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2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2349
Yasuhiro Tako, Shou-ichi Tsuga, Ryuji Arai, Takashi Tani, Go Honda, Keiji Nitta
Closed habitation experiments are to be carried out using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) from FY2005 to FY2009. The last target of duration of closed habitation is four months. Preliminary study and testing have been conducted in order to carry out the closed habitation experiments. The CEEF has three closed plantation chambers (PC-A, B and C) with artificial lighting solely having each cultivation area of 30 m2 and a closed plantation chamber (PC-F) with both natural lighting and supplemental artificial lighting having a 60-m2 cultivation area. A ‘stable’ period of sequential crop cultivation was maintained for four weeks in a trial experiment conducted in FY2003 using the Plantation Module (PM), in which rice, soybean and crops including rice sapling, soybean sapling, soybean, peanuts and safflower were cultivated in PC-A, PC-B, PC-C and PC-F, respectively. Amount of total clean water input to PM was 741 L day−1 on the average for the period.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2819
Tsuyoshi Masuda, Yasuhiro Tako, Keiji Nitta
A linear programming model has been constructed to develop a cultivation plan for habitation experiments using a two-person crew in Closed Ecological Experiment Facilities (CEEF), which is an earth based integration demonstration test bed of Advanced Life Support System (ALSS), under constraints such as a limited cultivation area and various nutritional requirements. The optimized area was 129.14 m2. According to the results, the optimized cultivation plan was then implemented in a habitation experiment in the CEEF during FY2004 with some modification to meet requirements from menu formulation. Results of the cultivation experiment, also during FY2004, showed feasibility of the plantation plan in the view point of nutrition supply, though errors between expected and observed productivities varied from −37 % to +267 %.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2125
Koichi Abe, Masahiro Endo, Keiji Nitta, Tomofumi Hirosaki, Hiroyuki Miyajima, Yoshio Ishikawa
Closure experiments will be conducted using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and the Closed Animal and Habitation Experiment Facility (CAHEF) of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The CEEF behavioral Prediction System (CPS) has been developed to check the CEEF operation for the closure experiments in advance. For the development of CPS, a simulation program for CPEF had been developed and reported. A simulation program for CAHEF was developed, and combined with the simulation program for CPEF. This integrated simulation program was validated by data obtained from a habitation experiment conducted in CEEF.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921198
Kozo Sato, Hideaki Hamami, Akira Ashida, Mikio Sato, Yoshinori Midorikawa, Keiji Nitta
Developments of many subsystems, such as gas separater, water purifier, decomposition unit of waste materials and others, are necessary to construct the closed loop life support test facility for studying the material circulationin earth environment and for human habitation in space. On the other hand, in order to develop and integrate these subsystems infacility, the designing paramaters of each subsystem are to be determined based on the required material flows estimation. The required material flows are very complicated and difficult to be analyzed. Therefore the trade study method for determining the design paramaters of each subsystem is to be integrated based on the break down of system configulation Level as below. Level-0 is the material flow level between the total closed loop life support facility and outside. Level-1 is the material flow level between the plantation, habitat and animal breeding modules and their supporting systems.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921237
Hideaki Kurokawa, Toshio Sawa, Akira Ashida, Nobuo Hamano, Mitsuo Oguchi, Keiji Nitta
Abstract The recovery of important minerals, salt (NaCI) and potassium (K), in a closed system, namely CELSS is discussed. NaCI is needed for humans, but is potentially harmful to plants. Salt is recovered after wet oxidation of urine. Since Na and K have similar chemical and physical properties, their recovery or separation may require sophisticated methods. Na, CI and K ions are separated from other ions by electrodialysis with univalent selective ion-exchange membranes and then NaCI is obtained separately by a crystalization process. Preliminary experiment on crystalization of NaCI-KCl mixed solutions showed a good separation result.
1990-07-01
Technical Paper
901205
Keiji Nitta, Koji Otsubo, Seishiro Kibe, Haruhiko Ohja
Many research activities relating the environment control and life support systems to be used in space have been conducted and continued in Japan since 1982 in order to obtain his own manned flight technologies for future Japanese missions. Research and development activities are able to be divided in two phases according mission scheduling such as JEM development to be used in International Space Station now going on and the future Japanese space infrastructures, for examples, Japanese Space Station and Lunar Base. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function.
1990-07-01
Technical Paper
901208
Akira Ashida, Kenji Mitani, Hideaki Kurokawa, Toshio Sawa, Keiji Nitta, Koji Otsubo, Tosiharu Tanemura, Haruhiko Ohya
Abstract System configurations of water recycling for space use have been continued through theoretical and experimental studies. The water recycling system plays a central role in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which offers necessary environment and life styles in closed environment such as space stations, lunar bases, etc.. Membrane technology is a possible candidate for purifying waste water produced by crew use facility, plant cultivation facility, etc. In considerations of the system compactness realizing energy saving, membrane distillation has been revealed to be a suitable purification process. Ground experiments has been performed using membrane filtration processes and membrane distillation process. Thermopervaporation technology with hydrophobic membrane is utilized in the distillation process. The energy saving is achieved by thermal return of condensation energy.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951584
Akira Ashida, Keiji Nitta
Construction of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) is started in Rokkasho village of Aomori prefecture, the northern part of Honshu island in Japan. CEEF consist of Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and Closed Geo-Hydrosphere Experiment Facility (CGEF) with capability to simulate ecological systems containing plants, animals, human, trees and sea living things. These biospecies are selected according to experimental plans and are maintained their lives in controlled environments. Recyclings of materials circulating in the closed system of CEEF are made mainly utilizing physical chemical treatments. The construction of CEEF will be completed by 1998. This paper mainly describes design of CPEF.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951581
Kiyomi Funabashi, Hideaki Kurokawa, Chikako Yoshioka, Satoshi Sugawara, Ryusuke Abe, Keiji Nitta, Akira Ashida
A unique recovery system for NaCI (salt) from urine, which consists of electrodialysis (ED) and crystallization processes is proposed. The possibility of the mineral recovery included in urine is shown in a previous report. To improve the purity of the produced salt, pH control is needed as a pretreatment. By controlling pH of the feed solution to about 10, multivalent ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ are crystallized as phosphate solids which can be separated by filtration. As well as raising the NaCI purity, this controls scaling b y multivalent ions.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951582
Keiji Nitta, Akira Ashida, Mitsuyuki Kouzuma, Yoshihisa Yamazaki, Eiji Sunami, Masaharu Takagishi, Shunji Okada
In the closed environments, removal of trace contaminants generated from persons, animals, and plants is important function to keep the environment below the allowable level. We conducted the fundamental tests in order to confirm design of TCCA (Trace Contaminants Control Assembly) for Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), and obtained the following results; 1) The palladium-on-alumina catalyst is suitable for CO, CH4, C2H4 conversion at temperature lower than 400°C. 2) The alkali impregnated AC (activated charcoal) is effective for NO2, SO2 removal and prevents catalyst poisoning from SO2. 3) The active-desorbing conducted by hot air blow-throw an AC is effective for C2H5OH, CH2Cl2 desorbing. We discuss the fundamental test and design conditions for TCCA.
1995-07-01
Technical Paper
951537
Tatsuo Hosomi, Yasuhiro Tako, Akira Ashida, Keiji Nitta, Yoshitaka Tokimori, Tomiyoshi Yamamoto
IES (Institute for Environmental Sciences) is now constructing CEEF at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. The simulation for material flow is made based on a system model of CEEF, which includes one person and 7 plant species of Rice, Soybean, Komatsuna, Sesame, Tomato, Potato and Buckwheat. In this simulation software, plants, human and their support systems are mathematically defined and material flows such as O2, N2, CO2, waters, fertilizers and organic matters are computed. This software simulates only material flow and but does not simulate thermal dynamics of the environment. The simulation result showed reasonable material flows in a closed system.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941409
Masatoshi Tsuji, Toru Numaguchi, Shigeo Iiyama, Katsutoshi Kikuchi, Keiji Nitta, Akira Ashida
Nitrogen Fixation Systems(NFS) suitable for plant cultivation in a closed environment have been studied through experimental verification. The system is composed of physico-chemical processes only. Nitrogen gas and water are fed into the system as raw materials,and ammonia and ammonium nitrate solution are produced as final products, which are utilized as main fertilizers in plant cultivation. Each elemental chemical process in NFS is selected with regard to unique design criteria concerning safety, energy effectiveness, compactness and reliability. An experimental apparatus for important unit processes has been made for the purpose of verifying process data. A detail design for nitrogen fixation facilities, planned for construction as the first Japanese CELSS laboratory, was carried out.
1991-07-01
Technical Paper
911431
Keiji Nitta, Hisao Habuka
Abstract Lunar base construction study has been conducted under the sponsorship of many Japanese industries to amend the man tended lunar outpost study carried by NASDA. Permanent lunar base construction is to be constrained by the ability of the usable transportation system carrying the basic modules composing lunar base itself. Based upon the experiences of Antarctic Research Expedition and of designing International Space Station now going on it was assumed the initial permanent lunar base has to be composed of two habitats and one power module for letting possible to alive 8 crews, and has to be expanded by adding three or four modules in every year for improving the easiness of livingness. In early stage of construction, crew members have to live and work using only two habitat modules with getting the electric power from power module, therefore the minimum self support functions except the food and oxygen supplying have to be attached to the habitat modules.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961414
Akira Ashida, Yasuhiro Tako, Keiji Nitta
In order to verify the material circulation design for a Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities, CEEF, the organic element analysis of edible and inedible parts of the major candidate plants (rice, soybean, sesame and komatsuna (Brassica campestris)) has been carried out experimentally and by using food analysis data. In the experiment, rice, soybean and sesame were cultivated by hydroponics and soil culture for this purpose. The organic element analysis data from the food analysis data were made using empirical chemical equations formulated as to major nutriments by Volk and Rummel. The experimental results showed good agreement with those obtained from the food analysis data. Komatsuna has high nitrogen content. Inedible parts of rice, soybean and sesame have almost the same constituent ratio. The edible part of soybean contains five times as much nitrogen as its inedible part. Rice shows no significant difference between the edible and inedible parts.
1996-07-01
Technical Paper
961418
Masatoshi Tsuji, Takayuki Sakamoto, Akira Ashida, Keiji Nitta
The Nitrogen Fixation System (NFS) which produces ammonia and nitric acid from nitrogen and water has been developed. The NFS is one essential part of material circulation system of the CEEF (Closed Ecological Experiment Facility) the first Japanese CELSS experiment facility. Basically, physico-chemical and some new technologies are utilized as elemental processes in the NFS. Low pressure ammonia synthesis, ammonia enrichment with PSA and water electrolysis with SPE are such new technologies. We designed and installed the NFS as a subsystem of CEEF. The capacity of the NFS is 125g/day as fixed nitrogen. First operation of NFS is expected to be done early fiscal year of 1996 in CEEF.
1994-06-01
Technical Paper
941498
Akitoshi Yokota, Masahiko Enomoto, Kenichiro Hayashi, Mituo Oguchi, Keiji Nitta
Abstract The catalytic Wet-Oxidation process is the most feasible candidate for the waste management process of CELSS in comparison with other applicable technologies such as dry incineration, vapor compression distillation, etc. In this report we try and discuss the design of a Wet-Oxidation Waste Management Process which supports 1 person's life in a closed system. The proposed Wet-Oxidation Waste Management process treats the waste by a two-step reaction. Planned capacity is approximately 2.5kg- dry/day. A design concept, schematic flow and basic configuration of Wet-Oxidation apparatus are considered and discussed in this paper.
1993-07-01
Technical Paper
932170
Hiroaki Inagaki, Yoshinori Midorikaw, Takahiro Fujii, Akichika Hasegawa, Keiji Nitta
1993-07-01
Technical Paper
932250
Toru Numaguchi, Yuji Inada, Ryoji Kanki, Yusaku Sakata, Ichiro Funada, Keiji Nitta
The front half of the nitrogen fixation system, which is one of the subsystems of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), or NH3 synthesis loop at atmospheric pressure, was studied. The NH3 separation essential in the loop is discussed. The NH3-PSA method was newly developed, since the NH3-PSA was evaluated best among separation methods from the viewpoints of CELSS criteria. It is essential to retain the H2/N2 ratio in the outlet gas the same as that of the inlet gas to the PSA. From the experimental result of PSA a material balance of the NH3 synthesis loop was calculated. Additionally a material balance of the overall process was calculated by assuming some performances in the down stream sections of the NH3 synthesis loop.
1993-07-01
Technical Paper
932289
Akira Ashida, Keiji Nitta
Materials circulating in a closed ecological system are classified as metabolic ones and nonmetabolic ones. Nonmetabolic substances relate to environment constituents and cultural activities. Treatment of these materials are discussed from a view point of CELSS concept. The closed system, CEEF, will be constructed in Japan in the near future. CEEF is an experiment facility with processing capacity of two adult persons, consisting of a plant module, an animal module, a habitat module and supporting facilities for the three modules. The supporting facilities are composed of artificial processors of gases, waters and wastes. The plant module has artificial and natural lighting cultivating sections.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2336
Hisashi Nabenishi, Hiroshi Sakata, Yasuhiro Tako, Koji Otsubo, Keiji Nitta, Hideo Minagawa
The basal metabolism of the Candidate Animal is mainly on energy metabolism that was estimated for future animal breeding in CEEF as preliminary research. The amounts of gas exchange in the respiration and heat production of the Shiba goat (native Japanese goat) were analyzed to predict energy and material flow of the animal breeding system in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Experimental animals were fed Timothy hay or inedible parts of rice cultivated in CEEF. The feces and urine were collected during the 7-day metabolism measurement period after a 2-week preliminary breeding period. The O2 consumption, CO2 production, and CH4 production were measured by a mass spectrometric respiration gas analysis system on the 7th day of the metabolism measurement period. Heat production was also obtained from these data. O2 consumption, CO2 production and CH4 production were 100.3 - 153.8 L, 127.2 - 174.0 L and 5.7 - 10.8 L per day (at 0°C, 0.101MPa), respectively.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2335
Yasuhiro Tako, Shouichi Tsuga, Ryuji Arai, Koji Otsubo, Keiji Nitta, Tatsuya Nakai, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Tsukasa Kumagai, Toyomi Baba
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), waste materials such as plant inedible parts, feces and urine of animal and human, and garbage are to be decomposed to inorganic materials by a physical and chemical (P/C) process; Wet Oxidation (W/O). It is known that significant part of nitrogen (N) in the waste materials is reduced to gaseous nitrogen (N2) through W/O process. There is also some deposition of minerals such as iron (Fe) and phosphorous (P) through W/O process. Nitrogen Fixation Subsystem (NFS) produces ammonia (NH3) which is one of end products of NFS, from N2 separated from module air and hydrogen (H2) derived from electrolyses of water, and also produces nitrate (HNO3) from a part of the NH3 and oxygen (O2) derived from electrolyses of water. As another end product of NFS, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is produced from the HNO3 and a part of the NH3.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2453
Hiroyuki Miyajima, Yoshio Ishikawa, Ryuji Arai, Yasuhiro Tako, Keiji Nitta
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), with integrating the Closed Plantation Experiment Facilities (CPEF) and the Closed Animal Breading & Habitation Facilities (CABHF), closed habitation experiments without material exchange with the outside will be conducted after the 2005 fiscal year. Cultivation experiments of about 30 crops and the integrating test of the material circulation system required for the closed habitation experiments have been performed since 2000 fiscal year. Using data reported in these experiments, material circulation in CEEF is simulated based on the recent operation strategy, and the storage capacity needed for the buffer of an air processing subsystem was estimated. In order for two humans to dwell over 120 days, the storage capacities of the carbon dioxide tank, the oxygen tank, and the waste gas tank in CPEF, and the carbon dioxide tank and the oxygen tank in CABHF are 820 g, 2830 g, 4425 g, 1780 g, and 1792 g, respectively.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2547
Koichi Abe, Masahiro Endo, Keiji Nitta, Hiroyuki Miyajima, Yoshio Ishikawa, Seishiro Kibe
For validation of operation schedules for the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), development of the CEEF behavioral prediction system (CPS) has been started. The CPS will be simulated using the CEEF operation schedule. The CPS will gather data on quantities of materials in each component of the CEEF and operational status of each component at the start of the simulation, and configure them as the initial conditions of the simulation. For requirements of experiments, the simulation program for the CPS should be easy to adapt for changes of components and object materials. Because the CEEF is a nonlinear system, available period of the simulation is important. A flexible algorithm for the changes was developed. The simulation was available for three days to validate.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2484
Yasuhiro Tako, Ryuji Arai, Keiji Nitta
The plant system plays roles of edible biomass production, O2 production, CO2 removal, and so on, in bioregenerative life support systems. In order to simulate the edible and inedible biomass production and gas exchange of crops, it is necessary to construct reliable dynamic prediction models for each crop considering not only short-term environmental effects but also its long-term effects, because response of plant system is highly dependent on plant age, plant size, and environmental condition experienced by the plant. Closed Plantation Experiment Facility (CPEF) of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) has three plantation chambers with artificial lighting system, which has maximum capability for providing PPFD of approximately 1900 μmol·m-2·s-1 for crops at canopy top level in these chambers. Each even-aged population of rice and soybean was grown in each plantation chamber.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972516
Susumu Nakano, Tsuyoshi Uchida, Isao Ishigamori, Satoshi Sugarwara, Keiji Nitta
It is necessary to develop a small positive pressure control system for the closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) to protect against over-differential pressure loading. In the present study, a numerical method was developed to calculate the quantity of state of the closed module, which is fitted with rubber buffers, for the small positive pressure control system. Experiments to examine the pressure change of the closed module were carried out at CEEF. Comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that the present dynamic simulation is suited to estimating the quantity of state of the closed module.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972297
Hiroyuki Miyajima, Yoshio Ishikawa, Keiji Nitta
The closed ecology experiment facilities(CEEF) are comprised of an animal breeding & habitation module, plant module, and a geo-hydrosphere module(currently being established), which are composed of physicochemical devices to allow almost all the material to be circulated. Partial test operations are now in progress with these kinds of equipment, and cooperative operations between an animal breeding & habitation module and plant module are expected to be started in the near future. Balance of the material and equipment performance as the whole of the system are being tested, and material circulation in a variety of operation modes is being examined. Keeping such a situation in mind, analysis is made in this report for material circulation in the plant module by itself for operations based on the equipment design data.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2133
Yasuhiro Tako, Ryuji Arai, Koji Otsubo, Keiji Nitta
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) can be used as a test bed for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS), because technologies developed for the CEEF system facilitate self-sufficient material circulation. Two experiments were conducted from September 27, 1999 to February 17, 2000 and from September 28, 2000 to February 9, 2001 in this study. In both experiments, rice and soybeans were cultivated sequentially in each chamber, having a cultivation bed area of 30 m2 and floor area of 43 m2, inside the Plantation Module (PM) with artificial lighting of the CEEF. 6 to 8 other vegetables were also cultivated in a chamber, having a cultivation bed area of 60 m2 and floor area of 65 m2, inside the PM with natural lighting in the first experiment and the second experiment. In both experiments, stable transplant and harvest of each crop were maintained during approximately one month, after approximately 3-months preparatory cultivation.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2130
Hiroyuki Miyajima, Koichi Abe, Keiji Nitta, Yoshio Ishikawa, Akira Ashida
A simulation of an open mode system experiment was run using the same experimental conditions as an integration test conducted from September 1999 to February 2000 using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility at the Institute for Environmental Sciences in order to evaluate the operation of closed mode system to be conducted in future. Operation of the open mode system experiment required a supply of water and carbon dioxide from the outside, and the discharge of nutrient waste water and oxygen. The present simulation verified the feasibility of using non-integrated wet-oxidation processor, nutrient synthesis unit and nutrient waste water processor connected within a closed mode system, and it was confirmed that sufficient material circulation could be achieved when rice and soybeans were divided into six beds with different growing stages to facilitate control of the nutrient solution.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921334
Koji Otsubo, Tosiharu Tanemura, Keiji Nitta, Mitsuo Oguchi, Nobuo Nakabayasi, Shuji Kimura, Hideyuki Kuroda
As a CO2 removing and recovering technology, the solid amine utilized as a vacuum desorbing type was developed. The evaluation experiments to measure fundamental characteristics of this material was conducted using the dry air and as the results, the high adsorbing rate, 10 wt% for short period and 7 wt% for long period was obtained and also 7 wt% of adsorbing rate can be expected for the operation of desorption temperature of 80 °C. High accuracy thermobalance device so called thermogravimetric analyzer was utilized to measure adsorption and desorption values of CO2.
1985-07-01
Technical Paper
851393
Keiji Nitta, Mitsuo Oguchi, Syuji Kanda
In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the earth and to expand the human existing region from the earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the CELSS becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of Space Station. The preliminary SE&I (System Engineering and Integration) efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space Station Experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after Fy 1992. The results of these studies are breifly summarized and thereafter, the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.
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