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Viewing 1 to 30 of 43
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0679
Deyang Hou, Yiqun Huang, Ming Huo, Way Lee Cheng, Xuan Feng, Cai Shen, Chia-Fon Lee
HCCI/PCCI combustion concepts have been demonstrated for both high brake thermal efficiency and low engine-out emissions. However, these advanced combustion concepts still could not be fully utilized partially due to the limitations of conventional fixed spray angle nozzle designs for issues related to wall wetting for early injections. The micro-variable circular orifice (MVCO) fuel injector provides variable spray angles, variable orifice areas, and variable spray patterns. The MVCO provides optimized spray patterns to minimize combustion chamber surface-wetting, oil dilution and emissions. Designed with a concise structure, MVCO can significantly extend the operation maps of high efficiency early HCCI/PCCI combustion, and enable optimization of a dual-mode HCCI/PCCI and Accelerated Diffusion Combustion (ADC) over full engine operating maps. The MVCO variable spray pattern characteristics are analyzed with high speed photographing.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0129
MIng Huo, Chia-Fon Lee
In this paper, experimental investigation on spray atomization and droplet dynamics inside a thermostatic expansion valve (TXV), a component commonly used in vehicle refrigeration system, was conducted. A needle and an orifice were copied from a commercial TXV and machined to be mounted inside a chamber with optical access so that the flow inside the TXV is simulated and visualized at the same time. The break-up and atomization of the refrigerant were documented near the downstream of the orifice under different feed conditions for two TXV with different geometry. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system was used later to measure the size and velocity of atomized refrigerant droplets. The results showed that the droplet size variation along the radial direction is slightly decreased at near downstream and increased at farther downstream due to the coalescence.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0883
Thomas L. McKinley, Andrew G. Alleyne, Chia-Fon Lee
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx is coming into worldwide use for automotive diesel emissions control. To meet the most stringent standards, NOx conversion efficiency must exceed 80% while NH3 emissions or slip must be kept below 10-30 ppm. At such high levels of performance, non-uniformities in ammonia-to-NOx ratio (ANR) at the converter inlet can limit the achievable NOx reduction. Despite its significance, this effect is frequently ignored in 1D catalyst models. The corresponding model error is important to system integration engineers because it affects system sizing, and to control engineers because it affects both steady-state and dynamic SCR converter performance. A probability distribution function (PDF) based method is introduced to include mixture non-uniformity in a 1D, real-time catalyst model.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0902
Benjamin Wigg, Robert Coverdill, Chia-Fon Lee, Dimitrios Kyritsis
An experimental investigation was conducted using a Ford single-cylinder spark-ignition research engine to compare the performance and emissions of neat n-butanol fuel to that of gasoline and ethanol. Measurements of brake torque and exhaust gas temperature along with in-cylinder pressure traces were used to study the performance of the engine and measurements of emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide ere used to compare the three fuels in terms of combustion byproducts. It was found that gasoline and butanol are closest in engine performance with butanol producing slightly less brake torque. Exhaust gas temperature and nitrogen oxide measurements show that butanol combusts at a lower peak temperature. Of particular interest were the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons which were between two and three times those of gasoline suggesting that butanol is not atomizing as effectively as gasoline and ethanol.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1197
Yu Liu, Way Lee Cheng, MIng Huo, Chia-Fon Lee, Jun Li
Ternary blends of butanol-biodiesel-diesel with different blending ratios were tested inside a constant volume chamber under various ambient temperatures so as to investigate the spray and combustion characteristics of the fuels. Applying the high speed imaging, a sudden drop in spray penetration was observed at ambient temperature of 800 K and 900 K for fuels with certain blending ratio, but not at 1000 K and 1200 K. When the spray penetration of the butanol-biodiesel-diesel blends was compared to that of the biodiesel-diesel blends under non-combusting environment, a sudden drop in spray penetration length was also observed at 1100 K. The results indicated that for the non-combusting case, the tip of the spray jet erupted into a plume sometime after injection for the butanol-biodiesel-diesel blend at an ambient temperature of 1100 K. Such phenomenon was not seen with the biodiesel-diesel blend, neither with the same fuel but at a lower ambient temperature of 900 K.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0537
Yangbing Zeng, Chia-fon Lee
A numerical investigation of air-fuel mixing in gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines is presented in this paper. The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate the importance of fuel representation. In the past studies, fuel has been usually modeled as a single component substance. However, most fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons with diverse boiling points, resulting in mixture vaporization behavior substantially different from single-component behavior. This study presents a newly developed multicomponent vaporization model, which takes into account important mechanisms such as preferential vaporization, internal circulation, surface regression, and non-ideal behavior in high-pressure environments. A sheet spray atomization model was also used to calculate the disintegration of the liquid sheet and the breakup of the subsequent droplets. The results of a single-component fuel representation and a multicomponent fuel representation were compared.
2012-04-01
Journal Article
2011-01-2395
way lee cheng, Cai Shen, Chia-Fon Lee
A finite diffusion method is presented in this paper to model droplet evaporation for complex liquid mixture composed of different homogeneous groups. Multiple components fuel mixture is represented by separate distribution functions to describe the composition of each homogeneous group in the mixture. Only a few parameters are required to describe the mixture. Quasi-steady assumption is applied in the determination of evaporation rates and heat flux to the droplet, and the effects of surface regression, finite diffusion and preferential vaporization of the mixture are included in the liquid phase equations using an effective properties approach. The proposed model was validated by comparing against experimental measurements for single, isolated droplets of n-decane, kerosene, heptane-decane and diesel-butanol. The present model was applied to simulate the evaporation of isolated droplets with composition of typical diesel.
2012-04-01
Journal Article
2011-01-2473
Xuan Feng, Ming Huo, Chia-Fon Lee, Haifeng Liu
The combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on butanol-diesel blends were investigated in this study. The blending ratio of n-butanol to diesel was varied from 0 to 40 vol% using an increment of 10 vol%, and each blend was tested on a 2.7 L V6 common rail direction injection diesel engine equipped with an EGR system. The test was carried out under two engine loads at a constant engine speed, using various combinations of EGR ratios and injection timings. Test results indicate that n-butanol addition to engine fuel is able to substantially decrease soot emission from raw exhaust gas, while the change in NOx emissions varies depending on the n-butanol content and engine operating conditions. Increasing EGR ratio and retarding injection timing are effective approaches to reduce NOx emissions from combustion of n-butanol-diesel blends.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0339
Tiegang Fang, Chia-Fon Lee, Robert Coverdill, Robert White
An optically accessible single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common rail injection system was used to study effects of injection pressures on the in-cylinder spray and combustion processes. An injector with an injection angle of 70 degrees and European low sulfur diesel fuel (cetane number 54) were used in the work. The operating load was 2.0 bar IMEP with no EGR added in the intake. The in-cylinder pressure was measured and the heat release rate was calculated. High-speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the liquid distribution and evolution. High-speed combustion video was also captured for all the studied cases using the same frame rate. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. The experimental results indicated that for all of the conditions the heat release rate was dominated by a premixed combustion pattern. Two-stage low temperature reaction was seen for early injection timings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0574
Jie Hou, Wayne Chang, Fuwu Yan, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract The motivation of the present work was to understand the mechanism by which alcohols produce less aromatic species in their combustion process than an equal amount of hydrocarbon with similar molecular structure does. Due to its numerous advantages over short-chain alcohols, butanol has been considered very promising in soot reduction. Excluding the influence of spray, vaporization and mixing process in engine cases, an adiabatic constant-pressure reactor model was applied to investigate the effect of butanol additives on aromatic species, which are known to be soot precursors, in fuel-rich butane flames. To keep the carbon flux constant, 5% and 10% oxygen by mass of the fuel were added to butane using butanol additive, respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0737
Yilu Lin, Timothy Lee, Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Yuqiang Li, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract The performance and emission of an AVL 5402 single-cylinder engine fueled with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) / diesel blends were experimentally investigated at various load conditions and injection timings. The fuels tested in the experiments were ABE10 (10% ABE, 90% diesel), ABE20 and diesel as baseline. Thermodynamics analyses of pressure traces acquired in experiments were performed to show the impact of ABE concentration to the overall combustion characteristics of the fuel mixtures. Cumulative heat release analysis showed that ABE mixtures generally retarded the overall combustion phasing, ignition delays of ABE-containing fuels were significantly extended, however, combustion rate during CA10∼CA50 were accelerated at different extent. Pressure rise rate of ABE-containing fuels further implicated that the premixed combustion were more dominant than that of diesel. Polytropic indices of both expansion and compression strokes were calculated from p-V diagram.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0749
Suya Gao, Mianzhi Wang, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract A new approach of NOx reduction in the compression-ignition engine is introduced in this work. The previous research has shown that during the combustion stage, the high temperature ignition tends to occur early at the near-stoichiometric region where the combustion temperature is high and majority of NOx is formed; Therefore, it is desirable to burn the leaner region first and then the near-stoichiometric region, which inhibits the temperature rise of the near-stoichiometric region and consequently suppresses the formation of NOx. Such inverted ignition sequence requires mixture with inverted phi-sensitivity. Fuel selection is performed based on the criteria of strong ignition T-sensitivity, negligible negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior, and large heat of vaporization (HoV).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0788
Xiangyu Meng, Karthik Nithyanandan, Timothy Lee, Yuqiang Li, Wuqiang Long, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract In order to comply with the stringent emission regulations, many researchers have been focusing on diesel-compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel operation in compression ignition (CI) engines. The diesel-CNG dual fuel operation mode has the potential to reduce both the soot and NOx emissions; however, the thermal efficiency is generally lower than that of the pure diesel operation, especially under the low and medium load conditions. The current experimental work investigates the potential of using diesel-1-butanol blends as the pilot fuel to improve the engine performance and emissions. Fuel blends of B0 (pure diesel), B10 (90% diesel and 10% 1-butanol by volume) and B20 (80% diesel and 20% 1-butanol) with 70% CNG substitution were compared based on an equivalent input energy at an engine speed of 1200 RPM. The results indicated that the diesel-1-butanol pilot fuel can lead to a more homogeneous mixture due to the longer ignition delay.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0769
Mianzhi Wang, Zhengxin Xu, Menghan Li, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract This work presents a comprehensive computational study of diesel - natural gas (NG) dual fuel engine. A complete computational model is developed for the operation of a diesel - NG dual fuel engine modified from an AVL 5402 single cylinder diesel test engine. The model is based on the KIVA-3V program and includes customized sub-models. The model is validated against test cell measurements of both pure diesel and dual fuel operation. The effects of NG on ignition and combustion in dual fuel operation are analyzed in detail. Zero-dimensional computations with a diesel surrogate reaction mechanism are conducted to discover the effects of NG on ignition and combustion and to reveal the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind such effects. Backed by the detailed theoretical analysis, the engine operation parameters are optimized with genetic algorithm (GA) for the dual fuel operation of the modified AVL 5402 test engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0870
Yuanxu Li, Xiangyu Meng, Karthik Nithyanandan, Chia-Fon Lee, Zhi Ning
Abstract Due to the increasing consumption of fossil fuels, alternative fuels in internal combustion engines have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Ethanol is the most common alternative fuel used in spark ignition (SI) engines due to its advantages of biodegradability, positively impacting emissions reduction as well as octane number improvement. Meanwhile, acetone is well-known as one of the industrial waste solvents for synthetic fibers and most plastic materials. In comparison to ethanol, acetone has a number of more desirable properties for being a viable alternative fuel such as its higher energy density, heating value and volatility.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0171
Eric Anderson, Dimitrios Kyritsis, Robert Coverdill, Chia-Fon Lee
A single nozzle port fuel injector was modified to apply electrostatic charge to the fuel stream, with the intention of studying electrostatically assisted sprays in a practical, port-injected engine. The modifications were kept external to the injector and involved placing an electrode and insulating liner over the tip of the injector. The performance of the modified injector, which combined pressure driven and electrostatic atomization, was characterized in three phases: the injector sprays themselves were studied, combustion of charged fuel droplets was studied, and the injector was installed and tested on a single cylinder spark ignition engine. In the first phase, Fraunhofer diffraction measurements of droplet size, and particle image velocimetry measurements of droplet velocity were performed. The charge transferred by the sprays was measured using an electrometer, and typical forces exerted on droplets in the sprays were estimated.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1189
Cai Shen, Way Lee Cheng, Chia-Fon Lee
Recently, with the increasing interest on some potential alternative substitutes of petroleum fuels such as biodiesel and butanol, more and more researches are focused on the field of bio-fuels because they are renewable and friendly to the environment and can possibly reduce domestic demand on foreign petroleum. Bio-fuels are generally used in the commercial market by mixing with petroleum-based diesel or gasoline. Since the volatilities and boiling points of ethanol/butanol and diesel/biodiesel fuels are significantly different, micro-explosion can be expected in the blend mixture. In this study, a numerical model of micro-explosion including bubble generation, bubble expansion, and final breakup for multi-component bio-fuel droplets is proposed. From the simulated results of droplet characteristics at the onset of micro-explosion, it is concluded that micro-explosion is possible under engine operation condition for ethanol/butanol-diesel/biodiesel fuel blends.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1190
Haifeng Liu, Chia-Fon Lee, Yu Liu, MIng Huo, Mingfa Yao
A very competitive alcohol for use in diesel engines is butanol. Butanol is of particular interest as a renewable bio-fuel, as it is less hydrophilic and it possesses higher heating value, higher cetane number, lower vapor pressure, and higher miscibility than ethanol or methanol. These properties make butanol preferable to ethanol or methanol for blending with conventional diesel or gasoline fuel. In this paper, the spray and combustion characteristics of pure n-butanol fuel was experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber. The ambient temperatures were set to 1000 K, and three different oxygen concentrations were set to 21%, 16%, and 10.5%. The results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of ambient oxygen concentration. The combustion pressure and heat release rate demonstrate the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with decreasing of oxygen concentrations.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1195
Michael Leick, Xuan Feng, Chia-Fon Lee, Alan Hansen
Performance and emissions of a common-rail production diesel engine fueled with soybean-derived biodiesel was investigated. The work was broken down into two categories. First, adjustment of injection timing and EGR ratio was investigated as a means to reduce NOx emissions to levels comparable with those obtained when using pure diesel fuel. Next, simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions was investigated using high rates of EGR combined with late injection timings to approach the low-temperature combustion regime. Results from the first part of the study indicate that optimization of engine control parameters for use with biodiesel can be beneficial to performance and emissions. It was found that adjusting the engine's MAF setpoint table to reflect the difference in stoichiometric air-fuel ratio between diesel and biodiesel brought NOx emissions to comparable or lower levels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0387
Zhengxin Xu, Zhichao Zhao, Juncheng Li, Mianzhi Wang, Jingping Liu, Chia-Fon Lee, Wayne Chang, Jie Hou
In the present study, we developed a reduced chemical reaction mechanism consisted of n-heptane and toluene as surrogate fuel species for diesel engine combustion simulation. The LLNL detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane was chosen as the base mechanism. A multi-technique reduction methodology was applied, which included directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), non-essential reaction elimination, reaction pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, and reaction rate adjustment. In a similar fashion, a reduced toluene mechanism was also developed. The reduced n-heptane and toluene mechanisms were then combined to form a diesel surrogate mechanism, which consisted of 158 species and 468 reactions. Extensive validations were conducted for the present mechanism with experimental ignition delay in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1459
Karthik Nithyanandan, Han Wu, Ming Huo, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract Alcohols, because of their potential to be produced from renewable sources and their characteristics suitable for clean combustion, are considered potential fuels which can be blended with fossil-based gasoline for use in internal combustion engines. As such, n-butanol has received a lot of attention in this regard and has shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation is one of the major methods to produce bio-butanol. The goal of this study is to investigate the combustion characteristics of the intermediate product in butanol production, namely ABE, and hence evaluate its potential as an alternative fuel. Acetone, n-butanol and ethanol were blended in a 3:6:1 volume ratio and then splash blended with pure ethanol-free gasoline with volumetric ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% to create various fuel blends.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1430
Hua Zhou, Chia-Fon Lee, Shi-jin Shuai
Abstract The primary breakup of a planar liquid sheet produced by an air-blast atomizer was studied through numerical simulations, in order to reveal physical mechanisms involved during this process. The reliability of simulations was verified by comparing the macroscopic parameters, e.g. breakup time and spatial growth rate, with experimental data. Shear instability and RT (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability were found to play important roles during the primary breakup. By analyzing the acceleration of a fluid parcel within liquid sheet using Discrete Particle Method, and measuring the wave length of transverse unstable wave, RT instability was found to be partially responsible for transverse instability. The predictions of LISA (Linearized Instability Sheet Atomization) model on breakup time were compared to experiments, and obvious differences were found to exist.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0908
Yuqiang Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Chia-Fon Lee, Shengming Liao
Abstract Butanol has proved to be a very promising alternative fuel in recent years. The production of bio-butanol, typically done using the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is expensive and consumes a lot of energy. Hence it is of interest to study the intermediate fermentation product, i.e. water-containing ABE as a potential fuel. The combustion and emissions performance of ABE29.5W0.5 (29.5 vol.% ABE, 0.5 vol.% water and gasoline blend), ABE30 (30 vol.% ABE and gasoline blend) and ABE0 (pure gasoline) were investigated in this study. The results showed that ABE29.5W0.5 enhanced engine torque by 9.6%-12.7% and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by 5.2%-11.6% compared to pure gasoline, respectively. ABE29.5W0.5 also showed similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) relative to pure gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0919
Timothy H. Lee, Yilu Lin, Han Wu, Lei Meng, Alan Hansen, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract Recent research has shown that butanol, instead of ethanol, has the potential of introducing a more suitable blend in diesel engines. This is because butanol has properties similar to current transportation fuels in comparison to ethanol. However, the main downside is the high cost of the butanol production process. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product of the fermentation process of butanol production. By eliminating the separation and purification processes, using ABE directly in diesel blends has the potential of greatly decreasing the overall cost for fuel production. This could lead to a vast commercial use of ABE-diesel blends on the market. Much research has been done in the past five years concerning spray and combustion processes of both neat ABE and ABE-diesel mixtures. Additionally, different compositions of ABE mixtures had been characterized with a similar experimental approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0891
Jiaxiang Zhang, Karthik Nithyanandan, Yuqiang Li, Chia-Fon Lee, Zuohua Huang
Abstract Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the world now. Compared to ethanol, butanol is another very promising renewable fuel for internal combustion engines. It is less corrosive, and has higher energy density, lower vapor pressure and lower solubility in water. However, the use of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), an intermediate product in ABE fermentation, presents a cost advantage over ethanol and butanol and has attracted much attention recently. In this study, three high-alcohol-content gasoline blends (85% vol. of ethanol, butanol and ABE, referred as E85, B85 and ABE85, respectively) were investigated in a port-injection spark-ignition engine. ABE has a component ratio of 3:6:1. In addition, pure gasoline was also tested as a baseline for comparison. All fuels were tested under the same conditions (1200 RPM, Φ = 0.83−1.25, BMEP = 3 bar).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0833
Lei Meng, Yuqiang Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Timothy Lee, Chunnian Zeng, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract To face the challenges of fossil fuel shortage and air pollution problems, there is growing interest in the potential usage of alternative fuels such as bio-ethanol and bio-butanol in internal combustion engines. The literature shows that the acetone in the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) blends plays an important part in improving the combustion performance and emissions, owing to its higher volatility. In order to study the effects of acetone addition into commercial gasoline, this study focuses on the differences in combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with pure gasoline (G100), ethanol-containing gasoline (E30) and acetone-ethanol-gasoline blends (AE30 at A:E volumetric ratio of 3:1). The tests were conducted at 1200RPM with the default calibration (for gasoline), at 3 bar and 5 bar BMEP under various equivalence ratios.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0583
Saifei Zhang, Zhengxin Xu, Timothy Lee, Yilu Lin, Wei Wu, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. To seek for an optimized volumetric ratio for ABE-diesel blends, the previous work in our team has experimentally investigated and analyzed the combustion features of ABE-diesel blends with different volumetric ratio (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %) in a constant volume chamber. It was found that an increased amount of acetone would lead to a significant advancement of combustion phasing whereas butanol would compensate the advancing effect. Both spray dynamic and chemistry reaction dynamic are of great importance in explaining the unique combustion characteristic of ABE-diesel blend. In this study, a semi-detailed chemical mechanism is constructed and used to model ABE-diesel spray combustion in a constant volume chamber.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1612
Donghui Qi, Chia-Fon Lee, Yilu Lin
Abstract Biodiesel is considered one of the most promising alternative fuels to petrol fuels. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate and compare the effect of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio on the particle size distributions and exhaust emissions of the diesel and biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) used in a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine. The engine tests were conducted at two injection pressures (800 and 1600 bar), two injection timings (25 and 5 deg before top dead center (bTDC) and three EGR ratios (10%, 20% 30%) at a constant fuel injection energy per stroke and engine speed (1200 r/min). The results indicated that carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of biodiesel were slightly lower, but nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were slightly higher, than those of diesel fuel under most operating conditions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1110
MIng Huo, Mianzhi Wang, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract In the new combustion strategies such as RCCI and dual-fuel combustion, the diesel pilot injection plays a pivotal role as it determines the ignition characteristics of the mixture and ultimately the combustion and emission performance. In this regard, equivalence ratio distribution resulted from the pilot injection becomes very important. In this work, computation study is carried out using KIVA-3V to simulate the engine compression stroke from intake valve close (IVC) to close to TDC so as to investigate the impact of piston geometry, injection start timing and flow initialization on the equivalence ratio distribution from a pilot injection in HSDI engine.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1112
Hong Liu, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract The numerical models presented in this study are established based on discrete phase model (DPM) of spray dispersion and evaporation considering the cold wall operating condition of port injection system. All the models were implemented into the CFD software FLUENT. Gas flow and film flow and spray are coupled by mass, momentum and energy transfer due to spray impingement, film evaporation and surface shear stress. Influences of impact parameters including injection height, injection duration and injection angle on the formation and evaporation of wall-film are discussed. The results show that, with the increase of injection height, the maximum film thickness and wall film ratio decrease, and fuel vapor mass ratio increases. The reductions of film thickness and wall film ratio are not obvious as the increasing of injection height. Extending the injection duration could add the maximum film thickness and film area.
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