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Viewing 1 to 30 of 46
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0145
Chao Liu, Changfu Zong, Lei He, Jie Liu, Chunshan Li
The passive fault-tolerant performance of the integrated vehicle controller (IVC) applied on 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles has been investigated in this study. The 4WID/4WIS EV is driven independently by four in-wheel motors and steered independently by four steering motors. Thanks to increased control flexibility of the over-actuated architecture, Control Allocation (CA) can be applied to control the 4WID/4WIS EVs so as to improve the handling and stability. Another benefit of the over-actuated architecture is that the 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle has sufficient redundant actuators to fight against the safety critical situation when one or more actuators fail.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2161
Shuang Chen, Changfu Zong, Lei He, Gang Yin
An integrated control strategy for vehicle active suspension system which combines linear quadratic optimum control law with fuzzy control algorithm is designed to improve both ride and handling. The performance of this control strategy is then examined and assessed in an open-loop J-turn driving scenario on a random-rough road by means of computer simulation. Comparisons to a passive suspension system in terms of vehicle sprung mass vertical acceleration, body roll angle and yaw rate is conducted. Simulation results indicate that the integrated control strategy proposed in this paper could effectively enhance vehicle ride comfort meanwhile benefit handling quality and driving safety.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0694
Changfu Zong, Konghui Guo, Hsin Guan
A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation and a test method for vehicle handling and stability have been studied by using development driving simulator. Simulator test scheme has been designed and carried out with 14 vehicle configurations, and subjective evaluation has been made for easy handling of vehicle by drivers. A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation index has been put forward considering the factors affecting vehicle handling and stability. The reliability of the index has been validated by driver's subjective evaluation. A driver/vehicle/ road closed-loop system model has been established, and the theoretical predictive evaluation has been carried out with 14 vehicle configurations. Simulation showed that similar result for both theoretical predictive evaluation and subjective evaluation.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0792
Xiang Wang, Changfu Zong, Haitao Xing, Rufei Hu, Xujun xie
Steer-by-Wire system is capable of improving the performance of vehicle handling and stability, and assisting driving. It becomes a key technique to control front wheel angle and simulate the steering resistance delivered to the driver because of removing mechanical linkages between the steering wheel and the front wheels. This paper proposes a bilateral control method of steering wheel torque drive/pinion angle feedback, which is disaccustomed of controlling steering wheel block and steering actuator as master-slave plants. The pinion angle, steering wheel angle and its torque signals are used in the control logic without estimating or measuring the tire/road force. Simulations and vehicle experiments proceeded with this proposed method and the results confirmed that it achieves the bilateral control of the position and torque between the two plants.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2057
Shaosong Li, Changfu Zong, Lei He
The EPS motor will be over-heated if large current lasts for a long time, which will decline the performance of EPS motor and even lead to irreparable damage. So the over-temperature protection control should be conducted in order to protect the components of EPS system, especially the durability of EPS motor. In this paper, the motor temperature was estimated according to the environmental temperature and the current of motor armature, and then the EPS assist current was limited based on the estimated temperature of motor to ensure that the EPS motor had a good working condition. So the over-temperature protection control for motor can be realized without increasing the EPS system components. Finally the control strategy for over-temperature protection was conducted in a vehicle with EPS system and its performance was verified.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2031
Zhao Weiqiang, Changfu Zong, Hongyu Zheng, Huaji Wang, Shengnan Yang
The quality of the brake system is a significant safety factor in commercial vehicles on the roads. With the development of automobile technology, the single function ABS system didn't meet active safety requirements of the user. The Electronically Controlled Brake System (EBS) system will replace the ABS system to become the standard safety equipment of commercial vehicles in the near future. EBS can be said an enhanced ABS system, it contains load sensor, brake valve sensor and pressure sensor of chamber, etc, and it is more advantages than ABS. This paper describes a flexible integrated test bench for ABS/EBS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) based on Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation technique. It consists of most commercial vehicle pneumatic braking system components (from brake pedal valve, brake caliper to brake chambers), and uses the dSPACE real-time simulation system to communicate to the hardware I/O interface.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1676
Wenchao Liu, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Chunshan Li
Abstract The driving range of the electric vehicle (EV) greatly restricts the development of EVs. The vehicles waste plenty of energy on account of automobiles frequently braking under the city cycle. The regenerative braking system can convert the braking kinetic energy into the electrical energy and then returns to the battery, so the energy regeneration could prolong theregenerative braking system. According to the characteristics of robustness in regenerative braking, both regenerative braking and friction braking based on fuzzy logic are assigned after the front-rear axle’s braking force is distributed to meet the requirement of braking security and high-efficient braking energy regeneration. Among the model, the vehicle model and the mechanical braking system is built by the CRUISE software. The paper applies the MATLAB/SIMULINK to establish a regenerative braking model, and then selects the UEDC city cycle for model co-simulation analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1107
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Abstract This paper presents an adaptive observer-based approach for the combined state estimation and active fault detection and isolation (FDI) of the individual-wheel-drive (IWD) vehicles. A 3-DOF vehicle model coupled with the Highway Safety Research Institute (HSRI) tire model is established and used as the observation model. Based on this model, the dual unscented Kalman filter (DUKF) technique is employed for the observer design to give fusion results of the interdependent state and parameter variables, which undergo nonlinear transformations, with the minimum square errors. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is examined and validated through co-simulation between MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim. The results demonstrate that the DUKF-based observer effectively filters the sensor signals, accurately obtains the longitudinal and lateral velocities, explicitly isolates the faulty wheel(s) and accurately estimates the actual torque(s) even with the presence of noise.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2846
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Wenchao Liu
Abstract This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2762
Chunshan Li, Pan Song, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Wenchao Liu
Abstract This paper presents an integrated chassis controller with multiple hierarchical layers for 4WID/4WIS electric vehicle. The proposed systematic design consists of the following four parts: 1) a reference model is in the driver control layer, which maps the relationship between the driver's inputs and the desired vehicle motion. 2) a sliding mode controller is in the vehicle motion control layer, whose objective is to keep the vehicle following the desired motion commands generated in the driver control layer. 3) By considering the tire adhesive limits, a tire force allocator is in the control allocation layer, which optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to the four wheels so as to minimize the tire workloads during normal driving. 4) an actuator controller is in the executive layer, which calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the four wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2285
Dong Zhang, Changfu Zong, Ying Wan, Hongyu Zheng, Wei-qiang Zhao
Abstract Electronic braking system (EBS) of commercial vehicle is developed based on Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), for the purpose of enhancing the braking performance. Based on the previous study, this paper aims at the development and research on the control strategy of advanced electronic braking system for commercial vehicle, which mainly includes braking force distribution and multiple targets control strategy. In the study of braking force distribution control strategy, the mass of vehicle and the axle loads will be calculated dynamically and the braking force of each wheel will be distributed regarding to the axle loads. The braking intention recognition takes the brake pad wear into account when braking uncritically, so it can detect a difference in the pads between the front and the rear axles. The brake assist strategy supports the driver during emergency braking and the braking distance is shortened by the reduction of the braking system response time.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2286
Ying Wan, Dong Zhang, Zhao Weiqiang, Changfu Zong, Jongchol Han
Pneumatic Electric Braking System (EBS) is getting widely spread for commercial vehicles. Pneumatic EBS improves the problem of slow response of traditional pneumatic braking system by implementing brake-by-wire. However, the time-delay response and hysteresis of some electro-pneumatic components and some other issues decrease the response and control accuracy of the pneumatic EBS.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2896
Zhigen Nie, Changfu Zong
In order to accurately characterize the dynamic characteristics of articulated heavy vehicles, 3-dof (degree of freedom) model and 5-dof simplified model of articulated heavy vehicle are established and key parameters of models are identified by the method which is to combine double models with genetic algorithm and by using Trucksim data. Simulation study, which combines 5-dof simplified model with the MAPs of key identified parameters, is carried out. Comparison, which is between simulation results and Trucksim data, indicates that the key parameters of simplified model can be accurately identified, the MAPs of key identified parameters can satisfy the demand of characterizing the actual state of vehicle and lay a foundation for vehicle stability control.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2898
Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong, LiJiao Yu
A new road feel feedback control design of steer-by-wire (SBW) is proposed, which is produce the steering feel of conventional vehicle with equipped electronic power steering (EPS) system, due to SBW system removes mechanical linkages between steering system and front wheels. A dynamic model is established to study the road feel generation and deal with the need of computed rack force of steer system. Based on the analysis of the assisting characteristic and the active damping control strategy of the EPS system, an integrated road feel algorithm is proposed. For rack force is difficult to measure, an estimator is presented to estimate rack force by Kalman filter (KF). The hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) test bench results show that the proposed road feel control design make drivers get road feel information and SBW system can improve the vehicle maneuverability and comfortably.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2818
Buyang Zhang, Changfu Zong, Hongyu Zheng, Hanqing zhao, Yang Liu
The commercial vehicle is widely used in the overland transport. A prediction is given on the 9th annual China automotive industry forum that the number of the global commercial vehicles will reach eight million by the year of 2016. However, since the distance between its gravity centre and the ground is larger than that of the passenger vehicle, considering its comparatively short wheelbase, the rollover accident, which is fatal to the drivers and always makes enormous loss of merchandises, easily occurs in the case of commercial vehicles. As the number of the commercial vehicle is increasing fast, the accidents will occur more frequently, the losses will be increasingly enormous. To solve the problem, many researches about rollover early warning systems have been done. In most cases, it is assumed that the references of the vehicle are given.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2828
Minghui Ren, Changfu Zong, Ying Wan, Mingxu Duan, Hongyu Zheng
The hybrid electric city bus, which consists of the electric motor and battery, is obviously different from the traditional buses. This paper focuses on optimizing the characteristics of the automatic mechanical transmission in hybrid electric city bus and does the following studies: firstly, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, the transmission ratio and some structural parameters are optimized with CRUISE software; secondly, the volume and weight of the transmission structure is reduced and optimized by numerical optimization approach, with the limitation of the structural reliability.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2795
Jongchol Han, Zhao Weiqiang, Changfu Zong, Hongyu Zheng
The simulation of electro-pneumatic components used in brake systems of commercial vehicles is of great importance in order to understand their characteristics for developing a control logic and improve the braking performance. As the goal of improving the performance of the commercial vehicle pneumatic EBS(Electronically controlled Braking System), static and dynamic characteristics of proportional relay valve for commercial vehicle pneumatic EBS have been simulated by using MATLAB/Simulink environment and validated by testing on hardware-in-the-loop test bench focused on its pressure hysteresis characteristic. The simulation and test results show that the mathematic model for proportional relay valve characteristics is reasonable and reliable, and this simulation tool can be used for research and developing of pneumatic EBS system for commercial vehicle effectively.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2736
Dong Zhang, Changfu Zong, Shengnan Yang, Weiqiang Zhao
Electronic braking system (EBS) of commercial vehicle is developed from ABS to enhance the brake performance. Based on the early development of controller hardware, this paper starts with an analysis of the definition of EBS. It aims at the software design of electronic control unit, and makes it compiled into the controller in the form of C language by the in-depth study about control strategy of EBS in different braking conditions. Designed controller software is divided into two layers. The upper control strategy includes the recognition algorithm of driver's braking intention, estimation algorithm of the vehicle state, conventional braking strategy which consists of the algorithm of deceleration control and braking force distribution, and emergency braking strategy which consists of the algorithm of brake assist control and ABS control.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3650
Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong, Tianjun Zhu, Chengwei Tian
Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) system is a kind of active control brake systems of automobile, the pedal from the calipers actuation separated and no longer limited by conventional hardware. The system may come together with ABS, ESP, and ASR function, also the communication with other systems is done via the CAN network. EHB system may be classified a “stepping stone” technology to full brake-by-wire and brings huge transform for the performance of braking system. In this paper, vehicle dynamic models were established and accomplished the control strategy for vehicle stability control with EHB system which can adjust wheel and vehicle motion, improve the lateral and longitudinal vehicle stability. This result was verified by simulation which shows that the controller is effective on improving the vehicle stability.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3574
Tianjun Zhu, Changfu Zong, Hongyu Zheng, Chengwei Tian, Hongyan Zheng
This paper sets up a simplified dynamic model for simulating the yaw/roll stability of heavy tractor-semitrailer using Matlab/Simulink. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based on partial-state feedback controller is used to optimize the roll stability of the vehicle. The control objective for optimizing roll stability is to be reducing the lateral load transfer rate while keeping the suspension angle less than the maximum allowable angle. The simulation result shows that the LQR controller is effective in the active roll stability control of the heavy tractor-semitrailer.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3575
Changfu Zong, Hsiao Hsiang Na, Dan Hu, Deping Wang, Botao Yue
This paper presents a study on steering effort preference of Chinese drivers based on ADSL Driving Simulator. The results of the simulation test demonstrates that Chinese drivers' steering effort preference increases with vehicle speed, which is similar to European and Japanese drivers', but the mean preference effort level itself is lower than that of European and Japanese drivers' and this same steering effort preference increases obviously with lateral acceleration in linear region (lateral acceleration level lower than 0.3g) while not as evidently in nonlinear region (lateral acceleration level higher than 0.3g).
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1783
Pan Zhao, Changfu Zong, Dan Hu, Hongyu Zheng, Kan Wu
It is difficult to obtain state variables accurately or economically while vehicle is moving, however these state variables are significant for chassis control. Although many researches have been done, a complex model always leads to a control system with poor real-time performance, while simple model cannot show the real characteristics. So, in order to estimate the value of yaw rate and side slip angle accurately and sententiously, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) observer is proposed, which is based on an ameliorated 2-DOF “bicycle model”. The EKF algorithm is achieved numerically and verified by the results from the real field test.
2000-06-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-2184
Hsin Guan, Zhenhai Gao, Konghui Guo, Changfu Zong
The research of driver behavior characteristics has been a focus of vehicle handling and stability performance. With the driver preview effort, many different driver preview models of direction control have been proposed and the simulations of driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system made. But in the simulation, most of the conventional models have the same precondition that the road was simply described as a pre-given preview course. How to simulate the driver dynamically deciding vehicle preview course based on the real road circumstance is the key to the further research of the driver model. In this paper, a new driver direction control model is established, which is called the Optimal Preview Lateral Acceleration (OPLA) Model and divided into three sub-models: driver’s information identification model, driver’s fuzzy decision model of vehicle preview course and driver’s performance first-order correction model.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2731
Xingjian Gu, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
Abstract As a new form of electric vehicle, Four-wheel-independent electric vehicle with X-By-Wire (XBW) inherits all the advantages of in-wheel motor drive electric vehicles. The vehicle steering system is liberated from traditional mechanical steering mechanism and forms an advanced vehicle with all- wheel independent driving, braking and steering. Compared with conventional vehicles, it has more controllable degrees of freedom. The design of the integrated vehicle dynamics control systems helps to achieve the steering, driving and braking coordinated control and improves the vehicle's handling stability. In order to solve the problem of lacking of vehicle state information in the integrated control, some methods are used to estimate the vehicle state of four-wheel-independent electric vehicles with XBW. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is used to estimate the vehicle state variables in this paper.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0307
Hongfeng Wang, Lei He, Qianfei Liu, Changfu Zong
Abstract Nowadays active collision avoidance has become a major focus of research, and a variety of detection and tracking methods of obstacles in front of host vehicle have been applied to it. In this paper, laser radars are chosen as sensors to obtain relevant information, after which an algorithm used to detect and track vehicles in front is provided. The algorithm determines radar's ROI (Region of Interest), then uses a laser radar to scan the 2D space so as to obtain the information of the position and the distance of the targets which could be determined as obstacles. The information obtained will be filtered and then be transformed into cartesian coordinates, after that the coordinate point will be clustered so that the profile of the targets can be determined. A threshold will be set to judge whether the targets are obstacles or not. Last Kalman filter will be used for target tracking. To verify the presented algorithm, related experiments have been designed and carried out.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0243
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong
Abstract Nowadays, conventional steering system cannot meet consumers' requirements as their environmental awareness increasing. Electrically controlled steering system can solve this problem well [1] [2]. Electrically controlled steering system has been not only applied widely in automobile steering technique but also becomes an important section of automobile integrated chassis control technology. It is necessary for vehicles to test their every component repeatedly before every component assembled. So a test bench becomes an essential part for vehicle products' design and improvement. The electrically controlled steering system consists of Electric Power Steering system (EPS), Active Front Steering (AFS) and Steer by Wire (SBW). The similarity among them is containing pinion-and-rack mechanical structure, so it is viable to design a test bench suitable for these three systems. This paper takes EPS as a prototype to verify the design's availability.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0230
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong
Abstract Nowadays, electric control steering system has been a main tendency. It consists of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, Steer by Wire (SBW) system and Active Front Steering (AFS) system. EPS is more widely applied and its technology is more developed. By 2010, the cars equipped with EPS have reached almost 30%. This paper describes one integrated test bench which can test and verify electric control steering system. The main target of the paper is to design and set up a resistance loading system for the test bench referred. The paper takes EPS as a prototype to verify the designed resistance loading system. If the resistance loading system provides a precise simulated torque for the bench, the results of tests will be more approximate with vehicle tests and the acquired data will be reliable for electric control steering system's design and improvement. The linear electric cylinder applied in the loading system is used to provide simulated torque for the bench.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2589
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
Abstract The passive fault-tolerant approach for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles has been investigated in this study. An adaptive control based passive fault-tolerant controller is designed to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability when an actuator fault happens. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures with the inequality constraints; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using Model Predictive Control (MPC); 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that redistributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels with equality constrained optimization.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Abstract This paper presents a simultaneous longitudinal and lateral motion control strategy for a full drive-by-wire autonomous vehicle. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) problem is formulated in which the nonlinear prediction model utilizes a spatial transformation to derive the dynamics of the vehicle about the reference trajectory, which facilitates the acquisition of the tracking errors at varying speeds. A reference speed profile generator is adopted by taking account of the road geometry information, such that the lateral stability is guaranteed and the lane guidance performance is improved. Finally, the nonlinear multi-variable optimization problem is simplified by considering only three motion control efforts, which are strictly confined within a convex set and are readily distributed to the four tires of a full drive-by-wire vehicle.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0714
Changfu Zong, Zexing Zhang, Li Mai, Changqing Wang, Zhengxin Wu
On-center handling has drawn lots of attention from consumers and car manufactures for its extraordinarily large effect on vehicle security at high speed. So far, there are a large number of objective evaluation indices for on-center handling, but it is not clear which ones are the key points on evaluation indices. In this paper, the authors propose a simplified on-center handling objective evaluation index system. Firstly, a basic on-center handling objective evaluation index system is summarized based on the ones of ISO, GM, MIRA, TRC and Hyundai, and then dynamics analysis on each index is conducted so as to primarily eliminate the redundant indices. Secondly, the repetitive indices are cut out again by the correlation analysis among indices in objective tests for eight types of vehicles. Thirdly, the importance factor of each subjective evaluation index is gained on the basis of subjective evaluation tests for eight types of vehicles by the weighed principal component analysis.
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