Viewing 1 to 30 of 51
Technical Paper
Kyu Hoon Choi, Yasuhiro Daisho, Takeshi Saito
A numerical simulation model has been developed to predict the direct injection stratified charge combustion in a constant- volume vessel. Important factors such as local fuel concentration, their fluctuation and turbulent flow characteristics were measured throughout the vessel as function of time. These data were utilized to estimate the buring rate composed of the turbulent fuel-air mixing rate and chemical reaction rate. The model can predict the combustion pressures and heat release rates measured for different ignition timings and spark location.
Technical Paper
Takeshi Saito, Yasuhiro Daisho, Noboru Uchida, Nobuyukj Ikeya
A study has been made of an automotive direct-injection diesel engine in order to identify the effects of the combustion chamber geometry on combustion, with special emphasis focused on a re-entrant combustion chamber. Conventional combustion chambers and a re-entrant one were compared in terms of the combustion process, engine performance and NOx and smoke emissions. Heat transfer calculations and heat release analyses show that the re-entrant chamber tends to reduce ignition lag due to the higher temperatures of the wall on which injected fuel impinges. Analyses of turbulent flow characteristics in each chamber indicate that the re-entrant chamber enhances combustion because of the higher in-cylinder velocity accompanied by increased turbulence. Further, analyses of in-cylinder gas samples show lower soot levels in the re-entrant chamber. As a result, a good compromise can be achieved between fuel economy and exhaust emissions by retarding the fuel injection timing.
Technical Paper
Takeshi Saito, Yasuhiro Daisho, Yasutoshi Aoki, Naokazu Kawase
From the viewpoint of utilizing methanol fuel in an automotive turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine, an intercooling system supplying liquid methanol has been devised and its effects on engine performance and exhaust gas emissions have been investigated. With an electronically controlled injector in this system, methanol as a supplementary fuel to diesel fuel can be injected into the intake pipe in order to intercool a hot air charge compressed by the turbocharger. It has been confirmed that especially at heavy load conditions, methanol-intercooling can yield a higher thermal efficiency, and lower NOx and smoke emissions simultaneously, compared with three other cases without using methanol: natural aspiration and the cases with and without an ordinary intercooler. However, methanol fueling must be avoided at lower loads since sacrifices in efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions are inevitably involved.
Journal Article
Akira Kikusato, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
The first objective of this work is to develop a numerical simulation model of the spark ignited (SI) engine combustion, taking into account knock avoidance and heat transfer between in-cylinder gas and combustion chamber wall. Secondly, the model was utilized to investigate the potential of reducing heat losses by applying a heat insulation coating to the combustion chamber wall, thereby improving engine thermal efficiency. A reduction in heat losses is related to important operating factors of improving SI engine thermal efficiency. However, reducing heat losses tends to accompany increased combustion chamber wall temperatures, resulting in the onset of knock in SI engines. Thus, the numerical model was intended to make it possible to investigate the interaction of the heat losses and knock occurrence. The present paper consists of Part 1 and 2.
Journal Article
Akira Kikusato, Katsuya Terahata, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
Abstract The objective of this work is to develop a numerical simulation model of spark ignited (SI) engine combustion and thereby to investigate the possibility of reducing heat losses and improving thermal efficiency by applying a low thermal conductivity and specific heat material, so-called heat insulation coating, to the combustion chamber wall surface. A reduction in heat loss is very important for improving SI engine thermal efficiency. However, reducing heat losses tends to increase combustion chamber wall temperatures, resulting in the onset of knock in SI engines. Thus, the numerical model made it possible to investigate the interaction of the heat losses and knock occurrence and to optimize spark ignition timing to achieve higher efficiency. Part 2 of this work deals with the investigations on the effects of heat insulation coatings applied to the combustion chamber wall surfaces on heat losses, knock occurrence and thermal efficiency.
Journal Article
XiaoDan Cui, Beini Zhou, Mitsuhiro Matsunaga, Yusuke Fujii, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
The objective of the present research is to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs) on diesel engine combustion and emission (NOx and soot). We studied methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated fuel representative of major constituents of many types of biodiesels. Engine tests and numerical simulations were performed for 100% MO (MO100), 40% MO blended with JIS#2 diesel (MO40) and JIS#2 diesel (D100). The effects of MO on diesel combustion and emission characteristics were studied under engine operating conditions typically encountered in passenger car diesel engines, focusing on important parameters such as pilot injection, injection pressure and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate. We used a diesel engine complying with the EURO4 emissions regulation, having a displacement of 2.2 L for passenger car applications. In engine tests comparing MO with diesel fuel, no effect on engine combustion pressure was observed for all conditions tested.
Technical Paper
Jin Kusaka, Nobuhiko Horie, Yasuhiro Daisho, V. I. Golovichev, Shigeki Nakayama
To facilitate research and development of diesel engines, the universal numerical code for predicting diesel combustion has been favored for the past decade. In this paper, the finite-rate elementary chemical reactions, sometimes called the detailed chemical reactions, are introduced into the KIVA-3V code through the use of the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model with the KH-RT break-up, modified collision and velocity interpolation models. Outcomes were such that the predicted pressure histories have favorable agreements with the measurements of single and double injection cases in the diesel engine for use in passenger cars. Thus, it is demonstrated that the present model will be a useful tool for predicting ignition and combustion characteristics encountered in the cylinder.
Technical Paper
Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Matsuo Odaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism was applied to achieve premixed diesel combustion at higher load for low emissions and high thermal efficiency in a light duty diesel engine. By means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), compressed gas temperatures near the top dead center are lowered, thereby preventing too early ignition and increasing ignition delay to enhance fuel-air mixing. The variability of effective compression ratio has significant potential for ignition timing control of conventional diesel fuel mixtures. At the same time, the expansion ratio is kept constant to ensure thermal efficiency. Combining the control of LIVC, EGR, supercharging systems and high-pressure fuel injection equipment can simultaneously reduce NOx and smoke. The NOx and smoke suppression mechanism in the premixed diesel combustion was analyzed using the 3D-CFD code combined with detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper
Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
Technical Paper
XiaoDan Cui, Peng Lu, Hiroki Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Matsunaga, Akira Kikusato, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
Abstract As the petroleum depletion, some of this demand will probably have to be met by increasing the production of diesel fuels from heavy oil or unconventional oil in the near future. Such fuels may inevitably have a lower cetane number (CN) with a higher concentration of aromatic components. The objective of the present research is to identify the effects of a typical biodiesel fuel as a CN improver for a light-duty diesel engine for passenger cars. Our previous study indicates that methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated fuel representative of major constituents of many biodiesel types, can reduce soot and NOx emissions simultaneously by optimizing performance under exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when used as a diesel fuel additive. In addition, it was found that MO tends to reduce the ignition delay. We employed a 2.2 L passenger car DI diesel engine complying with the Euro 4 emissions regulation.
Technical Paper
Sok Ratnak, Kohei Katori, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Kei Yoshimura, Nakama Kenjiro
Abstract The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential of lean burn combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engine. Experiments used a single cylinder gasoline spark ignition engine fueled with primary reference fuel of octane number 90, running at 4000 revolution per minute and at wide open throttle. Experiments were conducted at constant fueling rate and in order to lean the mixture, more air is introduced by boosted pressure from stoichiometric mixture to lean limit while maintaining the high output engine torque as possible. Experimental results show that the highest thermal efficiency is obtained at excess air ratio of 1.3 combined with absolute boosted pressure of 117 kPa. Three dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulation with detailed chemical reactions was conducted and compared with results obtained from experiments as based points.
Technical Paper
Sok Ratnak, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Abstract This paper aims to validate chemical kinetic mechanisms of surrogate gasoline three components fuel by calculating one-dimensional laminar burning velocity of iso-octane/air mixture. Next, the application of level-set method on premixed combustion without consideration the effect of turbulence eddies on flame front is also studied in three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (3D-CFD) simulation. In the 3D CFD simulation, there is an option to calculate laminar burning velocity by using empirical correlations, however it is applicable only for particular initial pressure and temperature in spark ignition engine cases. One-dimensional burning velocities from lean to rich of iso-octane/air mixture are calculated by using CHEMKIN-PRO with detailed chemistry and transport phenomena as a function of different equivalence ratios, different unburnt temperature and pressure ranges.
Technical Paper
XiaoDan Cui, Beini Zhou, Hiroki Nakamura, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
Abstract The objective of the present research was to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs or biodiesel fuels) on injected fuel spray and soot formation. A 3-D numerical study which using the KIVA-3V code with modified chemical and physical models was conducted. The large-eddy simulation (LES) model and KH-RT model were used to simulate fuel spray characteristics. To predict soot formation processes, a model for predicting gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) precursor formation was coupled with a detailed phenomenological particle formation model that included soot nucleation from the precursors, surface growth/oxidation and particle coagulation. The calculated liquid spray penetration results for all fuels agreed well with the measured data. The spray measurements were conducted using a constant volume chamber (CVC), which can simulate the ambient temperature and density under real engine conditions.
Technical Paper
Akira Kikusato, Kazuya Kogo, Beini Zhou, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho, Kiyotaka Sato, Hidefumi Fujimoto, Hiroshi Terashima, Youhi Morii
Abstract The objective of the present study is to analyze soot formation in diesel engine combustion by using multi-dimensional combustion simulations with a parallelized explicit ODE solver. Parallelized CHEMEQ2 was used to perform detailed chemical kinetics in KIVA-4 code. CHEMEQ2 is an explicit stiff ODE solver developed by Mott et al. which is known to be faster than traditional implicit ODE solvers, e.g., DVODE. In the present study, about eight times faster computation was achieved with CHEMEQ2 compared to DVODE when using a single thread. Further, by parallelizing CHEMEQ2 using OpenMP, the simulations could be run not only on calculation servers but also on desktop machines. The computation time decreases with the number of threads used. The parallelized CHEMEQ2 enabled combustion and emission characteristics, including detailed soot formation processes, to be predicted using KIVA-4 code with detailed chemical kinetics without the need for reducing the reaction mechanism.
Journal Article
Beini Zhou, Akira Kikusato, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho, Kiyotaka Sato, Hidefumi Fujimoto
Abstract This study simulates soot formation processes in diesel combustion using a large eddy simulation (LES) model, based on a one-equation subgrid turbulent kinetic energy model. This approach was implemented in the KIVA4 code, and used to model diesel spray combustion within a constant volume chamber. The combustion model uses a direct integration approach with a fast explicit ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver, and is additionally parallelized using OpenMP. The soot mass production within each computation cell was determined using a phenomenological soot formation model developed by Waseda University. This model was combined with the LES code mentioned above, and included the following important steps: particle inception during which acenaphthylene (A2R5) grows irreversibly to form soot; surface growth with driven by reactions with C2H2; surface oxidation by OH radical and O2 attack; and particle coagulation.
Technical Paper
Wataru Matsui, Tetsu Suzuki, Yasuo Ohta, Soichiro Ito, Yo Tanaka, Yutaka Kikuchi, Yasuhiro Daisho, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii
N₂O is known to have a significantly high global warming potential. We measured N₂O emissions in engine-bench tests by changing the NO/NH₃ ratio and exhaust gas temperature at the oxidation catalyst inlet in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system. The results showed that the peak N₂O production ratio occurred at an exhaust gas temperature of around 200°C and the maximum value was 84%. Moreover, the N₂O production ratio increased with increasing NO/NH₃. Thus, we concluded that N₂O is produced via the NO branching reaction. Based on our results, two methods were proposed to decrease N₂O formation. At low temperatures ~200°C, NO should be reduced by controlling diesel combustion to lower the contribution of NO to N₂O production. This is essential because the SCR system cannot reduce NOx at low temperatures.
Technical Paper
XiaoDan Cui, Teagun Kim, Yusuke Fujii, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop
The objective of the present research is to investigate the effects on diesel engine combustion and NOx and PM emission characteristics in case of blending the ordinary diesel fuel with biodiesel in passenger car diesel engines. Firstly, we conducted experiments to identify the combustion and emissions characteristics in a modern diesel engine complying with the EURO 4 emission standard. Then, we developed a numerical simulation model to explain and generalize biodiesel combustion phenomena in detail and generalize emission characteristics. The experimental and simulation results are useful to reduce biodiesel emissions by controlling engine operating and design parameters in the diesel engine.
Technical Paper
Akira Kikusato, Hiroyuki Fukasawa, Kazutoshi Nomura, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Natural gas is an attractive alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is considered to be one of the most promising measures for increasing thermal efficiency and reducing emissions, but it is difficult to control and stabilize its ignition and combustion processes. This paper describes an experimental study of natural gas combustion utilizing two types of ignition assistance. Spark assistance, which is used for conventional spark ignition (SI) engines, and pilot diesel injection, hereinafter called diesel pilot, which generates multiple ignition points by using a small injection of diesel that accounts for 2% of the total heat release for the cycle. The performance of these two approaches was compared with respect to various combustion characteristics when burning homogeneous natural gas mixtures at a high compression ratio.
Technical Paper
Noboru Uchida, Yasuhiro Daisho, Takeshi Saito, Hideaki Sugano
An experimental study has been made of a single cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine having a re-entrant combustion chamber designed to enhance combustion so as to reduce exhaust emissions. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling the inert gas concentration in the localized fuel-air mixture to lower combustion gas temperatures, thereby reduce exhaust NOx emission. For this specific purpose, an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, which has been widely used in gasoline engines, was applied to the DI diesel engine to control the intake inert gas concentration. In addition, supercharging and increasing fuel injection pressure prevent the deterioration of smoke and unburned hydrocarbons and improve fuel economy, as well.
Technical Paper
Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Ryoji Kihara, Takeshi Saito
An experimental and numerical study has been conducted on the emission and reduction of HCHO (formaldehyde) and other pollutants formed in the cylinder of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled by methanol. Engine tests were performed under a variety of intake conditions including throttling, heating, and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) for the purpose of improving these emissions by changing gas compositions and combustion temperatures in the cylinder. Moreover, a detailed kinetics model was developed and applied to methanol combustion to investigate HCHO formation and the reduction mechanism influenced by associated elementary reactions and in-cylinder mixing.
Technical Paper
Noboru Uchida, Yasuhiro Daisho, Takeshi Saito
A study has been made of an automotive direct injection diesel engine designed to reduce exhaust emissions, particularly NOx and particulates, without performance deterioration. Special emphasis has been placed on air-fuel mixing conditions controlled by the fuel injection rate, the intake swirl ratio, and the intake boost pressure. By means of increasing the injection rate, ignition delay can be shortened enough to improve particulate emissions at retarded injection timings. Enhancing the intake swirl velocity contributes to the reduction of soot emission in spite of the deterioration of NOx emission. Supercharging can favorably enhance diffusion combustion resulting in improved fuel economy for retarded injection timings and reduced emissions. As a result, a good compromise can be achieved between fuel economy and exhaust emissions by increasing the injection rate along with retarding the injection timing. Supercharging was found to be more favorable than swirl enhancement.
Technical Paper
Yasuhiro Daisho, Toru Yaeo, Takahisa Koseki, Takeshi Saito, Ryoji Kihara, Edwin N. Quiros
Dual-fuel operation of a direct-injection diesel engine with natural gas fuel can yield a high thermal efficiency almost comparable to the diesel operation at higher loads. The dual-fuel operation, however, at lower loads inevitably suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher unburned fuel. To improve this problem, engine tests were carried out on a variety of engine parameters including diesel fuel injection timing advance, intake throttling and hot and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). It was found that diesel injection timing advance gave little improvement in thermal efficiency and increased NOx. Intake throttling promoted better combustion and shortened its duration with a consequent improvement in efficiency at higher natural gas fractions. Hot EGR raised thermal efficiency, reduced smoke levels, and maintained low NOx levels. Cooled EGR reduced NOx emissions but lowered thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper
Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Ryoji Kihara, Takeshi Saito
A numerical model has been developed to predict the formation of NOx and formaldehyde in the combustion and post-combustion zones of a methanol DI engine. For this purpose, a methanol-air mixture model combined with a full kinetics model has been introduced, taking into account 39 species with their 157 related elementary reactions. Through these kinetic simulations, a concept is proposed for optimizing methanol combustion and reducing exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper
Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Takeshi Saito, Ryoji Kihara
A new type of fuel injection nozzle, called a “slit nozzle,” has been developed to improve poor ignitability and to stabilize combustion under low load conditions in direct-injection methanol diesel engines manufactured for medium-duty trucks. This nozzle has a single oblong vent like a slit. Engine test results indicate that the slit nozzle can improve combustion and thermal efficiency, especially at low loads and no load. This can be explained by the fact that the slit nozzle forms a more highly concentrated methanol spray around the glow-plug than do multi-hole nozzles. As a result, this nozzle improves flame propagation.
Technical Paper
Ryota Nakayama, Tazuki Watanabe, Keishi Takada, Matsuo Odaka, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Urea-SCR system has a high NOx reduction potential in the steady-state diesel engine operation. In complicated transient operations, however, there are certain problems with the urea-SCR system in that NOx reduction performance degrades and adsorbed NH3 would be emitted. Here, optimum urea injection methods and exhaust bypass control to overcome these problems are studied. This exhaust bypass control enables NO/NOx ratio at the inlet of SCR catalyst to be decreased widely, which prevents over production of NO2 at the pre-oxidation catalyst. Steady-state and simple transient engine tests were conducted to clarify NOx reduction characteristics when optimum urea injection pattern and exhaust bypass control were applied. In simple transient test, only the engine load was rapidly changed for obtaining the fundamental knowledge concerning the effect of those techniques.
Technical Paper
Kenjiro Nakama, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
To suppress knock in small gasoline engines, the coolant flow of a single-cylinder engine was improved by using two methods: a multi-dimensional knock prediction method combining a Flamelet model with a simple chemical kinetics model, and a method for predicting combustion chamber wall temperature based on a thermal fluid calculation that coupled the engine coolant and the engine structure (engine head, cylinder block, and head gasket). Through these calculations as well as the measurement of wall temperatures and the analysis of combustion by experiments, the effects of wall temperature distribution and consequent unburnt gas temperature distribution on knock onset timing and location were examined. Furthermore, a study was made to develop a method for cooling the head side, which was more effective to suppress knock: the head gasket shape was modified to change the coolant flow and thereby improve the distribution of wall temperatures on the head side.
Technical Paper
Keishi Takada, Futoshi Yoshimura, Yasushi Ohga, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
In this study, we selected four unregulated emissions species, formaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and benzo[a]pyrene to research the emission characteristics of these unregulated components experimentally. The engine used was a water-cooled, 8-liter, 6-cylinder, 4-stroke-cycle, turbocharged DI diesel engine with a common rail fuel injection system manufactured for the use of medium-duty trucks, and the fuel used was JIS second-class light gas oil, which is commercially available as diesel fuel. The results of experiments indicate as follows: formaldehyde tends to be emitted under the low load condition, while 1,3-butadiene is emitted at the low engine speed. This is believed to be because 1,3-butadiene decomposes in a short time, and the exhaust gas stays much longer in a cylinder under the low speed condition than under the high engine speed one. Benzene is emitted under the low load condition, as it is easily oxidized in high temperature.
Technical Paper
Akinori Morishima, Tomoyuki Narushima, Haruki Moriwaki, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Experimental and numerical studies on PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and PM (Particulate Matters) formed in the fuel rich mixture have been conducted. In the experiment, neat n-heptane and n-heptane with benzene 25 % by weight were chosen as test fuels. In-cylinder gases produced by the fuel-rich HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion were directly sampled and analyzed by the use of GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectro- metry), and PM emission was also measured by PM sampling system to reveal characteristics of PM formation. Numerical study has been also carried out using a zero dimensional combustion model combined with detailed chemistry. Furthermore, simple surface growth of soot particles was integrated into a detailed chemical kinetic model, and validated with the experimental data.
Technical Paper
Kenjiro Nakama, Eiji Murase, Masahito Imada, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Swirl injector spray at high fuel temperatures has unique characteristics [1][2][3][4] compared to normal fuel temperature spray such as strong penetration and narrow spray width. These characteristics have a possibility for improving fuel consumption and exhaust emission at the cold start condition. Thus, Swirl injector spray at high fuel temperature conditions was modeled in a CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) code by using a multi components fuel evaporation model and other spray sub-models to predict the mixture formation process at the cold start condition. Results show that, high temperature fuel decreases wall film amount and increases vapor amount. It can be concluded that high temperature fuel has the possibility for improving fuel consumption and exhaust emission at the cold start condtion.
Technical Paper
Jin Kusaka, Shingo Ito, Norifumi Mizushima, Yasuhiro Daisho, Takeshi Saito
Natural gas pre-mixture is ignited by a small amount of pilot fuel in the dual fuel engine. In this paper, numerical studies were carried out to investigate the combustion and exhaust gas emissions formation process of this engine type by using a multi dimensional model combined with the detailed chemical kinetics including 57 chemical species and 290 elementary reactions. In calculation, the effect of the pre-mixture concentration on combustion was examined. The result indicated that the increased concentration of natural gas could improve the burning fraction and THC, CO emissions due to the increased pre-mixture consumption rate and the cylinders gas temperature.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 51


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