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Viewing 1 to 30 of 45
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0561
Amit Bhave, Markus Kraft, Luca Montorsi, Fabian Mauss
Operating the HCCI engine with dual fuels with a large difference in auto-ignition characteristics (octane number) is one way to control the HCCI operation. The effect of octane number on combustion, emissions and engine performance in a 6 cylinder SCANIA truck engine, fuelled with n-heptane and isooctane, and running in HCCI mode, are investigated numerically and compared with measurements taken from Olsson et al. [SAE 2000-01-2867]. To correctly simulate the HCCI engine operation, we implement a probability density function (PDF) based stochastic reactor model (including detailed chemical kinetics and accounting for inhomogeneities in composition and temperature) coupled with GT-POWER, a 1-D fluid dynamics based engine cycle simulator. Such a coupling proves to be ideal for the understanding of the combustion phenomenon as well as the gas dynamics processes intrinsic to the engine cycle.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1306
Karin Fröjd, Fabian Mauss
Interactions between in-cylinder combustion and emission aftertreatment need to be understood for optimizing the overall powertrain system. Numerical investigations can aid this process. For this purpose, simple and numerically fast, but still accurate models are needed for in-cylinder combustion and exhaust aftertreatment. The chemical processes must be represented in sufficient detail to predict engine power, fuel consumption, and tailpipe emission levels of NOx, soot, CO and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper reports on a new transient one-dimensional catalyst model. This model makes use of a detailed kinetic mechanism to describe the catalytic reactions. A single-channel or a set of representative channels are used in the presented approach. Each channel is discretized into a number of cells. Each cell is treated as a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) with a thin film layer for washcoat treatment. Heat and mass transport coefficients are calculated from Nusselt and Sherwood laws.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1781
Martin Tuner, Karin Frojd, Lars Seidel, Fabian Mauss
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engines have demonstrated a potential for high efficiency and low emissions operation. To be able to study the combustion in detail but also to perform parametric studies on the potential of the PPC concept a one dimensional (1D) engine simulation tool was used with 1; a prescribed burn rate 2; predictive combustion tool with reduced chemical model and 3; predictive combustion tool with detailed chemical models. Results indicate that fast executing reduced chemistry work reasonably well in predicting PPC performance and that n-decane is possibly a suitable diesel substitute in PPC modeling while n-heptane is not.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3484
Hakan Soyhan, Per Amnéus, Fabian Mauss, Cem Sorusbay
A method for automatic reduction of detailed kinetic to skeletal mechanisms for complex fuels is proposed. The method is based on the simultaneous use of sensitivity and reaction-flow analysis. The resulting skeletal mechanism is valid for the parameter range of initial and boundary values, the analysis have been performed for. The gas-phase chemistry is analyzed in the end gas of an SI-engine, using a two-zone model. Species, not relevant for the occurrence of autoignition in the end gas, are defined as redundant. They are identified and eliminated for different pre-set levels of minimum reaction flow and sensitivity. The error in the mechanism increases monotony with increasing pre-set level of minimum reaction flow.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0954
Shahrokh Hajireza, Bengt Sundén, Fabian Mauss
This paper reports an one–dimensional modeling procedure of the hot spot autoignition with a detailed chemistry and multi–species transport in the end gas in an SI engine. The governing equations for continuity of mass, momentum, energy and species for an one–dimensional, unsteady, compressible, laminar, reacting flow and thermal fields are discretized and solved by a fully implicit method. A chemical kinetic mechanism is used for the primary reference fuels n–heptane and iso–octane. This mechanism contains 510 chemical reactions and 75 species. The change of the cylinder pressure is calculated from both flame propagation and piston movement. The turbulent velocity of the propagating flame is modeled by the Wiebe function. Adiabatic conditions, calculated by minimizing Gibb's free energy at each time step, are assumed behind the flame front in the burned gas.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0126
Per Amnéus, Fabian Mauss, Markus Kraft, Andreas Vressner, Bengt Johansson
Calculations using homogeneous and stochastic reactor models were performed in order to find an explanation to observed properties of NOx HCCI engines. It was found that for moderate NOx levels, N2O reactions play an important role in the NOx formation. Further, the high proportions of NO2 found in from some HCCI engines is due to high temperature inhomogeneities, poor mixing and slow overall combustion. N2O is often emitted from HCCI combustion. The levels of NOx in the exhausts are highly sensitive to temperature; however N2O has a weak negative dependence on temperature. While fuel rich operation naturally leads to high temperatures and thus high NOx levels; once the temperature effects are decoupled the fuel rich conditions themselves has a favorable effect on low-NOx engine operation.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0161
Amit Bhave, Markus Kraft, Fabian Mauss, Aaron Oakley, Hua Zhao
We present a computational tool to develop an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) - air-fuel ratio (AFR) operating range for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. A single cylinder Ricardo E-6 engine running in HCCI mode, with external EGR is simulated using an improved probability density function (PDF) based engine cycle model. For a base case, the in-cylinder temperature and unburned hydrocarbon emissions predicted by the model show a satisfactory agreement with measurements [Oakley et al., SAE Paper 2001-01-3606]. Furthermore, the model is applied to develop the operating range for various combustion parameters, emissions and engine parameters with respect to the air-fuel ratio and the amount of EGR used. The model predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results for various parameters over the entire EGR-AFR operating range thus proving the robustness of the PDF based model.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1680
Simon Bjerkborn, Karin Frojd, Cathleen Perlman, Fabian Mauss
This paper reports on a turbulent flame propagation model combined with a zero-dimensional two-zone stochastic reactor model (SRM) for efficient predictive SI in-cylinder combustion calculations. The SRM is a probability density function based model utilizing detailed chemistry, which allows for accurate knock prediction. The new model makes it possible to - in addition - study the effects of fuel chemistry on flame propagation, yielding a predictive tool for efficient SI in-cylinder calculations with all benefits of detailed kinetics. The turbulent flame propagation model is based on a recent analytically derived formula by Kolla et al. It was simplified to better suit SI engine modelling, while retaining the features allowing for general application. Parameters which could be assumed constant for a large spectrum of situations were replaced with a small number of user parameters, for which assumed default values were found to provide a good fit to a range of cases.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1243
Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss, Fabio Xavier, Michael Rieß, Marc Sens, Andreas Benz
Abstract A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2679
Galin Nakov, Fabian Mauss, Paul Wenzel, Rüdiger Steiner, Christian Krüger, Yongzhe Zhang, Rajesh Rawat, Anders Borg, Cathleen Perlman, Karin Fröjd, Harry Lehtiniemi
The subject of this work is 3D numerical simulations of combustion and soot emissions for a passenger car diesel engine. The CFD code STAR-CD version 3.26 [1] is used to resolve the flowfield. Soot is modeled using a detailed kinetic soot model described by Mauss [2]. The model includes a detailed description of the formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The coupling between the turbulent flowfield and the soot model is achieved through a flamelet library approach, with transport of the moments of the soot particle size distribution function as outlined by Wenzel et al. [3]. In this work we extended this approach by considering acetylene feedback between the soot model and the combustion model. The model was further improved by using new gas-phase kinetics and new fitting procedures for the flamelet soot library.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1898
Tao Bo, Fabian Mauss, Linda M. Beck
This paper explains the principle and advantages of the Ignition Progress Variable Library (IPV-Library) approach and its use in predicting engine related premixed, non-premixed and compression ignited combustion events. The implementation of IPV-Library model in the engine-focused CFD code VECTIS is described. To demonstrate the application of the model in predicting various types of combustion, computational results from a 2-stroke HCCI engine, a premixed spark ignition engine and an HSDI diesel engine are presented, together with some comparisons with engine test data.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0503
Henrik Hoffmeyer, Emanuela Montefrancesco, Linda Beck, Jürgen Willand, Florian Ziebart, Fabian Mauss
Today’s car manufactures inevitably have to focus on the reduction of fuel consumption while maintaining high performance standards. In this respect, the downsized turbocharged DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engine represents an appealing solution. However, downsizing is limited because of knocking phenomena occurring at high- and full-load conditions due to autoignition of the unburned mixture ahead the flame front. A common way of reducing knock tendencies is provided by Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). However, EGR modifies the chemical composition of the cylinder charge and recirculated species like nitric oxide (NO) or unburned Hydrocarbons (HC) particularly increase the reactivity of the unburned mixture. In other words, the EGR influences the Octane Number (ON) of the in-cylinder gases.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0676
Michał Pasternak, Fabian Mauss, Henry Bensler
An investigation on reducing the set of modeling parameters for engine cycle simulation is presented. The investigation considers a detailed kinetic model for combustion and emissions predictions coupled to a complete cycle simulation tool applied to a modern Diesel engine. The analysis is based on a previously developed method that combines a 1-D gas dynamics model with a stochastic reactor model for direct injection engines (SRM-DI). Initially, the global and instantaneous performance parameters of a Diesel engine were simulated at different operating conditions. The model was validated and the simulated results were compared to experimental data to assess the quality of the model. Afterwards, the influence of the chosen modeling parameters on engine performance, such as in-cylinder pressure, emissions and global performances, were analyzed. The mixing time proved to be the most important modeling parameter for the stochastic reactor model.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0667
Martin Tunér, Mattias Karlsson, Fabian Mauss
The ability to predict cyclic variations is certainly useful in studying engine operating regimes, especially under unstable operating conditions where one single cycle may differ from another substantially and a single simulation may give rather misleading results. PDF based models such as Stochastic Reactor Models (SRM) are able to model cyclic variations, but these may be overpredicted if discretization is too coarse. The range of cyclic variations and the dependence of the ability to correctly assess their mean values on the number of cycles simulated were investigated. In most cases, the average values were assessed correctly on the basis of as few as 10 cycles, but assessing the complete range of cyclic variations could require a greater number of cycles. In studying average values, variations due too coarse discretization being employed are smaller than variations originating from changes in physical parameters, such as heat transfer and mixing parameters.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1606
Martin Tunér, Michał Pasternak, Fabian Mauss, Henry Bensler
In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0131
Martin Tunér, Fabian Mauss
The formation of exothermic centers was modeled with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) to investigate their impact on HCCI combustion. By varying the exhaust valve temperature, and thus assigning more realistic wall temperatures, the formation of exothermic centers and the ignition timing was shifted in time. To be able to study the exothermic centers, their formation and their distribution, Scatter plots, standard deviation plots and Probability Density Function (PDF) plots were constructed on the basis of the data the SRM calculations provided. The standard deviation for the particle temperatures was found to be an useful indicator of the degree of homogeneity within the combustion chamber, and thus of how efficient the combustion process was. It was observed that when the standard deviation of the temperature was higher, the emissions of CO and of hydrocarbons present at the end of the closed cycle were higher.
2007-01-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-0049
Per Amnéus, Martin Tunér, Fabian Mauss, Robert Collin, Jenny Nygren, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén, Markus Kraft, Amit Bhave, Leif Hildingsson, Bengt Johansson
Concentrations of hydroxyl radicals and formaldehyde were calculated using homogeneous (HRM) and stochastic reactor models (SRM), and the result was compared to LIF-measurements from an optically accessed iso-octane / n-heptane fuelled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The comparison was at first conducted from averaged total concentrations / signal strengths over the entire combustion volume, which showed a good qualitative agreement between experiments and calculations. Time- and the calculation inlet temperature resolved concentrations of formaldehyde and hydroxyl radicals obtained through HRM are presented. Probability density plots (PDPs) through SRM calculations and LIF-measurements are presented and compared, showing a very good agreement considering their delicate and sensitive nature.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3813
Martin Tuner, Edward S. Blurock, Fabian Mauss
By dividing the combustion process into several phases with phase optimized skeletal mechanisms (POSM), gains in calculation speed were realized with virtually no loss in accuracy. A skeletal mechanism is a reduced mechanism where only the significant species, determined through a set of parameters (one for each species), remain with respect to a detailed mechanism. The parameter is based on a combination of sensitivity and flow analysis. Within the POSM method machine learning algorithms are used to automatically determine and recognize the major phases. Reduction is achieved by keeping only the significant species with respect to each phase. Each phase has a different mechanism, derived from the original and each is smaller than the original.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3855
Harry Lehtiniemi, Fabian Mauss, Michael Balthasar, Ingemar Magnusson
In this work, we present an unsteady flamelet progress variable approach for diesel engine CFD combustion modeling. The progress variable is based on sensible enthalpy integrated over the flamelet and describes the transient flamelet ignition process. By using an unsteady flamelet library for the progress variable, the impact of local effects, for example variations in the turbulence field, effects of wall heat transfer etc. on the autoignition chemistry can be considered on a cell level. The coupling between the unsteady flamelet library and the transport equation for total enthalpy follows the ideas of the representative interactive flamelet approach. Since the progress variable gives a direct description of the state in the flamelet, the method can be compared to having a flamelet in each computational cell in the CFD grid.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1362
Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Amit Bhave, Fabian Mauss, J. Hunter Mack, Robert W. Dibble
We numerically simulate a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with a blend of ethanol and diethyl ether by means of a stochastic reactor model (SRM). A 1D CFD code is employed to calculate gas flow through the engine, whilst the SRM accounts for combustion and convective heat transfer. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental measurements obtained using a Caterpillar CAT3401 single-cylinder Diesel engine modified for HCCI operation. We consider emissions of CO, CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons as functions of the crank angle at 50% heat release. In addition, we establish the dependence of ignition timing, combustion duration, and emissions on the mixture ratio of the two fuel components. Good qualitative agreement is found between our computations and the available experimental data.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0957
Harry Lehtiniemi, Yongzhe Zhang, Rajesh Rawat, Fabian Mauss
A transient interactive flamelet model and a transient flamelet library based model are used to model a medium-duty diesel fueled engine operating in PCCI mode. The simulations are performed with and without the source term accounting for evaporation in the mixture fraction variance equation. Reasonable agreement is found with the experiments with both models. The effect of the evaporation source term in the mixture fraction variance equation is different for the different transient flamelet approaches. For the transient interactive flamelet model the ignition onset is delayed as a consequence of the higher mixture fraction variance, which leads to a higher scalar dissipation rate. The evaporation source term does not affect the global characteristics of the ignition event for the transient flamelet progress variable model, but locally the initial combustion is occurring differently.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0219
Shahrokh Hajireza, Bengt Sundén, Fabian Mauss
A zero-dimensional, three-zone model is developed in order to study the gas thermodynamic characteristics and its relation to knock in SI engines. The first zone is the zone behind the flame front, i.e. the burned gas products. The second zone is the unburned gas ahead of the flame front. The end gas adjacent to the wall, in the boundary layer, is not included in the second zone but it is treated as a separate zone, i.e. the third zone. A detailed analysis of the gas thermodynamic state, including heat transfer analysis between the zones and the walls and mass transfer analysis between the zones combined with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism in each zone have been performed. The effects of piston movement, flame propagation and transient behavior of the thermal boundary layer are modeled. A sudden rise of pressure and temperature and associated heat release in the end gas are calculated if autoignition occurs.
2000-06-19
Technical Paper
2000-01-1895
Hakan Serhad Soyhan, Per Amnéus, Terese Løvås, Daniel Nilsson, Peter Maigaard, Fabian Mauss, Cem Sorusbay
A method for automatic reduction of detailed reaction mechanisms using simultaneous sensitivity, reaction flow and lifetime analysis has been developed and applied to a two-zone model of an SI engine fuelled with Primary Reference Fuel (PRF). Species which are less relevant for the occurrence of autoignition in the end gas are declared redundant. They are identified and eliminated for different pre-set minimum levels of reaction flow and sensitivity. The resulting skeletal mechanism is valid in the ranges of initial and boundary values for which the analyses have been performed. A measure of species lifetime is calculated from the chemical source terms, and the species with the lifetime shorter than and mass-fraction less than specified limits are selected for removal.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-0426
Terese Løvås, Fabian Mauss, Christian Hasse, Norbert Peters
In this paper an online method for automatically reducing complex chemical mechanisms for simulations of combustion phenomena has been developed. The method is based on the Quasi Steady State Assumption (QSSA). In contrast to previous reduction schemes where chemical species are selected only when they are in steady state throughout the whole process, the present method allows for species to be selected at each operating point separately generating an adaptive chemical kinetics. The method is used for calculations of a natural gas fueled engine operating under Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) conditions. We discuss criteria for selecting steady state species and the influence of these criteria on the results such as concentration profiles and temperature.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-0239
Börje Grandin, Ingemar Denbratt, Joakim Bood, Christian Brackmann, Per-Erik Bengtsson, Adina Gogan, Fabian Mauss, Bengt Sundén
SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2862
Olof Erlandsson, Patrik Einewall, Bengt Johansson, Per Amneus, Fabian Mauss
This paper focuses on the performance and efficiency of an HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine system running on natural gas or landfill gas for stationary applications. Zero dimensional modeling and simulation of the engine, turbo, inlet and exhaust manifolds and inlet air conditioner (intercooler/heater) are used to study the effect of compression ratio and exhaust turbine size on maximum mean effective pressure and efficiency. The extended Zeldovich mechanism is used to estimate NO-formation in order to determine operation limits. Detailed chemical kinetics is used to predict ignition timing. Simulation of the in-cylinder process gives a minimum λ-value of 2.4 for natural gas, regardless of compression ratio. This is restricted by the NO formation for richer mixtures. Lower compression ratios allow higher inlet pressure and hence higher load, but it also reduces indicated efficiency.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0887
Erik Svensson, Changle Li, Sam Shamun, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Fabian Mauss
Abstract Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2400
Andrea Matrisciano, Anders Borg, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss
In this work a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework is presented. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The existing implementation [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows now for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
1997-05-01
Technical Paper
971669
Joakim Bood, Per-Erik Bengtsson, Fabian Mauss, Klaas Burgdorf, Ingemar Denbratt
Cycle-resolved end-gas temperatures were measured using dual-broadband rotational CARS in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements were used as an indicator for knock and as input data to numerical calculations. The chemical processes in the end-gas have been analysed with a detailed kinetic mechanism for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane at different Research Octane Numbers (RON'S). The end-gas is modelled as a homogeneous reactor that is compressed or expanded by the piston movement and the flame propagation in the cylinder. The calculated temperatures are in agreement with the temperatures evaluated from CARS measurements. It is found that calculations with different RON'S of the fuel lead to different levels of radical concentrations in the end-gas. The apperance of the first stage of the autoignition process is marginally influenced by the RON, while the ignition delay of the second stage is increased with increasing RON.
1997-05-01
Technical Paper
971671
Shahrokh Hajireza, Fabian Mauss, Bengt Sundén
A detailed analysis of the end-gas temperature and pressure in gasoline engines has been performed. This analysis leads to a simplified zero-dimensional model, that considers both, the compression and the expansion of the end-gas by the piston movement, and the compression by the flame front. If autoignition occurs in the end-gas the sudden rise of the pressure and the heat release is calculated. The rate form of the first law of thermodynamics for a control volume combined with the mass conservation equation for an unsteady and a uniform-flow process are applied. The heat of formation in the end-gas due to the chemical activity has been taken into account. In addition, a chemical kinetic model has been applied in order to study the occurrence of autoignition and prediction of knock.
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