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Viewing 1 to 22 of 22
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0784
Zhigang Wei, Fulun Yang, Henry Cheng
A statistic fatigue life assessment procedure is presented in this paper for estimating fatigue damage under stationary Gaussian multi-axial loadings with narrow-band frequency. The fatigue damage is determined by using the Miner-Palmgren rule in connection with a recently developed path-length based multi-axial cycle counting and fatigue life assessment method. In this procedure, the path length is determined by averaging sinusoidal waves with uniformly distributed phase angles while the cycles are estimated from the observation of peak counting results of stress components. Numerically simulated random loading paths with different degrees of non-proportionality are used here to compare the proposed statistical method with its time domain counterpart. Possible further improvement in this research direction is also indicated.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0785
Zhigang Wei, Fulun Yang, Henry Cheng
The equilibrium mechanism, which can be considered as the basis of least squares method for linear curve fitting, is investigated in this paper. Both conventional methods, such as vertical offsets method, and total least squares methods, such as perpendicular offsets method, are examined. It is found that both methods have the equilibrium bases. However, the conventional methods may give inaccurate prediction if using vertical offsets method to fit data with variation in horizontal direction or using horizontal offsets method to fit data with variation in vertical direction while the perpendicular method can give best fit solution to data with variation in both vertical and horizontal directions. The application of these methods is also presented in fatigue S-N curve data analysis and two-parameter Weibull distribution in exhaust component fatigue life prediction.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0774
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, Dmitri Konson
Abstract A modern definition of quality control and improvement is the reduction of variability in processes and products. The reduced variability can be directly translated into lower costs, better functions and fewer repairs. However, the final quality of processes and products is sometimes derived from other measured variables through some implicit or explicit functional relationships. Sometimes, a tiny uncertainty in a variable can produce a huge uncertainty in a derived quantity. Therefore, the propagation of uncertainty needs to be understood and the individual variables need to be well controlled. More importantly, the critical factors that affect quality the most should be identified and thoroughly investigated. Design of experiments and statistical control plays central roles in finding root cause of failure, reduction of variability and quality improvement.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0541
Zhigang Wei, Pingsha Dong
Engineering components and systems are usually subjected to mixed-mode and multiaxial fatigue loadings, and these conditions should be considered in product durability and reliability design and the maintenance of aging equipment, especially mission-critical components and systems. However, modeling the damage and degradation processes under these complex loading conditions is difficult and challenging task because not only the concepts, such as range, mean, peak, valley etc., developed for uniaxial loading usually cannot be directly transferred to mixed-mode and multiaxial loadings, but also some very unique phenomena related to these complex loading conditions. One such a phenomenon is the loading path effect that can be simply described as: out-of-phase loading is more damaging than in-phase loading for some ductile materials.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2307
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
This paper reviews the correlation concepts and tools available, with the emphasis on their historical origins, mathematical properties and applications. Two of the most commonly used statistical correlation indicators, i.e., modal assurance criterion (MAC) for structural deformation pattern identification/correlation and the coefficient of determination (R2) for data correlation are investigated. The mathematical structure of R2 is critically examined, and the physical meanings and their implications are discussed. Based on the insights gained from these analyses, a data scatter measure and a dependency measure are proposed. The applications of the measures for both linear and nonlinear data are also discussed. Finally, several worked examples in vehicle dynamics analysis and statistical data analyses are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of these concepts.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2308
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Litang Gao
Road vibrations cause fatigue failures in vehicle components and systems. Therefore, reliable and accurate damage and life assessment is crucial to the durability and reliability performances of vehicles, especially at early design stages. However, durability and reliability assessment is difficult not only because of the unknown underlying damage mechanisms, such as crack initiation and crack growth, but also due to the large uncertainties introduced by many factors during operation. How to effectively and accurately assess the damage status and quantitatively measure the uncertainties in a damage evolution process is an important but still unsolved task in engineering probabilistic analysis. In this paper, a new procedure is developed to assess the durability and reliability performance, and characterize the uncertainties of damage evolution of components under constant amplitude loadings.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0998
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson
High-temperature thermal-mechanical systems are considered as an indispensable solution to modern vehicle emission control. Such systems include advanced engines, manifolds, thermal regeneration systems, and many other systems. Creep, fatigue, oxidation, or their combinations are the fundamental underlying material degradation and failure mechanisms in these systems subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loadings. Therefore, the basic understanding and modeling of these mechanisms are crucial in engineering designs. In this paper, the state-of-the-art methods of damage/failure modeling and life assessment for components under thermal-fatigue loading, are reviewed first. Subsequently, a new general life assessment procedure is developed for components subjected to variable amplitude thermal- and mechanical- loadings, with an emphasis on hold-time effect and cycle counting.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0945
Zhigang Wei, Fulun Yang, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
In this paper, the uncertainty of the estimated parameters of lognormal and Weibull distributions for test data with small sample size is investigated. The confidence intervals of the estimated parameters are determined by solving available analytical equations, and the scatters of the estimated parameters with respect to the true values are estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation approaches. Important parameters such as mean, standard deviation, and design curve are considered. The emphasis is on the interpretation and the implication of the obtained shape parameter β of the Weibull distribution function and the design curve obtained from a lognormal distribution function. Finally, the possible impact of this study on the current engineering practice is discussed.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2379
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson, Bala Gurusamy
Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2357
Zhigang Wei, Jason Hamilton, Fulun Yang, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, HongTae Kang, Pingsha Dong
Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability of vehicles in the early development stage, especially for welded joints, which are usually the weakest locations in a vehicle system. A reliable and validated life assessment method is needed to accurately predict how and where a welded part fails, while iterative testing is expensive and time consuming. Recently, structural stress methods based on nodal force/moment are becoming widely accepted in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. There are several variants of structural stress approaches available and two of the most popular methods being used in automotive industry are the Volvo method and the Verity method. Both methods are available in commercial software and some concepts and procedures related the nodal force/moment have already been included in several engineering codes.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2058
Zhigang Wei, Fulun Yang, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Dmitri Konson
Fatigue, creep, oxidation, or their combinations have long been recognized as the principal failure mechanisms in many high-temperature applications such as exhaust manifolds and thermal regeneration units used in commercial vehicle aftertreatment systems. Depending on the specific materials, loading, and temperature levels, the role of each damage mechanism may change significantly, ranging from independent development to competing and combined creep-fatigue, fatigue-oxidation, creep-fatigue-oxidation. Several multiple failure mechanisms based material damage models have been developed, and products to resist these failure mechanisms have been designed and produced. However, one of the key challenges posed to design engineers is to find a way to accelerate the durability and reliability tests of auto exhaust in component and system levels and to validate the product design within development cycle to satisfy customer and market's requirements.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0167
Zhigang Wei, Fulun Yang
Creep, fatigue, oxidation, or their combinations are usually the fundamental underlying material degradation and failure mechanisms in advanced engines, manifolds, thermal regeneration systems, and other systems. Therefore, the basic understanding and appropriate mathematical modeling of these mechanisms are crucial in engineering designs. Several numerical simulation strategies are being pursued to achieve a long-term goal of virtual simulation of high-temperature degradation and failure of such components and systems. In this paper, as the first step of the effort in virtual high-temperature material failure simulation, the numerical simulation of the recently developed crack growth models, i.e. creep-fatigue, fatigue-oxidation, and creep-fatigue-oxidation models, are conducted. It is demonstrated that the models developed can be implemented in an efficient way for virtual life assessment and engineering design applications.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0069
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, Dmitri Konson, Fulun Yang
A design curve, such as a fatigue design S-N curve, is required in engineering design processes. The design curve is usually constructed by analyzing test data, which often exhibit relatively large scatter. For assumed linear test data, two-stress level test plan is commonly used for accelerated life testing (ALT) and subsequent design curve construction. In this paper, based on the two-stress level test plan, a tolerance limit approach is adopted to develop a simple design curve construction procedure. The predicted results from the new method are compared with that of other methods. The advantage of the new method is demonstrated by analyzing the fatigue S-N test data of exhaust components. The determination of minimum sample size is also discussed with a worked table and a graph.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0270
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Michael Start, Litang Gao
Product validation and reliability demonstration require testing of limited samples and probabilistic analyses of the test data. The uncertainties introduced from the tests with limited sample sizes and the assumptions made about the underlying probabilistic distribution will significantly impact the results and the results interpretation. Therefore, understanding the nature of these uncertainties is critical to test method development, uncertainty reduction, data interpretation, and the effectiveness of the validation and reliability demonstration procedures. In this paper, these uncertainties are investigated with the focuses on the following two aspects: (1) fundamentals of the RxxCyy criterion used in both the life testing and the binomial testing methods, (2) issues and benefits of using the two-parameter Weibull probabilistic distribution function.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0269
Zhigang Wei, Michael Start, Jason Hamilton, Limin Luo
Durability and reliability performance is one of the most important concerns for vehicle components and systems, which experience cyclic fatigue loadings and may eventually fail over time. Durability and reliability assessment and associated product validation require effective and robust testing methods. Several testing methods are available and among them, three basic testing methods are widely used: life testing, binomial testing (bogey testing), and degradation testing. In fact, their commonalities, differences, and relationships have not been clearly defined and fully understood. Therefore, the maximum potential of these testing methods to generate efficient, optimized, and cost-effective testing plans, consistent results, and meaningful results interpretation have been significantly limited. In this paper, a unified framework for representing these testing methods and conducting reliability analysis in a single damage-cycle (D-N) diagram is provided.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0374
Zhigang Wei, George Zhu, Litang Gao, Limin Luo
Vehicle exhaust components and systems under fatigue loading often show multiple failure modes, which should be treated, at least theoretically, with rigorous advanced bi-modal and multi-modal statistical theories and approaches. These advanced methods are usually applied to mission-critical engineering applications such as nuclear and aerospace, in which large amounts of test data are often available. In the automotive industry, however, the sample size adopted in the product validation is usually small, thus the bi-modal and multi-modal phenomena cannot be distinguished with certainty.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0370
Zhigang Wei, Yunfei Qu, Dongying Jiang, Limin Luo, Jason Hamilton, Kay Ellinghaus, Markus Pieszkalla
Fatigue life assessment is an integral part of the durability and reliability evaluation process of vehicle exhaust components and systems. The probabilistic life assessment approaches, including analytical, experimental, and simulation, CAE implementation in particular, are attracting significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, the state-of-the-art probabilistic life assessment methods for vehicle exhausts under combined thermal and mechanical loadings are reviewed and investigated. The loading cases as experienced by the vehicle exhausts are first categorized into isothermal fatigue, anisothermal fatigue, and high-temperature thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) based on the failure mechanisms. Subsequently, the probabilistic life assessment procedures for each category are delineated, with emphasis on product validation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0202
Zhigang Wei, Raghuram Mandapati, Ranjith Nayaki, Jason Hamilton
Life testing or test-to-failure method and binomial testing method are the two most commonly used methods in product validation and reliability demonstration. The two-parameter Weibull distribution function is often used in the life testing and almost exclusively used in the extended time testing, which can be considered as an accelerated testing method by appropriately extending the testing time but with significantly reduced testing samples. However, the fatigue data from a wide variety of sources indicate that the three-parameter Weibull distribution function with a threshold parameter at the left tail is more appropriate for fatigue life data with large sample sizes. The uncertainties introduced from the assumptions about the underlying probabilistic distribution would significantly affect the interpretation of the test data and the assessment of the performance of the accelerated binomial testing methods, therefore, the selection of a probabilistic model is critically important.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0352
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Richard Voltenburg, Mark Seitz, Jason Hamilton, Robert Rebandt
Durability and reliability assessment of stress raisers is difficult in testing because the true deformation at a stress raiser often cannot be directly measured. Many approximate engineering approaches have been developed over the last decades, but further fundamental understanding of the problems and the development of more effective engineering methods are still strongly demanded. In this paper, several new concepts and engineering testing approaches are developed and introduced with the emphasis on thermal-fatigue assessment of welded structures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0343
Xiao Wu, Zhigang Wei, HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh
Abstract Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0354
Zhigang Wei, Ranjith Nayaki, Raghuram Mandapati, Jason Hamilton
A probabilistic distribution function roughly consists of two parts: the middle part and the tails. The fatigue life distribution at a stress/load level is often described with two-parameter lognormal or Weibull distribution functions, which are more suitable for modeling the mean (middle) behaviors. The domains of the conventional probabilistic distribution functions are often unbounded, either infinite small (0 for the two-parameter Weibull) or infinite large or both. For most materials in low- and medium-cycle fatigue regimes, the domains of fatigue lives are usually bounded, and the inclusion of the bounds in a probabilistic model is often critical in some applications, such as product validation and life management. In this paper, four- and five-parameter Weibull distribution functions for the probabilistic distributions with bounds are developed. Finally, the applications of these new models in fatigue data analysis and damage assessment are provided and discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0236
Zhigang Wei, Kamran Nikbin
In the Big Data era, the capability in statistical and probabilistic data characterization, data pattern identification, data modeling and analysis is critical to understand the data, to find the trends in the data, and to make better use of the data. In this paper the fundamental probability concepts and several commonly used probabilistic distribution functions, such as the Weibull for spectrum events and the Pareto for extreme/rare events, are described first. An event quadrant is subsequently established based on the commonality/rarity and impact/effect of the probabilistic events. Level of measurement, which is the key for quantitative measurement of the data, is also discussed based on the framework of probability. The damage density function, which is a measure of the relative damage contribution of each constituent is proposed. The new measure demonstrates its capability in distinguishing between the extreme/rare events and the spectrum events.
Viewing 1 to 22 of 22

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