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Viewing 1 to 30 of 41
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2005
Kimitaka Yamane, Mai Nogami, Yukio Umemura, Masakuni Oikawa, Yoshio Sato, Yuichi Goto
Key requirements of engines for vehicles are large output power and high efficiency, low emission as well as small size and light weight. Hydrogen combustion engines with direct injection have the characteristics to meet these factors. Tokyo City University, former Musashi Institute of Technology, has studied hydrogen fueled engines with direct injection since 1971. The key technology in the development of hydrogen fueled engines is the hydrogen injector for direct injection with the features such as high injection rate, high response and no hydrogen gas leakage from the needle valve of the hydrogen injector. A common-rail type system to actuate the needle valves of the high pressure hydrogen injectors was intentionally applied to fulfill good performances such as large injection rate, high response and no hydrogen gas leakage.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0369
Masayuki Kobayashi, Yuzo Aoyagi, Takayuki Adachi, Tetsuya Murayama, Munemasa Hashimoto, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC was studied for high pressure, wide range, and high EGR rates in a Super-clean Diesel six-cylinder heavy duty engine. The GVW 25-ton vehicle has 10.52 L engine displacement, with maximum power of 300 kW and maximum torque of 1842 Nm. The engine is equipped with high-pressure fuel injection of a 200 MPa level common-rail system. A variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) was newly designed. The maximum pressure ratio of the compressor is about twice that of the previous design: 2.5. Additionally, wide range and a high EGR rate are achieved by high pressure-loop EGR (HP-EGR) and low pressure-loop EGR (LP-EGR) with described VGT and high-pressure fuel injection. The HP-EGR can reduce NOx concentrations in the exhaust pipe, but the high EGR rate worsens smoke. The HP-EGR system layout has an important shortcoming: it has great differences of the intake EGR gas amount into each cylinder, worsens smoke.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0233
Daisuke Kawano, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Akira Noda, Yuzo Aoyagi
The 1997 Kyoto protocol came into effect in February, 2005 to reduce greenhouse gases within the period 2008-2012 by at least 5 % with respect to 1990 levels. Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because BDF is carbon neutral in principle. The purpose of this project is to produce a light-duty biodiesel truck which can be suitable for emission regulation in next generation. The effect of BDF on the performance and emissions of modern diesel engine which was equipped with the aftertreatment for PM and NOx emissions was investigated without modifications of engine components and parameters, as a first step for research and development of biodiesel engine. Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was selected in behalf of BDF, and combustion characteristics, engine performance and exhaust emissions were made a comparison between RME and petroleum diesel fuel by steady operation and Japan transient mode (JE05) tests.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0203
Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Matsuo Odaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism was applied to achieve premixed diesel combustion at higher load for low emissions and high thermal efficiency in a light duty diesel engine. By means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), compressed gas temperatures near the top dead center are lowered, thereby preventing too early ignition and increasing ignition delay to enhance fuel-air mixing. The variability of effective compression ratio has significant potential for ignition timing control of conventional diesel fuel mixtures. At the same time, the expansion ratio is kept constant to ensure thermal efficiency. Combining the control of LIVC, EGR, supercharging systems and high-pressure fuel injection equipment can simultaneously reduce NOx and smoke. The NOx and smoke suppression mechanism in the premixed diesel combustion was analyzed using the 3D-CFD code combined with detailed chemistry.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2132
Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0077
Yuzo Aoyagi, Hideaki Osada, Masahiro Misawa, Yuichi Goto, Hajime Ishii
For reducing exhaust emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines, the authors made an experimental study of diesel combustion using a single cylinder engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions have been measured using a wide range and high EGR rate under the conditions of high boost intake pressure. The engine test cell has been equipped the external supercharger that is able to raise the boost pressure to 500 kPa, and also equipped the EGR system to increase the EGR rate until 50% under the 500 kPa boost condition. In various test conditions of load and engine speeds the authors have obtained the results, that is, NOx has been reduced drastically without increasing Particulate Matter (PM).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1120
Hideaki Osada, Yuzo Aoyagi, Kazuaki Shimada, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
For reducing NOx emissions, EGR is effective, but an excessive EGR rate causes the deterioration of smoke emission. Here, we have defined the EGR rate before the smoke emission deterioration while the EGR rate is increasing as the limiting EGR rate. In this study, the high rate of EGR is demonstrated to reduce BSNOx. The adapted methods are a high fuel injection pressure such as 200 MPa, a high boost pressure as 451.3 kPa at 2 MPa BMEP, and the air intake port that maintains a high air flow rate so as to achieve low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, for withstanding 2 MPa BMEP of engine load and high boosting, a ductile cast iron (FCD) piston was used. As the final effect, the installations of the new air intake port increased the limiting EGR rate by 5%, and fuel injection pressure of 200 MPa raised the limiting EGR rate by an additional 5%. By the demonstration of increasing boost pressure to 450 kPa from 400 kPa, the limiting EGR rate was achieved to 50%.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2276
Daisuke Kawano, Norifumi Mizushima, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Koichiro Iwasa
The application of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for petroleum diesel fuel is very effective for the reduction of CO₂ emission, because biodiesel is produced from renewable biomass resources. In Japan, neat biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil has often been applied to commercial vehicles. However, it is possible that the difference of fuel properties between conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel causes the problems on exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engine. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effect of biodiesel fuelling on exhaust emissions from commercial vehicles. Light-duty garbage trucks and heavy-duty diesel buses which were actually fueled with biodiesel in Kyoto, Japan, were used for test vehicles in this study. The exhaust emissions from these vehicles during JE05 mode tests were compared between biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil and conventional diesel fuel.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0712
Munemasa Hashimoto, Yuzo Aoyagi, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tetsuya Murayama, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC has been studied using a high boost, a wide range and high-rate EGR in a Super Clean Diesel, six-cylinder heavy duty engine. In the previous single-turbocharging system, the turbocharger was selected to yield maximum torque and power. The selected turbocharger was designed for high boosting, with maximum pressure of about twice that of the current one, using a titanium compressor. However, an important issue arose in this system: avoidance of high boosting at low engine speed. A sequential and series turbo system was proposed to improve the torque at low engine speeds. This turbo system has two turbochargers of different sizes with variable geometry turbines. At low engine speed, the small turbocharger performs most of the work. At medium engine speed, the small turbocharger and large turbocharger mainly work in series.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920140
Yuichi Goto, Tsugio Abe, Tatsuji Sato, Morimasa Hayashida
The cordierite filter has been widely studied because of it's inherent, high capacities in the collection efficiency and heat-resistance. During the regeneration process of a cordierite filter, failure of ignition or incomplete burning propagation occurs, and additionally melts or cracks develop sometimes. In this study, the problems stated above are considered from a new standpoint, and a regeneration method that does not strictly depend on accumulated soot quantity is discussed. A filter made of SiC (Silicon carbide) possesses the requisite electric resistance and it's possible to heat it uniformly by using electricity. Accumulated soot can be uniformly incinerated not by burning propagation but by simultaneous ignition and burning of all accumulated soot. Silicon carbide has a higher resistance to heat than cordierite. Therefore, a self-heating filter made of SiC makes it possible to regenerate the filter in a wider range of accumulated soot.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0865
Qiang Wei, Asano Ichiro, Masayuki Adachi, Rahman M. Montajir, Takeshi Kusaka, Yuichi Goto
The prototype solid particle counting system (SPCS) has been used to study solid particle emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles. As recommended by the PMP draft proposal, exhaust is diluted by a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS). The SPCS takes the sample from the CVS tunnel. Transient test cycles such as EPA FTP 75, EPA HWFET (EPA Highway Fuel Economy Cycle), and NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) were tested. The repeatability of the instrument was evaluated on the diesel vehicle for three continuous days. The instrument exhibits good repeatability. The differences for the EPA ftp 75, the EPA HWFET, and the NEDC in three continuous tests are ± 3.5%. The instrument is very sensitive as well and detects the driving differences. A large number of solid particles are found during the hard acceleration from both the gasoline and the diesel vehicles. Solid particle emissions decrease quickly at deceleration and when vehicles approach constant speed.
2007-01-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-0061
Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto
The Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) formation process from benzene was studied using a laminar flow reactor and GC-MS. In addition to PAH, acetylene and ethylene were observed. Without oxygen at temperatures over 1070 K, the amount of PAH and C2 species increased as the benzene concentration decreased. Addition of oxygen caused a linear decrease in the benzene concentration, and almost all of the benzene was consumed under stoichiometric conditions at all temperatures. At 1053 K, the concentrations of PAH and C2 species were not affected by the addition of oxygen. On the other hand, when the temperature was greater than 1070 K, the amount of PAH formed increased as the equivalence ratio increased, until the equivalence ratio was about 4. Above this equivalence ratio, the amounts decreased. Amounts of phenanthrene and biphenyl were large compared to those of other PAHs, which indicated that the dominant PAH formation path is the formation of phenanthrene via biphenyl.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0123
Hideaki Osada, Yuzo Aoyagi, Kazuaki Shimada, Kenichi Akiyama, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
The engine in the research is a single cylinder DI diesel using the emission reduction techniques such as high boost, high injection pressure and broad range and high quantity of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The study especially focuses on the reduction of particulate matter (PM) under the engine operating conditions. In the experiment the authors measured engine performance, exhaust gases and mass of PM by low sulfur fuel such as 3 ppm and low sulfur lubricant oil such as 0.26%. Then the PM components were divided into soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble organic fraction (ISOF) and they were measured at each engine condition. The mass of SOF was measured from the fuel fraction and lubricant oil fraction by gas chromatography. Also each mass of soot fraction and sulfate fraction was measured as components of ISOF. The experiment was conducted at BMEP = 2.0 MPa as full load condition of the engine and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40 %.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3299
Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto, Atsumu Tezaki
Autoignition in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) process typically exhibits heat release in two stages called cool flame and thermal flame. The mechanisms governing these two stages were investigated using a DME-fueled HCCI engine and numerical simulations. Composition analysis after cool flame showed that the cool flame is explained by a chain reaction mechanism in which the chain terminator is the intermediate species formed in cool flame. In the case of thermal flame, although the chain reaction mechanism is complex, the behavior is clearly described by thermal explosion theory in which the rate-determining reaction is H2O2 decomposition.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3397
Yoshio Tonegawa, Makoto Oguchi, Kenji Tsuchiya, Sousuke Sasaki, Takahiko Ohashi, Yuichi Goto
A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0187
Rahman M. Montajir, Terunao Kawai, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
Conditioning of diluted exhaust gas by Thermo-Conditioner prior to measurement has been proposed by the GRPE/PMP Research Council of the United Nation in order to achieve stability in nano-particle measurement. In this study the effect of thermo-conditioner on the thermo-physical behavior of nano-particle under different conditions have been clarified. Stability in measurement was also attempted depending on the characteristics of nano-particles. Quality of the raw exhaust gas, the dilution ratio and temperature, and the thermal conditioning temperature were considered as the main parameters. Exhaust gas from a medium duty DI diesel engine was used for analysis. Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer was used for measuring the concentration of nano-particles. It was concluded that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles within the size range of 15∼30 nm are significantly influenced by the thermal conditioning temperature.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0534
Daisuke Kawano, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, Jiro Senda
Flash-boiling occurs when a fuel is injected to a combustion chamber where the ambient pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel. It has been known that flashing is a favorable mechanism for atomizing liquid fuels. On the other hand, alternative fuels, such as gaseous fuels and oxygenated fuels, are used to achieve low exhaust emissions in recent years. In general, most of these alternative fuels have high volatility and flash-boiling takes place easily in fuel spray, when they are injected into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine under high pressure. In addition, fuel design concept the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels has been proposed in the previous study in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. It is found that the multicomponent fuel produce flash-boiling with an increase in the initial fuel temperature.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0598
Yuichi Goto, Jinha Lee, Terunao Kawai, Matsuo Odaka
The regulation of particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines is coming to be very stringent at present. The usage of diesel particulate filter (DPF) is now under consideration in many heavy-duty diesel vehicle manufacturers to reduce PM emission from a diesel engine. The possibility that very fine particles may pass through DPF is suggested. The understanding of fine particles emission behaviors and the countermeasure of reducing particle emissions from DPF will come to be important in near future. The behavior of particle size distribution after DPF has not been studied enough yet. In this study, fine particles generated by a diesel engine are introduced to honeycomb type and SiC (Silicon Carbite) fiber type DPFs and the collection performances of fine particles by various DPFs with different surface structures have been examined.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1868
Hisakazu Suzuki, Rahman M. Montajir, Terunao Kawai, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto
To clarify the effect of fuel properties on diesel exhaust emissions, direct injection of two component fuels with approximately zero aromatic content and sulfur were attempted in a diesel engine. Fuels were prepared using paraffins having different cetane numbers and boiling points. Parameters considered are the Average Boiling Point (ABP) by volume and the difference of component characteristics for the same ABP. The results indicate that the trade off relation between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions depends significantly on ABP or density and is independent of the fuel component. On the other hand, components of the mixed fuels have significant influence on SOF and THC emissions. Fuels having higher amount of low boiling point components emit higher THC. Mixtures of low boiling point-high cetane number fuel and high boiling point-low cetane number fuel or fuel that contains normal paraffins only emit higher SOF.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0963
Terunao Kawai, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
Recently, particulate matter (PM) emission from internal combustion engines, especially particles having the diameter of less than 100 nm (Nano-particles) are being considered for their potential hazards posed to human health and the environment. Nano-particles are unstable and easily influenced by the conditions of engine operation and measurement techniques. In this study, the influences of cooling and dilution processes on nano- particles are presented to understand the generation and dilution mechanisms, and to further development of an accurate measurement method. It is found that the thermo-dilurter is necessary for measuring the nano-particles with higher accuracy. Accurate measurement of nano-particles requires immediate dilution of the exhaust gases by hot air.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1376
Yuzo Aoyagi, Kazuaki Shimada, Hideaki Osada, Akira Noda, Yuichi Goto, Hajime Ishii
The biomass fuel is expected to solve the global warming due to a carbon neutral. A rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) as biomass fuel was selected, and also a low sulfur diesel fuel is tested as reference fuel in this study. The experiments were carried out to improve diesel emissions and engine performance using high boost and high rate EGR system and a common rail injection system in a single cylinder engine. The diesel emissions and engine performance have been measured under the experimental conditions such as charging boost pressure from atmospheric pressure to 401.3kPa maximum and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40% maximum. RME contain about 10 mass % oxygen in the fuel molecule. Furthermore, RME does not contain aromatic hydrocarbons in the fuel. Due to these chemical properties, RME can be used at 40% high EGR condition.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0644
Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism has been applied in a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The effective compression ratio (εeff) was lowered by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), while keeping the expansion ratio constant. Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion, adopting the Miller-cycle, was experimentally realized and numerically analyzed. Significant improvements of NOx and soot emissions were achieved for a wide range of engine speeds and loads, frequently used in a transient mode test. The operating range of the Miller-PCCI combustion has been expanded up to an IMEP of 1.30 MPa.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-3996
Hajime Ishii, Hisakazu Suzuki, Shigeo Hori, Yuichi Goto
In order to discuss future technical issues for urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system, it is necessary to assess various technical possibilities that would be applied to urea SCR systems which is capable of complying with future emission level requirements, for example Japanese 2009 emission regulation. In this paper, three measures (enhanced insulation on a DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), aggressive urea solution injection and idling stop) are installed on a urea SCR system of a commercial engine system in order to achieve further NOx (nitrogen oxide) reductions. With combination of these three measures, NOx is drastically reduced to the levels lower than 0.7 g/kWh, which is a NOx limit value of the Japanese 2009 emission regulation. NH3 (ammonia) and HCN (hydro cyanide) are also measured as unregulated harmful components.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2384
Daisuke Kawano, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto
The use of biodiesel fuels as an alternative fuel for petroleum diesel fuel is very effective for the reduction of CO2 emission, because biodiesel is produced from renewable biomass resources. Biodiesel is usually blended to conventional diesel fuel in various proportions. It is possible that this biodiesel blending causes the problems on emission characteristics of modern diesel engine, because it could be confirmed that the application of neat biodiesel to modern diesel engines whose control parameters were optimized for conventional diesel fuel deteriorated the emission performances. It is necessary to clarify the effect of biodiesel blending on exhaust emissions of modern diesel engine. Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was selected as a biodiesel used in this study.
2008-10-06
Journal Article
2008-01-2436
Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto
Repeatabilities of PM measurements on a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) using a filter weighing method and a number counting method with a full flow dilution system and a partial flow system were evaluated. The filter method with partial flow exhibited the best repeatability. However, a good correlation between the full flow and the partial flow number counting results suggests that the fluctuations observed using the number counting method were caused by changes in the engine exhaust. Applying a strict preconditioning procedure should improve the repeatability of the number counting method because this method is more sensitive than the filter weighing method. In addition, the effects of the specifications for the number counting method were evaluated. The results indicate that the hose length from the tip of the sampling probe to the inlet of the number counting system had a negligible effect.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-2028
Daisuke Kawano, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Akira Noda, Yuzo Aoyagi
Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because biodiesel is carbon neutral in principle. However, biodiesels yield an increase in NOx emission from conventional diesel engine, compared with diesel fuel case. Therefore, some strategies are needed for meeting the future emission regulations when using biodiesel. In this study, rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was applied to diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst. NOx reduction rate of NSR catalyst was drastically decreased by using RME, even if injection quantity of RME for rich spike was enhanced. However, an increase in EGR rate could reduce NOx emission without the deterioration in smoke and PM emissions.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1438
Takayuki Adachi, Yuzo Aoyagi, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tetsuya Murayama, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-2018
Rahman M. Montajir, Terunao Kawai, Hiroyoshi Naito, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
In the previous study design of two-component normal paraffin fuel was attempted considering the components and blending ratio. Only the thermodynamic analysis of combustion and analysis of emission characteristics were performed to evaluate the design performance. In this study mixture formation behavior and combustion phenomena of pure and mixed n-paraffin fuels were investigated by direct visualization in an AVL engine with bottom view piston. The experiments included laser-illuminated high-speed photography of the fuel injection phase and combustion phase to investigate physical differences. The results obtained for the proposed fuels are compared with the results of conventional diesel fuel. It was found that the two component normal paraffin fuels with similar thermo physical properties have very similar spray development pattern but evaporation rates are different.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1966
Daisuke Kawano, Hiroyoshi Naito, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Shigeo Hori, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions from diesel engine. In general, high octane number and volatility fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because very lean mixture must be formed during ignition delay of the fuel. However, it is necessary to improve fuel injection systems, when these fuels are used in diesel engine. The purpose of the present study is the achievement of HCCI combustion in DI diesel engine without the large-scale improvements of engine components. Various high octane number fuels are mixed with diesel fuel as a base fuel, and the mixed fuels are directly applied to DI diesel engine. At first, the cylinder pressure and heat release rate of each mixed fuel are analyzed. The ignition delay of HCCI operation decreases with an increase in the operation load, although that of conventional diesel operation does not almost varied.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1982
Daisuke Kawano, Terunao Kawai, Hiroyoshi Naito, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, William D. Bachalo
Particulate Matter (PM) from diesel engines is thought to be seriously hazardous for human health. Generally, it is said that the hazard depends on the total number and surface area of particles rather than total mass of PM. In the conventional gravimetric method, only the total mass of PM is measured. Therefore, it is very important to measure not only the mass of PM but also size and number density of particulates. Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) is a useful diagnostic for transient measurement of soot particulate volume fraction and primary particle size. On the other hand, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) is also used to measure the size distribution of soot aggregate particulates at a steady state condition. However, the measurement processes and the phenomena used to acquire the information on soot particulate are quite different between the LII and SMPS methods. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the detailed characteristics of both LII and SMPS.
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