and thus, a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses (and associated risks) of advanced adiabatic concepts with respect to materials, tribology, cost, and payoff must be obtained.
1987-02-01
Technical Paper
870157
Paul Sutor, Walter Bryzik
The U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command is developing a future high power, low heat rejection military diesel engine. Performance requirements for the engine result in a predicted cylinder wall temperature of 560°C at the top piston ring reversal location. Thermal stresses imposed on the lubricant will therefore be unusually severe. Midwest Research Institute is developing the tribological system for this engine. A new general concept for high temperature diesel engine lubrication has been formulated. Our concept includes advanced synthetic liquid lubricants, solid lubricant additives, and self-lubricating materials. The lubricants, additives, and materials that have been selected for initial laboratory and engine evaluations of the concept are reported here.
1985-02-25
Technical Paper
850356
K. L. Hoag, M. C. Brands, Walter Bryzik, U.S. Army
Joint development of the adiabatic engine by Cummins Engine Company and the U. S. Army began with a feasibility analysis ten years ago. The effort was initially driven by the expectation of substantial performance improvement, a reduction in cooling system size, and several additional benefits. Program emphasis turned quickly to experimentation with the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of the adiabatic engine in working hardware. Several significant achievements were realized as have been reported earlier. Further development of the adiabatic engine is expected to be more evolutionary, paced by available technology in the areas of materials and tribology. Analysis capability necessary for insulated engine development has been found to be inadequate. Additional effort has gone into the development and validation of insulated engine analysis tools, both for cycle simulation and structural modeling.
1984-02-01
Technical Paper
840014
R. P. Walson, I. Kubo, V. Sudhakar, Walter Bryzik, R. P. Graham
This paper documents the successful operation of a modified Cummins T46 turbocharger with a ceramic rotor. This turbocharger is modified to incorporate a 4.6 inch diameter ceramic turbine rotor (pressureless sintered silicon nitride) on the hot end. These results document the most complete ceramic turbine rotor performance map, for a large ceramic turbocharger rotor, available to date.
1984-02-01
Technical Paper
840428
R. Kamo, Walter Bryzik
Cummins Engine Company, Inc. and the U.S. Army have been jointly developing an adiabatic turbocompound engine during the last nine years. Although progress in the early years was slow, recent developments in the field of advanced ceramics have made it possible to make steady progress. It is now possible to reconsider the temperature limitation imposed on current heat engines and its subsequent influence on higher engine efficiency when using an exhaust energy utilization system. This paper presents an adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine concept in which high performance ceramics are used in its design. The adiabatic turbocompound engine will enable higher operating temperatures, reduced heat loss, and higher exhaust energy recovery, resulting in higher thermal engine efficiency. This paper indicates that the careful selection of ceramics in engine design is essential.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0483
Dongying Jiang, Yuanyuan Liu, Chang Qi, Zheng-Dong Ma, Basavaraju B. Raju, Walter Bryzik
An advanced design methodology is developed for innovative composite structure concepts which can be used in the Army's future ground vehicle systems to protect vehicle and occupants against various explosives. The multi-level and multi-scenario blast simulation and design system integrates three major technologies: a newly developed landmine-soil-composite interaction model; an advanced design methodology, called Function-Oriented Material Design (FOMD); and a novel patent-pending composite material concept, called BTR (Biomimetic Tendon-Reinforced) material. Example results include numerical simulation of a BTR composite under a blast event. The developed blast simulation and design system will enable the prediction, design, and prototyping of blast-protective composite structures for a wide range of damage scenarios in various blast events.
Viewing 1 to 23 of 23

    Filter

    • Range:
      to:
    • Year: