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Viewing 1 to 30 of 63
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2152
Heechang Oh, Choongsik Bae, Kyoungdoug Min
An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effects of ethanol blending on to gasoline spray and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine under lean stratified operation. The spray characteristics, including local homogeneity and phase distribution, were investigated by the planar laser-induced fluorescence and the planar Mie scattering method in a constant volume chamber. Therefore, the single cylinder engine was operated with pure gasoline, 85 %vol, 50 %vol and 25vol % ethanol blended with gasoline (E85, E50, E25) to investigate the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics. Ethanol was identified to have the potential of generating a more appropriate spray for internal combustion due to a higher vapor pressure at high temperature conditions. The planar laser-induced fluorescence image demonstrated that ethanol spray has a faster diffusion velocity and an enhanced local homogeneity.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0127
Cheolwoong Park, Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae
Diesel fuel injection system is the most important part of the direct-injection diesel engine and, in recent years, it has become one of the critical technologies for emission control with the help of electronically controlled fuel injection. Common rail injection system has great flexibility in injection timing, pressure and multi-injections. Many studies and applications have reported the advantages of using common rail system to meet the strict emission regulation and to improve engine performance for diesel engines. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies on engine performance and emissions. The study was carried out on a single cylinder optical direct injection diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. Spray and combustion evolutions were visualized through a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0982
Youngmin Woo, Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae, Seungmook Oh, Kernyong Kang
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and lean burn utilize the diluents into the engine cylinder to control combustion leading to enhanced fuel economy and reduced emissions. However, the occurrence of excessive cyclic variation with high diluent rates, brings about an undesirable combustion instability within the engine cylinder resulting in the deterioration of both engine performance and emissions. Proper stratification of mixture and diluents could improve the combustion stability under high diluent environment. EGR stratification within the cylinder was made by adopting a fast-response solenoid valve in the midst of EGR line and controlling its timing and duty. With EGR in both homogeneous mode and stratified mode, in-cylinder pressure and emissions were measured. The thermodynamic heat release analysis showed that the burning duration was decreased in case of stratified EGR. It was found that the stratification of EGR hardly affected the emissions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0938
Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae
A diesel-fueled premixed charged compression ignition (PCCI) combustion technique using a two-stage injection strategy has been investigated in a single cylinder optical engine equipped with a common-rail fuel system. Although PCCI combustion has the advantages of reducing NOx and PM emissions, difficulties in vaporization of a diesel fuel and control of the combustion phase hinder the development of the PCCI engine. A two-stage injection strategy was applied to relieve these problems. The first injection, named as main injection, was an early direct injection of diesel fuel into the cylinder to achieve premixing with air. The second injection was a diesel injection of a small quantity (1.5 mm3) as an ignition promoter and combustion phase controller near TDC. Effects of injection pressure, injected fuel quantity and compression ratio were studied with variation of an intake air temperature.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0058
Sangwook Han, Hyunchul Kim, Choongsik Bae
Mode transition between low temperature combustion (LTC) and conventional combustion was performed by changing the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate from 60% to 0% or vice versa in a light duty diesel engine. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) before mode transition was set at 0.45 MPa, representing the maximum load of LTC in this research engine. Various engine operating parameters (rate of EGR change, EGR path length, and residual gas) were considered in order to investigate their influence on the combustion mode transition. The characteristics of combustion mode transition were analyzed based on the in-cylinder pressure and hydrocarbon (HC) emission of each cycle. The general results showed that drastic changes of power output, combustion noise, and HC emission occurred during the combustion mode transition due to the improper injection conditions for each combustion mode.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1357
Yongjin Jung, Choongsik Bae, Jinyoung Jang, Duksang Kim
Premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion was implemented using advanced injection strategy and exhaust gas recirculation in a direct-injection single-cylinder diesel engine. The injection timing swept experiment using a baseline injector, which had an injection angle of 146° and 8 nozzle holes, obtained three types of combustion regime: conventional diesel combustion for an injection timing of 10° CA (crank angle) BTDC (before top dead center), PCI combustion for an injection timing of 40° CA BTDC and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion for an injection timing of 80° CA BTDC. PCI combustion can be verified by burn duration analysis. The burn duration, which was defined as the period from 10% to 90% of the accumulated heat release, was very short in PCI combustion but not in the others. PCI combustion with an injection timing of 40° CA BTDC was achieved in a range of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate from 0% to around 40%.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1389
Kihyun Kim, Sangwook Han, Choongsik Bae
Mode transition between low temperature combustion and conventional combustion was investigated in a direct injection diesel engine. Low temperature diesel combustion was realized by means of high exhaust gas recirculation rate (69~73%) and early injection timing (-28~ -16 crank angle degree after top dead center) compared with those (20% exhaust gas recirculation rate and -8 crank angle degree after top dead center) of conventional combustion. Tests were carried out at different engine speeds and injection pressures. Exhaust gas recirculation rate was changed transiently by controlling each throttle angle for fresh air and exhaust gas recirculation to implement mode transition. Various durations for throttle transition were applied to investigate the effect of speed change of exhaust gas recirculation rate on the characteristics of mode transition.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1823
Youngsoo Park, Choongsik Bae
The effect of pilot injection and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with low engine speed and low load. The injection timing of PCCI combustion was fixed at 25 ~ 30 crank angle degree before top dead center (°CA BTDC) based on the ignition delay and power output. The level of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of PCCI combustion was 68% lower than that of conventional diesel combustion owing to the reduction of near-stoichiometric region which is well known as the main source of NOx formation. However, the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), hydrocarbon (HC), particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions deteriorated compared with conventional diesel combustion because of early injection, advanced combustion phase and lowered combustion temperature. EGR has been applied to PCCI combustion.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1790
Jeeyeon Jeon, Choongsik Bae
The compression ignition combustion fuelled with hydrogen and dimethyl-ether was investigated. Exhaust gas recirculation was applied to reduce noise and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission. When dimethyl-ether was injected earlier, combustion showed two-stage ignitions known as low temperature reaction and high temperature reaction. With advanced dimethyl-ether injection, combustion temperature and in-cylinder pressure rise were lowered which resulted in high carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. However, NOx emission was decreased due to relatively low combustion temperature. The engine combustion showed only high temperature reaction when dimethyl-ether was injected near top dead center. When exhaust gas recirculation gas was added, the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate were decreased. However, it retarded combustion phase resulting in higher indicated mean effective pressure.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3512
Changup Kim, Choongsik Bae
The concentrations of individual exhaust hydrocarbon species were measured as a function of air-fuel ratio and EGR in a 2-liter four-cylinder engine using a gas chromatography, for natural gas and LPG. NMHC in addition to the species of HC, other emissions such as CO2, CO and NOx were at 1800rpm for two compression ratios (8.6 and 10.6) and various EGR ratios up to 7%. Fuel conversion efficiencies were also investigated together with emissions to study the effect of engine parameters on the combustion performances in gas engines especially under the lean burn conditions. It was found that CO2 emission decreased leaner mixture strength, the higher compression ratio and certainly with smaller C value of fuel. HC emissions from LPG engine consisted primarily of propane (larger 60%), ethylene and propylene, while main emissions from natural gas were methane (larger than 60%), ethane, ethylene and propane on the average.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3654
Changsoo Jang, Sangmin Choi, Choongsik Bae, Jooyoung Kim, Seungkook Baik
Prototype intermittent swirl-generating nozzles for gasoline direct injection application were fabricated by modifying MPI injector nozzles. Design parameters include geometric configuration of nozzle internal flow passage such as orifice diameter and length, needle geometry and swirler passage designs. Operating parameters are considered such as injection pressure, ambient pressure, injected fuel mass and duration of injector opening. Performances of the nozzles have been characterized in terms of static and transient flow rate, initial and overall spray angle, penetration, mean droplet diameter and drop size distribution. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of internal flow for the nozzles provided additional insight in addition to the experimental measurements. Sprays from the prototype nozzle used for measurement in this study exhibited the general features of swirl injection sprays.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0336
Changhoon Oh, Jinyoung Jang, Choongsik Bae
The effect of the composition of propane (C₃H₈) and butane (C₄H₁₀) in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was investigated in a dual-fuel HCCI engine fueled with di-methyl ether (DME) and LPG. The composition of LPG affects DME-LPG dual fuel HCCI combustion due to the difference in the physical properties of propane that and butane such as octane number, auto-ignition temperature and heat of vaporization. DME was injected directly into the cylinder at various injection timing from 160 to 350 crank angle degrees (CAD). LPG was injected at the intake port with a fixed injection timing at 20 CAD. It was found that power output was increased with propane ratio. This gain in power output resulted from increased expansion work due to the better anti-knock properties of propane. However, higher propane ratio made combustion efficiency decrease because of the suppression in low temperature reaction of DME which determines heat release amount of high temperature reaction.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0049
Kihyun Kim, Choongsik Bae
Combustion and emission characteristics were investigated in a compression ignition engine with dual-fuel strategy using dimethyl ether (DME) and gasoline. Experiments were performed at the low load condition corresponding to indicated mean effective pressure of 0.45 MPa. DME was directly injected into the cylinder and gasoline was injected into the intake manifold during the intake stroke. The proportion of DME in the total input energy was adjusted from 10% to 100%. DME DME injection timing was widely varied to investigate the effect of injection timing on the combustion phase. Injection pressure of DME was varied from 20 MPa to 60 MPa. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was controlled from 0% to 60% to explore the effect of EGR on the combustion and emission characteristics. As DME proportion was decreased with the increased portion of gasoline, the combustion efficiency was decreased but thermal efficiency was increased.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0010
Youngsoo Park, Choongsik Bae
In this study, single and double post injections were applied to diesel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion to overcome the drawbacks those are high level of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. The operating conditions including engine speed and total injection quantity were 1200 rpm and 12 mg/cycle, which are the representative of low engine speed and low load. The main injection timing of diesel PCCI combustion was set to 28 crank angle degree before top dead center (CAD BTDC). This main injection timing showed 32% lower level of nitric oxides (NOx) level and 8 CAD longer ignition delay than those of conventional diesel combustion. However, the levels of HC and CO were 2.7 and 3 times higher than those of conventional diesel combustion due to over-lean mixture and wall wetting of fuel.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1881
Jinyoung Jung, Chansoo Park, Choongsik Bae
Transient tests in a 2.0 liter in-line 4 cylinder downsizing gasoline direct injection engine were conducted under various transient conditions in order to investigate effects of lower rotational inertia of titanium aluminide alloy (TiAl) turbine wheel on engine and turbocharger performances. As a representative result, fast boost pressure build up was achieved in case of TiAl turbocharger compared to Inconel turbocharger. This result was mainly due to lower rotational inertia of TiAl turbine wheel. Engine torque build up response was also improved with TiAl turbocharger even though engine torque response gap between both turbochargers was slightly reduced due to retarded combustion phase. In addition, with advanced ignition timing, fuel consumption became less than that of Inconel turbocharger with similar engine torque response.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1815
Hyunwook Park, Jaeheun Kim, Choongsik Bae
The effects of hydrogen ratio and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine were investigated. The control of combustion phasing could be improved using hydrogen enrichment and EGR due to the retarded combustion phasing with a higher hydrogen ratio. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was increased with a higher hydrogen ratio because the hydrogen enrichment intensified the high temperature reactions and thus decreased the combustion duration. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced significantly in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel PCCI mode with a similar NOx emissions level as that of the diesel PCCI mode.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0836
Behzad Rohani, Stephen Sungsan Park, Choongsik Bae
Abstract Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) is known to be feasible only in lower load ranges so in real world application of LTC, engine operation mode should frequently change back and forth between LTC mode in lower loads and conventional mode in higher loads. In this research, effect of injection strategy on smoothness and emissions during mode transition in a single cylinder heavy duty diesel engine is studied. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) line was controlled by a servo-valve capable of opening or closing the EGR loop within only one engine cycle. Ten cycles after the EGR valve closure were taken as the transition period during which injection timing and quantity were shifted in various ways (i.e. injection strategies) and the effect on Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) stability and emissions was studied.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0809
Joonsik Hwang, Yongjin Jung, Choongsik Bae
Abstract The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the soot particles in a compression ignition engine was investigated and compared with conventional diesel fuel. The indicated mean effective pressure of approximately 0.65 MPa was tested under an engine speed of 1200 revolutions per minute. The fuels were injected at an injection timing of −5 crank angle degree after top dead center with injection pressures of 80 MPa. Detailed characteristics of particulate matters were analyzed in terms of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis. Soot aggregates were collected on TEM grid by thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. High-resolution TEM images revealed that the WCO biodiesel soot was composed of smaller primary particle than diesel soot. The mean primary particle diameter was measured as 19.9 nm for WCO biodiesel and 23.7 nm for diesel, respectively.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0118
Hyeonsook Yoon, Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae
Dimethyl-ether combustion with pilot injection was investigated in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system. Combustion characteristics and emissions were tested with dimethyl-ether and compared with diesel fuel. The main injection timing was fixed to have the best timings for maximum power output. The total injected fuel mass corresponded to a low heating value of 405 joules per cycle at 800 rpm. The fuel quantity and the injection timing of the pilot injection were varied from 8 to 20% of the total injected mass and from 50 to 10 crank angle degrees before the main injection timing, respectively. Ignition delay decreased with pilot injection. The effects of pilot injection were less significant with DME combustion than with diesel. Pilot injection caused the main combustion to increase in intensity resulting in decreased emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3619
Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae
The combustion, knock characteristics and exhaust emissions in an engine were investigated under homogeneous charge compression ignition operation fueled with liquefied petroleum gas with regard to variable valve timing and the addition of di-methyl ether. Liquefied petroleum gas was injected at an intake port as the main fuel in a liquid phase using a liquefied injection system, while a small amount of di-methyl ether was also injected directly into the cylinder during the intake stroke as an ignition promoter. Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amount were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions, combustion and knock characteristics. The optimal intake valve open timing for the maximum indicated mean effective pressure was retarded as the λTOTAL was decreased. The start of combustion was affected by the intake valve open timing and the mixture strength (λTOTAL) due to the volumetric efficiency and latent heat of vaporization.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0021
Li Cao, Haiyun Su, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Amit Bhave, Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae
A detailed chemical model was implemented in the KIVA-3V two dimensional CFD code to investigate the effects of the spray cone angle and injection timing on the PCCI combustion process and emissions in an optical research diesel engine. A detailed chemical model for Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) consisting of 157 species and 1552 reactions was used to simulate diesel fuel chemistry. The model validation shows good agreement between the predicted and measured pressure and emissions data in the selected cases with various spray angles and injection timings. If the injection is retarded to -50° ATDC, the spray impingement at the edge of the piston corner with 100° injection angle was shown to enhance the mixing of air and fuel. The minimum fuel loss and more widely distributed fuel vapor contribute to improving combustion efficiency and lowering uHC and CO emissions in the engine idle condition.
2009-09-13
Technical Paper
2009-24-0104
Hyeonsook Yoon, Jeeyeon Jeon, Choongsik Bae
Two-stage injection strategy was studied in dimethyl-ether homogeneous charge compression ignition engine combustion. An early direct injection, main injection, was applied to form a premixed charge followed by the second injection after the start of heat release. Experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system, and the combustion performance and exhaust emissions were tested with the various second injection timings and quantities. Engine speed was 1200 rpm, and the load was fixed at 0.2 MPa IMEP. Main injection timing for homogeneous mixture was fixed at −80 CAD, and the fuel quantity was adjusted to the fixed load. Second injection quantity was varied from 1 to 5 mg, and the timing was selected according to the heat release rate of the HCCI combustion without second injection.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1440
Sangwook Han, Euijoon Shim, Jinyoung Jang, Jungseo Park, Choongsik Bae, Jongnam Park, Hyunok Kim
Low temperature diesel combustion with a large amount of exhaust gas recirculation in a direct injection diesel engine was investigated. Tests were carried out under various engine speeds, injection pressures, injection timings, and injection quantities. Exhaust emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were measured at different torque and engine speed conditions. High rates of exhaust gas recirculation led to the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxide and soot emissions due to a lower combustion temperature than conventional diesel combustion. However, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions increased as the combustion temperature decreased because of incomplete combustion and the lack of an oxidation reaction. To overcome the operating range limits of low temperature diesel combustion, increased intake pressure with a modified turbocharger was employed.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1354
Jinwoo Lee, Jinwoog Jeon, Jungseo Park, Choongsik Bae
The effect of multiple injections in a heavy-duty diesel engine was investigated by focusing on single-pilot injection and double-pilot injection strategies with a wide injection timing range, various injection quantity ratios, and various dwell times. Combustion characteristics were studied through flame visualization and heat release analyses as well as emissions tests. Single-pilot injection resulted in a dramatic reduction in nitrogen oxide and smoke emissions when the injection timing was advanced over 40° CA before the start of injection (BSOI) due to combustion with partially premixed charge compression ignition. A brown-colored flame area, which indicates a very fuel-rich mixture region, was rarely detected when more fuel was injected during single-pilot injection. However, hydrocarbon emission increased up to intolerable levels because fuel wetting on the cylinder wall increased.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1847
Jinyoung Jang, Kiseon Yang, Choongsik Bae
Dimethyl ether (DME) as a high cetane number fuel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a high octane number fuel were supplied together to evaluate the controllability of combustion phase and improvement of power and exhaust emission in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Each fuel was injected at the intake port and in the cylinder separately during the same cycle, i.e., DME in the cylinder and LPG at the intake port, or vice versa. Direct injection timing was varied from 200 to 340 crank angle degree (CAD) while port injection timing was fixed at 20 CAD. In general, the experimental results showed that DME direct injection with LPG port injection was the better way to increase the IMEP and reduce emissions. The direct injection timing of high cetane number fuel was important to control the auto-ignition timing because the auto-ignition was occurred at proper area, where the air and high cetane number fuel were well mixed.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1659
Jinyoung Jang, Kiseon Yang, Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae, Seungmook Oh, Kernyong Kang
The combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a DME fueled HCCI engine were investigated. Different fuel injection strategies were tested under various injection quantities and timings with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combustion phase in HCCI was changed by an in-cylinder direct injection and EGR, due to changes in the in-cylinder temperature and mixture homogeneity. The gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPgross) increased and the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as the equivalence ratio was augmented. The IMEPgross with direct injection was greater than with the port injection due to retarded ignition timing resulting from latent heat of direct injected DME fuel. It was because that most of burn duration was completed before top dead center owing to higher ignitability for DME with high cetane number. However, HC and CO emissions were similar for both injection locations.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0218
Yongrae Kim, Kyoungdoug Min, Min Soo Kim, Suk Ho Chung, Choongsik Bae
A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for a gasoline surrogate was developed and validated in this study for CAI (Controlled Auto Ignition) combustion. The gasoline surrogate was modeled as a blend of iso-octane, n-heptane, and toluene. This reduced mechanism consisted of 44 species and 59 reactions, including main reaction paths of iso-octane, n-heptane, and toluene. The ignition delay times calculated from this mechanism showed a good agreement with previous experimental data from shock tube measurement. A rapid compression machine (RCM) was developed and used to measure the ignition delay times of gasoline and surrogate fuels in the temperature range of 890K ∼ 1000K. The RCM experimental results were also compared with the RCM simulation using the reduced mechanism. It was found that the chemical reaction started before the end of the compression process in the RCM experiment. And the ignition delay time of the suggested gasoline surrogate was similar to that of gasoline.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2092
Seokhwan Lee, Choongsik Bae, Robert Prucka, Gerald Fernandes, Zoran Filipi, Dennis N. Assanis
One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2974
Jinyoung Jang, Kitae Yeom, Choongsik Bae
Combustion in engines can be controlled by the amount of residual gas, which has high temperature and heat capacity compared with fresh charge. Residual gas also acts like a dilution gas during combustion period. Accordingly, combustion duration increases, while the peak combustion temperature and nitrogen oxides (NOx) decreases. Amount of residual gas is affected by pressure difference between exhaust and intake, valve timing and engine speed. The main objective of this work is to identify the effects of exhaust throttle, valve timing and load conditions on residual gas fraction and engine performance. The intake valve open timing was varied freely under fixed exhaust valve close (EVC) timing. Additionally, exhaust throttle has been installed in the exhaust manifold to build up the exhaust back-pressure allowing extra amount of exhaust gases to be admitted into the cylinder during the valve overlap duration.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1852
Seoksu Moon, Hyeonsook Yoon, Choongsik Bae, Essam F. Abo-Serie
The spray characteristics of a swirl injector for direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines were investigated for the generation of robust and well-atomized swirl spray. A highly-inclined tapered nozzle is applied as a test nozzle and the spray characteristics are compared with conventional nozzle and L-step nozzle. When the taper angle is 70°, an opened hollow cone spray is formed. This spray does not collapse with increasing fuel temperature and back pressure conditions. However, the taper angle should be optimized to avoid forming a locally rich area and to increase the spray volume. The droplet size of 70° tapered nozzle spray shows a value similar to that of the original swirl spray in the horizontal mainstream while it shows an increased value in the vertical mainstream. The deteriorated atomization characteristics of the tapered nozzle spray are improved by applying high fuel temperature injection without causing spray collapse.
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