Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Author:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 21 of 21
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0902
Virgiliu-Adrian Savu, Yung-Li Lee, Anthony Han, Azadeh Narimissa, Amir Kazemi
Abstract Dang Van (Dang Van et al., 1982 and Dang Van, 1993) states that for an infinite lifetime (near fatigue limit), crack nucleation in slip bands may occur at the most unfavorable oriented grains, which are subject to plastic deformation even if the macroscopic stress is elastic. Since the residual stresses in these plastically deformed grains are induced by the restraining effect of the adjacent grains, it is assumed that the residual stresses are stabilized at a mesoscopic level. These stresses are currently approximated by the macroscopic hydrostatic stress defined by the normal stresses to the faces of an octahedral element oriented with the faces symmetric to the principal axis; mathematically they are equal to each other and they are the average of the principal stresses.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1906
Paul V. Spiteri, Yung-Li Lee, Ray Segar
This report explores the relationship of different failure criteria - specifically, surface cracks, stiffness changes, and two-piece failures - on rolled, ductile, cast-iron crankshafts. Crankshaft samples were closely monitored throughout resonant bending fatigue testing and were taken to near complete fracture. By monitoring resonance shifts of the samples during testing, stiffness changes and cracks were monitored. These data showed that an accelerating frequency shift was sufficient to indicate imminent two-piece failure and that this condition can be used as a failure criterion. Fatigue studies on two different crankshafts using this failure criterion were compared to those using a surface crack failure criterion. This comparison showed that using the surface crack failure criterion erroneously decreased the apparent fatigue life of the crankshaft significantly.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0537
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Yung-Li Lee, Mingchao Guo, Chonghua Jiang, Zhen Li
Abstract Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1009
Touhid Zarrin-Ghalami, Ali Fatemi, Yung-Li Lee
Elastomers have large reversible elastic deformation, good damping and high energy absorption capabilities. Due to these characteristics along with low cost of manufacturing, elastomeric components are widely used in many industries and applications, including in automobiles. These components are typically subjected to complex multiaxial and variable amplitude cyclic loads during their service life. Therefore, fatigue failure and life prediction are important issues in the design and analyses of these components. Availability of an effective CAE technique to evaluate fatigue damage and to predict fatigue life under complex loading conditions is a valuable tool for such analysis. This paper discusses a general CAE analytical technique for durability analysis and life prediction of elastomeric components. The methodology is then illustrated and verified by using experimental fatigue test results from an automobile cradle mount.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0329
Sandeep Makam, Yung-Li Lee, Pradeep Attibele
This paper introduces a methodology to calculate confidence bounds for a normal and Weibull distribution using Monte Carlo pivotal statistics. As an example, a ready-to-use lookup table to calculate one-sided lower confidence bounds is established and demonstrated for normal and Weibull distributions. The concept of one-sided lower tolerance limits for a normal distribution was first introduced by G. J. Lieberman in 1958 (later modified by Link in 1985 and Wei in 2012), and has been widely used in the automotive industry because of the easy-to-use lookup tables. Monte Carlo simulation methods presented here are more accurate as they eliminate assumptions and approximations inherent in existing approaches by using random experiments. This developed methodology can be used to generate confidence bounds for any parametric distribution. The ready-to-use table for the one-sided lower tolerance limits for a Weibull distribution is presented.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0756
Jaewon Lee, Jwo Pan, Yung-Li Lee
An analytical load distribution solution for calculation of the loads exerted by the rolling elements on the outer raceway in cylindrical roller bearings under radial loading is proposed in this paper. The loads exerted by the rolling elements are obtained based on an assumption that the profile of the maximum contact pressures of rolling elements resemble the profile of the contact pressure of the corresponding lumped cylinder. Based on this assumption, an analytical load distribution solution which gives the loads exerted by the rolling elements on the outer raceway is derived based on the non-conforming contact solution of Hertz and the conforming contact solution of Persson. These loads can be calculated from the analytical solution with the total applied load and the normalized contact pressure profile of the corresponding lumped cylinder. Two-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted to validate the proposed analytical solutions.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0757
John P. Quigley, Yung-Li Lee
Fatigue analysis in the time domain using the rainflow cycle counting algorithm is considered the most accurate method for estimating damage. Dirlik's method has been found to be very accurate for damage estimation in the frequency domain. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of Dirlik's method for ocean engineering and wind turbines but few have shown how well Dirlik performs in automotive applications. This study compares Dirlik's method with the rainflow cycle counting and with other frequency domain methods. The study analyzes measured data for an automotive component subjected to five test track load conditions. In addition, fourteen of Dirlik's original spectra and seven additional spectra which combine sine and random spectra are studied. It was found that Dirlik's method predicts more damage than the rainflow cycle counting method when applied to the original data used in creating the method.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0773
Yung-Li Lee, Tana Tjhung, Algernon Jordan
This paper describes a simple model to handle nonproportional fatigue of welded joints under multiaxial variable amplitude loading. The new damage parameter is essentially the weld-toe equivalent stress amplitude, modified by a multiaxial Morrow mean stress correction factor, and a measure of material sensitivity and strength of the nonproportional loading path within a cycle. It is based on Sonsino's “Effective Equivalent Stress Hypothesis” model. The new model is able to utilize multiaxial variable amplitude PG (Proving Grounds) load data through the use of weld-toe stress concentration factors and the Wang-Brown multiaxial reversal counting technique.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1500
Wei Ren, Keyu Li, Yung-Li Lee
Crankshaft fillet is subjected to a cyclic bending stress during operation. Fatigue cracks are observed at the fillet during the fatigue test. Compressive stresses are generated by deep-rolling process in order to increase the surface hardness and improve the fatigue strength. To examine the deep-rolling effect, the residual stresses at the fillet need to be investigated. Incremental hole drilling and ISSR (interferometric strain/slope rosette) method is applied to measure the residual stresses at the bottom of the fillet. Incremental hole drilling process is to gradually remove material and mill a hole on the specimen surface in order to relax stress. The ISSR is composed of three micro-indentations, which are indented near the hole and would generate interferometric fringe patterns upon incident laser beam. With incremental drilling, stress relaxation causes the relieved strains, which in turn cause the shifts of interferometric patterns.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1288
Pamela M. Snyder, Ming-Wei Lu, Yung-Li Lee
The staircase fatigue testing method is a recognized method for determining the fatigue limit of powertrain components. The purpose of this paper is to improve upon existing standards by adding common practices that will ensure a higher degree of statistical accuracy in the data. This includes specifying appropriate sample sizes, stress increments and initial load conditions, as well as making suggestions for appropriate methods of analyzing the data. Two methods (Dixon and Mood method and probit analysis method) are selected and compared in terms of relative percent difference on four parameters (mean, standard deviation, B10 fatigue strength and B50 fatigue strength). The staircase data are obtained by simulations from normal and lognormal fatigue limit distributions.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0858
Ryan Vaughan, Mikhail Temkin, Yung-Li Lee
Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is required to be assessed at every design and development stage. Due to limitations of the analytical and experimental tools, the current practice in the automotive industry is to conduct a new data acquisition over a proving ground schedule whenever there are changes in the suspension parameters. This is a time-consuming and expensive operation. This paper provides guidelines for product teams to determine if a new vehicle data acquisition is needed when there are changes in vehicle parameters, and the corresponding effect on Road Test Simulator (RTS) drive file development. The application of this methodology to a truck with and without tuned suspension parameters is described in detail.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0686
Darryl Taylor, Yung-Li Lee
In this paper, constant amplitude strain-life fatigue data from a variety of sheet steel suppliers is examined. The data is processed to remove unsatisfactory test results, and the median curves for both the elastic and plastic strain-life relationships are determined. Statistical single-sided elastic and plastic strain-life design curves are generated using the approximate Owen lower tolerance limit method. The resulting statistical total strain-life design curves are then compared to an established theoretical single-sided statistical tolerance limit to assess the validity of using the approximate Owen lower tolerance limit method for the generation of single-sided design curves for strain-life fatigue data.
2016-04-11
Journal Article
2016-01-9081
Sean A. McKelvey, Yung-Li Lee
Abstract Multiaxial loading on mechanical products is very common in the automotive industry, and how to design and analyze these products for durability becomes an important, urgent task for the engineering community. Due to the complex nature of the fatigue damage mechanism for a product under multiaxial state of stresses/strains which are dependent upon the modes of loading, materials, and life, modeling this behavior has always been a challenging task for fatigue scientists and engineers around the world. As a result, many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed. Among all the theories, an existing equivalent stress theory is considered for use for the automotive components that are typically designed to prevent Case B cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0386
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Shyam Pittala, Chonghua Jiang, Brian Jordon
Abstract Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet for vehicle structure applications. This paper is tried to use two different methods for the prediction of fatigue life of FSLW in vehicle structures. FSLW is represented with 2-D shell elements for the structural stress approach and is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress approach in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results for both the approaches. These S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of a front shock tower structure that was constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30. The fatigue life prediction results were then correlated with test results of the front shock tower structures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0392
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Sai Boorgu, Chonghua Jiang
Abstract Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0491
Lianxiang Yang, Praveen R. Samala, Kah Wah Long, Yung-Li Lee
Spot Welding is now widely used in the fabrication of sheet metals, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. Spot welds are found in nearly all products where sheet metal is joined. Examples range from a single metal toolbox to nearly 10,000 spot welds found in a typical passenger car. Obviously the quality of the spot weld has a direct impact on the quality of the product. The problem of estimating the spot-weld quality is an important component in quality control. If the weld nuggets are improperly or incompletely formed, or the area surrounding the nugget is smaller than required, the structural integrity of the entire part may be uncertain. Furthermore these inconsistencies are usually internal and are seldom visible to Optical Inspection. This study is focused on the non-destructive evaluation of the spot welds using “Digital Shearography”.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0489
Jaewon Lee, Jwo Pan, Yung-Li Lee, Simon Ho
Effects of roller diameter and number on the contact pressures, subsurface stresses and the fatigue lives of cam roller follower bearings are investigated in this paper. Finite element analyses under plane strain conditions were conducted to identify the effects of the diameter and number of the rolling elements and the thickness of the outer ring. The fatigue life of the inner pin generally increases as the roller diameter increases. But, reducing the number of rollers to accommodate larger rollers does not necessarily increase the fatigue life. The inevitable decrease of the thickness of the outer ring due to the increase of the roller diameter results in the increase of compliance for the outer ring. This increase of compliance leads to excessive deformation of the outer ring and consequently more load must be carried by fewer number of rolling elements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0380
Ghassan Abed, Yung-Li Lee, Jian Zhu
Abstract Two popular critical plane models developed by Fatemi-Socie and Smith-Watson-Topper were derived from the experimental observations of the nucleation and growth of cracks during loading. The Fatemi-Socie critical plane model is applicable for the life prediction of materials for which the dominant failure mechanism is shear crack nucleation and growth, while the Smith-Watson-Topper model, for materials that fail predominantly by crack growth on planes perpendicular to the planes of maximum tensile strain or stress. The two critical plane models have been validated primarily by in-phase and 90° out-of-phase loading, and few, on the complex, non-proportional loading paths. A successful critical plane model should be able to predict both the fatigue life and the dominant failure planes.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0369
John P. Quigley, Yung-Li Lee, Liang Wang
Abstract Several popular frequency-based fatigue damage models (Wirsching and Light, Ortiz and Chen, Larsen and Lutes, Benascuitti and Tovo, Benascuitti and Tovo with α.75, Dirlik, Zhao and Baker, and Lalanne) are reviewed and assessed. Seventy power spectrum densities with varied amplitude, shape, and irregularity factors from Dirlik’s dissertation are used to study the accuracies of these methods. Recommendations on how to set up the inverse fast Fourier transform to synthesize load data and obtain accurate rainflow cycle counts are given. Since Dirlik’s method is the most commonly used one in industry, a comprehensive investigation of parameter setups for Dirlik’s method is presented. The mean error and standard deviation of the error between the frequency-based model and the rainflow cycle counting method was computed for fatigue slope exponent m ranging from 3 to 12.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1223
Basil Joseph, Pradeep Attibele, Yung-Li Lee, Salman Haq
Once a vehicle powertrain is designed and the first prototype is built, extensive on-board instrumentation and testing needs to be carried out at the proving grounds (PG) to generate load histograms for various components. The load histograms can then be used to carry out durability tests in the laboratory. When a component in the vehicle powertrain is changed, the load histograms need to be generated again at the proving grounds. This adds much time and money to the vehicle's development. The objective is to develop a virtual powertrain model that can be simulated through a powertrain endurance driving cycle in order to predict torque histograms and total damage. The predictions are then correlated against measured data acquired on a test vehicle that was driven through the same driving cycle at the proving grounds.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0470
Ming-Wei Lu, Jefferey E. Leiman, Richard J. Rudy, Yung-Li Lee
Most products are designed to operate for a long period of time, and in such case, life testing is a relatively lengthy procedure. Lengthy tests tend to be expensive and the results become available too late to be of much use. To reduce the experimental cost significantly and provide an efficient tool to assess the life distribution for highly reliable product, a step-stress accelerated test (SSAT) was developed. An example of a rear suspension aft lateral link is used to validate the SSAT method.
Viewing 1 to 21 of 21

    Filter

    • Range:
      to:
    • Year: