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Viewing 1 to 28 of 28
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1012
Jianghui Mao, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Xuming Su, Scott Kenningley
In this paper, the cyclic deformation behavior of an Al-Si-Cu alloy is studied under strain-controlled thermo-mechanical loading. Tests are carried out at temperatures from 20 °C to 440 °C. The effect of strain rate, hold time at temperature and loading sequence are investigated at each temperature. The results show that temperature has a significant effect on the cyclic deformation of Al-Si-Cu alloys. With increasing temperature, the effect of strain rate and hold time become more significant, while load sequence effects remain negligible within the investigated temperature range. Thus, an elasto-viscoplastic model is required for modeling the alloy's behavior at high temperature. This study provides an insight into the necessary information required for modeling of automotive engine components operating at elevated temperature.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0324
J. V. Lasecki, Xuming Su, John E. Allison
The prediction of residual stresses due to manufacturing is of high importance in product development. For the accurate prediction of residual stresses in metallic components, an understanding of the quenching process that occurs in many heat treatments is required. In this paper, the experimental techniques developed to quantify the temperature fields during quenching and to quantify the residual stresses in the quenched part are presented. The temperature fields were quantified using thermocouples embedded in the components. The residual stresses were quantified using a newly developed strain gauging, sectioning and dynamic data acquisition technique. The techniques were verified using thermal histories and residual stresses for an engine cylinder head quenched at two different quenchant temperatures. The measurements obtained were incorporated into an analytical program (finite element) to study the residual stresses produced during the quenching process.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0319
Larry A. Godlewski, Xuming Su, John E. Allison, Peter Gustafson, Tresa M. Pollock
Quantification of residual stresses is an important engineering problem impacting manufacturabilty and durability of metallic components. An area of particular concern is residual stresses that can develop during heat treatment of metallic components. Many heat treatments, especially in heat treatable cast aluminum alloys, involve a water-quenching step immediately after a solution-treatment cycle. This rapid water quench has the potential to induce high residual stresses in regions of the castings that experience large thermal gradients. These stresses may be partially relaxed during the aging portion of the heat treatment. The goal of this research was to develop a test sample and quench technique to quantify the stresses created by steep thermal gradients during rapid quenching of cast aluminum. The development and relaxation of residual stresses during the aging cycle was studied experimentally with the use of strain gauges.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0556
Wenkai Li, Haitao Cui, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su, Carlos Engler-Pinto
Abstract Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0537
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Yung-Li Lee, Mingchao Guo, Chonghua Jiang, Zhen Li
Abstract Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0551
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, John V. Lasecki, John Hill, Xuming Su, John J. Bonnen
Abstract The fatigue strength and failure behavior of A5754-O adhesively bonded single lap joints by a hot-curing epoxy adhesive were investigated in this paper. The single lap joints tested include balanced substrate joints (meaning same thickness) and unbalanced substrate joints, involving combinations of different substrate thicknesses. Cyclic fatigue test results show that the fatigue strength of bonded joints increase with the increasing substrate thickness. SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were employed to investigate the failure mode of the joints. Two fatigue failure modes, substrate failure and failure within the adhesive were found in the testing. The failure mode of the joint changes from cohesive failure to substrate failure as the axial load is decreased, which reveals a fatigue resistance competition between the adhesive layer and the aluminum substrate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0553
Yu Zhang, Weiqin Tang, Dayong Li, Xuming Su, Shiyao Huang, Yandong Shi, Yinghong Peng
SIF value around weld nugget changes when specimen width is different. To investigate the influence of specimen width on SIF value around weld nugget of coach peel specimen (CP), a finite element model was established in this paper. In this model, a contour integral crack was used, and the area around the nugget was treated as crack tip. Results indicated that when specimen width was below 50mm, SIF decreased rapidly with the increase of specimen width. When specimen width was larger than 50mm, SIF almost remained constant with the variation of specimen width. To further study the influences of nugget diameter and sheet thickness on the Width-SIF curves, CP specimens with different nugget diameters (5mm, 6mm and 7mm) and sheet thicknesses (1.2mm, 1.6mm and 2.0mm) were established in ABAQUS. Simulation results of all CP specimens showed a similar relationship between specimen width and SIF.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0407
Jafar Albinmousa, Adrian Pascu, Hamid Jahed, M.F. Horstemeyer, Alan Luo, D. Chen, Steve Lambert, J. Jordon, S. Begum, Xuming Su, Q.Q. Duan, Richard Osborne, Z. Zhang, Lin Zhang, T. Luo, Yuansheng Yang
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1986
Wei-Jen Lai, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Yunan Guo, Xuming Su
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of dissimilar laser welds in lap-shear specimens of aluminum and copper sheets are investigated. Quasi-static tests and fatigue tests of laser-welded lap-shear specimens under different load ranges with the load ratio of 0.1 were conducted. Optical micrographs of the welds after the tests were examined to understand the failure modes of the specimens. For the specimens tested under quasi-static loading conditions, the micrograph indicates that the specimen failed through the fusion zone of the aluminum sheet. For the specimens tested under cyclic loading conditions, two types of failure modes were observed under different load ranges. One failure mode has a kinked crack initiating from the interfacial surface between the aluminum and copper sheets and growing into the aluminum fusion zone at an angle close to 90°.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1982
Li Huang, John V. Lasecki, Haiding Guo, Xuming Su
In present paper, the process of joining aluminum alloy 6111T4 and steel HSLA340 sheets by self-piercing riveting (SPR) is studied. The rivet material properties were obtained by inverse modeling approach. Element erosion technique was adopted in the LS-DYNA/explicit analysis for the separation of upper sheet before the rivet penetrates into lower sheet. Maximum shear strain criterion was implemented for material failure after comparing several classic fracture criteria. LS-DYNA/implicit was used for springback analysis following the explicit riveting simulation. Large compressive residual stress was observed near frequent fatigue crack initiation sites, both around vicinity of middle inner wall of rivet shank and upper 6111T4 sheet.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0540
Xingfu Chen, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Michael King, Mei Li, Eben Prabhu, Xuming Su
High cycle fatigue material properties are not uniformly distributed on cylinder heads due to the casting process. Virtual Aluminum Casting (VAC) tools have been developed within Ford Motor Company to simulate the effects of the manufacturing process on the mechanical properties of cast components. One of VAC features is the ability to predict the high cycle fatigue strength distribution. Residual stresses also play an important role in cylinder head high cycle fatigue, therefore they are also simulated and used in the head high cycle fatigue analysis. Cylinder head assembly, thermal and operating stresses are simulated with ABAQUS™. The operating stresses are combined with the residual stresses for high cycle fatigue calculations. FEMFAT™ is used for the high cycle fatigue analysis. A user-defined Haigh diagram is built based on the local material properties obtained from the VAC simulation.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0920
Xin Zheng, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Xuming Su, Haitao Cui, Weidong Wen
High cycle fatigue tests at a constant positive mean stress have been performed on a Al-Si-Cu cast aluminum alloy. The Random Fatigue Limit (RFL) model was employed to fit the probabilistic S-N curves based on Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE). Fractographic studies indicated that fatigue cracks in most specimens initiate from oxide films located at or very close to specimen surface. The RFL model was proved to be able to accurately capture the scatter in fatigue life. The cumulative density function (CDF) of fatigue life determined by RFL fit is found to be approximately equal to the complementary value of the CDF of the near-surface fatigue initiator size.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1419
Xingfu Chen, Xuming Su, Peter Gustafson, John Allison
As-cast or as-solution treated cast aluminum A319 has copper solutions within its aluminum dendrite. These copper solutions precipitate out to form Al2Cu through a sequence of phase changes and bring with them volume changes at elevated temperatures. These volume changes, referred to as thermal growth are irreversible. The magnitude of thermal growth at a material point is decided by the temperature history of the material point. When an under aged or non heat treated cast aluminum is exposed to non-uniform temperature such as that during engine operation, thermal growth leads to non-uniform volume change and thus additional self balanced stresses. These stresses remain inside material as residual stresses even when the temperature of the material is uniform again. In the present paper, numerical analysis method for thermal growth is developed and integrated into engine operation analysis.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1420
Xuming Su, John Lasecki, James Jan, Carlos Engler-Pinto, John Allison
Residual stress of an air quenched engine cylinder head is studied in the present paper. The numerical simulation is accomplished by sequential thermal and stress analyses. Thermal history of the cylinder head is simulated by using the commercial Computation Fluid Mechanics (CFD) code FLUENT. The only parameter adjustable in the analysis is the incoming air speed. Predicted temperatures at two locations are comparable with available thermocouple data. Stress analysis is performed using ABAQUS with a Ford proprietary material constitutive relation, which is based on coupon tests on the as-solution treated material. Both temperature and strain rate impacts on material behavior of the as-solution treated material are considered in the stress and strain model. Predicted residual strain is shown to be consistent with measured data, which is obtained by using strain gauging and sectioning method.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0501
Seung Hoon Hong, Frank Yan, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
Abstract Failure mode and fatigue behavior of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole are investigated based on experiments and a structural stress fatigue life estimation model. Lap-shear specimens with FDS joints were tested under cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs show that the failure modes of the FDS joints in specimens with and without clearance hole are quite similar under cyclic loading conditions. The fatigue lives of the FDS joints in specimens with clearance hole are longer than those of the FDS joints in specimens without clearance hole for the given load ranges under cyclic loading conditions. A structural stress fatigue life estimation model is adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens under high-cycle loading conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0498
Yang Li, Qiangsheng Zhao, Mansour Mirdamadi, Danielle Zeng, Xuming Su
Abstract Woven fabric carbon fiber/epoxy composites made through compression molding are one of the promising choices of material for the vehicle light-weighting strategy. Previous studies have shown that the processing conditions can have substantial influence on the performance of this type of the material. Therefore the optimization of the compression molding process is of great importance to the manufacturing practice. An efficient way to achieve the optimized design of this process would be through conducting finite element (FE) simulations of compression molding for woven fabric carbon fiber/epoxy composites. However, performing such simulation remains a challenging task for FE as multiple types of physics are involved during the compression molding process, including the epoxy resin curing and the complex mechanical behavior of woven fabric structure.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0386
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Shyam Pittala, Chonghua Jiang, Brian Jordon
Abstract Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet for vehicle structure applications. This paper is tried to use two different methods for the prediction of fatigue life of FSLW in vehicle structures. FSLW is represented with 2-D shell elements for the structural stress approach and is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress approach in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results for both the approaches. These S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of a front shock tower structure that was constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30. The fatigue life prediction results were then correlated with test results of the front shock tower structures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0392
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Sai Boorgu, Chonghua Jiang
Abstract Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0371
Wenkai Li, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Haitao Cui, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su
Abstract In this paper, fatigue tests on a cast aluminum alloy (AS7GU-T64) were performed under different frequencies and humidity levels. Tests conducted under conventional frequency in laboratory air have been compared to tests conducted under ultrasonic frequency in dry air, saturated humidity and in distilled water. It was observed that the highest and lowest fatigue lives correspond to ultrasonic fatigue tests in dry air and in distilled water, respectively. Unlike specimens tested at conventional frequency, all of the specimens tested at ultrasonic frequency presented a large amount of slip facets on the fatigue crack propagation fracture surface.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0481
Xian Jun Sun, Patricia Tibbenham, Jin Zhou, Danielle Zeng, Shiyao Huang, Li Lu, Xuming Su
Abstract Weld lines occur when melt flow fronts meet during the injection molding of plastic parts. It is important to investigate the weld line because the weld line area can induce potential failure of structural application. In this paper, a weld line factor (W-L factor) was adopted to describe the strength reduction to the ultimate strength due to the appearance of weld line. There were two engineering thermoplastics involved in this study, including one neat PP and one of talc filled PP plastics. The experimental design was used to investigate four main injection molding parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure). Both the tensile bar samples with/without weld lines were molded at each process settings. The sample strength was obtained by the tensile tests under two levels of testing speed (5mm/min and 200mm/min) and testing temperatures (room temperature and -30°C).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0477
Harish M. Rao, Jidong Kang, Garret Huff, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su
Abstract Tensile and fatigue properties of continuous braided carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite to AA6111 self-piercing riveted (SPR) lap shear joints are presented. Rivets were inserted at two target head heights separated by 0.3 mm. Even within the narrow range of head heights considered, the flushness of the rivet head was found to have a dominant effect on both the monotonic and fatigue properties of the lap shear SPR joints. Joints created with a flush head resulted in a greater degree of fiber breakage in the top ply of the CFRP laminate, which resulted in lower lap shear failure load as compared to SPR joints produced with a proud rivet head. Irrespective of the lap shear failure load, rivet pullout was the most common failure mode observed for both rivet head heights. In fatigue tests, the SPR joints produced with a proud head exhibited higher fatigue life compared to SPR joints produced with a flush head.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0470
Lunyu Zhang, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
Abstract Closed-form structural stress solutions are investigated for fatigue life estimations of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole based on three-dimensional finite element analyses. The closed-form structural stress solutions for rigid inclusions under counter bending, central bending, in-plane shear and in-plane tension are first presented. Three-dimensional finite element analyses of the lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) are then presented. The results of the finite element analyses indicate that the closed-form structural stress solutions are quite accurate at the critical locations near the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) for fatigue life predictions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0331
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su, HongTae Kang
Abstract Fatigue crack growth tests have been carried out to investigate the mixed mode fatigue crack propagation behavior of an automotive structural adhesive BM4601. The tests were conducted on a compound CMM (Compact Mixed Mode) specimen under load control with 0.1 R ratio and 3Hz frequency. A long distance moving microscope was employed during testing to monitor and record the real time length of the fatigue crack in the adhesive layer. The strain energy release rates of the crack under different loading angles, crack lengths and loads were calculated by using finite element method. The pure mode I and mode II tests show that an equal value of mode I strain energy release rate results in over ten times higher FCGR (Fatigue Crack Growth Rate) than the mode II stain energy release rate does. The mixed mode tests results show that under a certain loading angle, the mixed mode FCGR is changed by changing the load, which is contrary to the find in pure mode I and mode II tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0332
Zhengpan Qi, Li Lu, Linh Doan, Bhavani Thota, Danielle Zeng, Xuming Su
Abstract High density polyethylene (HDPE) is widely used in automotive industry applications. When a specimen made of HDPE tested under cyclic loading, the inelastic deformation causes heat generated within the material, resulting in a temperature rise. The specimen temperature would stabilize if heat transfer from specimen surface can balance with the heat generated. Otherwise, the temperature will continue to rise, leading to a thermo assist failure. It is shown in this study that both frequencies and stress levels contribute to the temperature rise. Under service conditions, most of the automotive components experience low cyclic load frequency much less than 1 Hz. However, the frequency is usually set to a higher constant number for different stress levels in current standard fatigue life tests.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0223
Haolong Liu, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su, Carlos Engler-Pinto, HongTae Kang
Abstract Morphological features of voids were characterized for T300/924 12-ply and 16-ply composite laminates at different porosity levels through the implementation of a digital microscopy (DM) image analysis technique. The composite laminates were fabricated through compression molding. Compression pressures of 0.1MPa, 0.3MPa, and 0.5MPa were selected to obtain composite plaques at different porosity levels. Tension-tension fatigue tests at load ratio R=0.1 for composite laminates at different void levels were conducted, and the dynamic stiffness degradation during the tests was monitored. Fatigue mechanisms were then discussed based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fatigue fracture surfaces. The test results showed that the presence of voids in the matrix has detrimental effects on the fatigue resistance of the material, depending on the applied load level.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0224
Zhangxing Chen, Yi Li, Yimin Shao, Tianyu Huang, Hongyi Xu, Yang Li, Wei Chen, Danielle Zeng, Katherine Avery, HongTae Kang, Xuming Su
Abstract To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0228
Yang Li, Zhangxing Chen, Hongyi Xu, Jeffrey Dahl, Danielle Zeng, Mansour Mirdamadi, Xuming Su
Abstract Compression molded SMC composed of chopped carbon fiber and resin polymer which balances the mechanical performance and manufacturing cost presents a promising solution for vehicle lightweight strategy. However, the performance of the SMC molded parts highly depends on the compression molding process and local microstructure, which greatly increases the cost for the part level performance testing and elongates the design cycle. ICME (Integrated Computational Material Engineering) approaches are thus necessary tools to reduce the number of experiments required during part design and speed up the deployment of the SMC materials. As the fundamental stage of the ICME workflow, commercial software packages for SMC compression molding exist yet remain not fully validated especially for chopped fiber systems. In the present study, SMC plaques are prepared through compression molding process.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-1121
Xuming Su, Keun Yong Sohn, Don Dewhirst, John E. Allison
The use of die cast magnesium for automobile transmission cases offers promise for reducing weight and improving fuel economy. However, the inferior creep resistance of magnesium alloys at high temperature is of concern since transmission cases are typically assembled and joined by pre-loaded bolts. The stress relaxation of the material could thus adversely impact the sealing of the joint. One means of assessing the structural integrity of magnesium transmission cases is modeling the bolted joint, the topic of this paper. The commercial finite element code, ABAQUS, was used to simulate a well characterized bolt joint sample. The geometry was simulated with axi-symmetric elements with the exact geometry of a M10 screw. Frictional contact between the male and female parts is modeled by using interface elements. Material creep is described by a time hardening power law whose parameters are fit to experimental creep test data.
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