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Viewing 1 to 30 of 56
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0574
Jonathan Etheridge, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Hao Wu, Nick Collings
A Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) has been used to simulate the transition from Spark Ignition (SI) mode to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode in a four cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection SI engine with cam profile switching. The SRM is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for modelling engine breathing during the open valve portion of the engine cycle, enabling multi-cycle simulations. The model is initially calibrated in both modes using steady state data from SI and HCCI operation. The mode change is achieved by switching the cam profiles and phasing, resulting in a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO), opening the throttle, advancing the spark timing and reducing the fuel mass as well as utilising a pilot injection. Experimental data is presented along with the simulation results.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1245
Hao Wu, Nick Collings, Simon Regitz, Jonathan Etheridge, Markus Kraft
In HCCI engines, the Air/Fuel Ratio (AFR) and Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) are difficult to control during the SI-HCCI-SI transition, and this may result in incomplete combustion and/or high pressure raise rates. As a result, there may be undesirably high engine load fluctuations. The objectives of this work are to further understand this process and develop control methods to minimize these load fluctuations. This paper presents data on instantaneous AFR and RGF measurements, both taken by novel experimental techniques. The data provides an insight into the cyclic AFR and RGF fluctuations during the switch. These results suggest that the relatively slow change in the intake Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) and actuation time of the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) are the main causes of undesired AFR and RGF fluctuations, and hence an unacceptable Net IMEP (NIMEP) fluctuation. We also found large cylinder-to-cylinder AFR variations during the transition.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1241
Jonathan Etheridge, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Hao Wu, Nick Collings
An established Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the transition from Spark Ignition (SI) to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion mode in a four-cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection SI engine with cam profile switching. The SRM is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for modeling engine breathing during the open valve portion of the engine cycle, enabling multi-cycle simulations. The mode change is achieved by switching the cam profiles and phasing, resulting in a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO), opening the throttle, advancing the spark timing and reducing the fuel mass as well as using a pilot injection. A proven technique for tabulating the model is used to create look-up tables in both SI and HCCI modes. In HCCI mode several tables are required, including tables for the first NVO, transient valve timing NVO, transient valve timing HCCI and steady valve timing HCCI and NVO.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0709
Alexander Darlington, Nick Collings, Keith Glover
Common-rail fuel injection systems on modern light-duty diesel engines are effectively able to respond instantaneously to changes in the demanded injection quantity. In contrast, the air-system is subject to significantly slower dynamics, primarily due to filling/emptying effects in the manifolds and turbocharger inertia. The behavior of the air-path in a diesel engine is therefore the main limiting factor in terms of engine-out emissions during transient operation. This paper presents a simple mean-value model for the air-path during throttled operation, which is used to design a feed-forward controller that delivers very rapid changes in the in-cylinder charge properties. The feed-forward control action is validated using a state-of-the-art sampling system that allows true cycle-by-cycle measurement of the in-cylinder CO₂ concentration.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1289
Orian Welling, Nick Collings
A technique is presented for measuring the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and residual gas fraction (RGF) using a fast UEGO-based O₂ measurement of the manifold or in-cylinder gases, and of the exhaust gases. The technique has some advantages over the more common CO₂-based method. In the case of an RGF measurement, fuel interference must be eliminated and special fuelling arrangements are required. It is shown how a UEGO-based measurement, though sensitive to reactive species in the exhaust (such as H₂), as a system reports EGR/RGF rates faithfully. Preliminary tests showed that EGR and RGF measurements using the O₂ approach agreed well with CO₂-based measurements.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3477
Cory Sutela, Nick Collings, Tim Hands
A fast response sensor for measuring carbon dioxide concentration has been developed for laboratory research and tested on a spark ignition engine. The sensor uses the well known infra-red absorption technique with a miniaturized detection system and short capillary sampling tubes, giving a time constant of approximately 5 milliseconds; this is sufficiently fast to observe changes in CO2 levels on a cycle-by-cycle basis under normal operating conditions. The sensor is easily located in the exhaust system and operates continuously. The sensor was tested on a standard production four cylinder spark-ignition engine to observe changes in CO2 concentration in exhaust gas under steady state and transient operating conditions. The processed sensor signal was compared to a standard air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) sensor in the exhaust stream and the results are presented here. The high frequency response CO2 measurements give new insights into both engine and catalyst transient operation.
2010-05-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1507
Johannes Arning, Hao Wu, Nick Collings
A novel method of measuring cylinder gas temperature in an internal combustion engine cylinder is introduced. The physical basis for the technique is that the flow rate through an orifice is a function of the temperature of the gas flowing through the orifice. Using a pressure transducer in the cylinder, and another in a chamber connected to the cylinder via an orifice, it is shown how the cylinder temperature can be determined with useful sensitivity. In this paper the governing equations are derived, which show that the heat transfer characteristics of the chamber are critical to the performance of the system, and that isothermal or adiabatic conditions give the optimum performance. For a typical internal combustion engine, it is found that the pre-compression cylinder temperature is related to the chamber pressure late in the compression process with sensitivity of the order of 0.005 bar/K.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1735
Alexander Darlington, Dariusz Cieslar, Nick Collings, Keith Glover
Delivering acceptable low end torque and good transient response is a significant challenge for all turbocharged engines. As downsized gasoline engines and Diesel engines make up a larger and larger proportion of the light-duty engines entering the market, the issue takes on greater significance. Several schemes have been proposed to improve torque response in highly boosted engines, including the use of electrical assist turbochargers and compressed air assist. In this paper we examine these methods with respect to their effectiveness in improving transient response and their relative performance along with some of the practical considerations for real world application. Results shown in this paper are from 1-D simulations using the Ricardo WAVE software package.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1980
Paul B. Dickinson, Keith Glover, Nick Collings, Y. Yamashita, Y. Yashiro, T. Hoshi
There is a trend towards increasing the degree of engine downsizing due to its potential for reducing fuel consumption and hence lowering CO2 emissions. However, downsizing introduces significant challenges for the engine airpath hardware and control, if driveability is to be maintained at an acceptable level. The transient response of the engine is affected by both the hardware selection and the associated controller. In order to understand the potential performance and limitations of the possible airpath hardware, a mean value model of the engine under consideration can be utilized. One benefit of these models is that they can be used as the basis of a model predictive controller which gives close to optimal performance with minimal tuning effort. In this paper we examine different two-stage series sequential turbocharger arrangements.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1177
Paul B. Dickinson, Kieran Hegarty, Nick Collings, Tashiv Ramsander
Abstract The control of NOX emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is of widespread application. However, despite dramatic improvements in all aspects of engine control, the subtle mixing processes that determine the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution of the recirculated gas often results in a mal-distribution that is still an issue for the engine designer and calibrator. In this paper we demonstrate the application of a relatively straightforward technique for the measurement of the absolute and relative dilution quantity in both steady state and transient operation. This was achieved by the use of oxygen sensors based on standard UEGO (universal exhaust gas oxygen) sensors but packaged so as to give good frequency response (∼ 10 ms time constant) and be completely insensitivity to the sample pressure and temperature. Measurements can be made at almost any location of interest, for example exhaust and inlet manifolds as well as EGR path(s), with virtually no flow disturbance.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4058
Adam Weall, Nick Collings
Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel. The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise. In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2698
Johannes Arning, Tashiv Ramsander, Nick Collings
Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has been studied widely in the past decade. However, in HCCI engines using negative valve overlap (NVO), there is still uncertainty as to whether the effect of pilot injection during NVO on the start of combustion is primarily due to heat release of the pilot fuel during NVO or whether it is due to pilot fuel reformation. This paper presents data taken on a 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection, spark ignition/HCCI engine with a dual cam system, capable of recompressing residual gas. Engine in-cylinder samples are extracted at various points during the engine cycle through a high-speed sampling system and directly analysed with a gas chromatograph and flame ionisation detector. Engine parameter sweeps are performed for different pilot injection timings and quantities at a medium load point.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1791
Adam Weall, Nick Collings
The objective of this study was to examine the operating characteristics of a light duty multi cylinder compression ignition engine with regular gasoline fuel at low engine speed and load. The effects of fuel stratification by means of multiple injections as well as the sensitivity of auto-ignition and burn rate to intake pressure and temperature are presented. The measurements used in this study included gaseous emissions, filter smoke opacity and in-cylinder indicated information. It was found that stable, low emission operation was possible with raised intake manifold pressure and temperature, and that fuel stratification can lead to an increase in stability and a reduced reliance on increased temperature and pressure. It was also found that the auto-ignition delay sensitivity of gasoline to intake temperature and pressure was low within the operating window considered in this study.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0130
Jonathan Etheridge, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Hao Wu, Nick Collings
A previously developed Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate combustion in a four cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection Spark Ignition (SI) engine modified to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO). A portion of the fuel is injected during NVO to increase the cylinder temperature and enable HCCI combustion at a compression ratio of 12:1. The model is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for the open valve portion of the engine cycle. The SRM is used to model in-cylinder mixing, heat transfer and chemistry during the NVO and main combustion. Direct injection is simulated during NVO in order to predict heat release and internal Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) composition and mass. The NOx emissions and simulated pressure profiles match experimental data well, including the cyclic fluctuations.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3373
Alex Darlington, Keith Glover, Nick Collings
Simple air-path models for modern (VGT/EGR equipped) diesel engines are in common use, and have been reported in the literature. This paper addresses some of the shortcomings of control-oriented models to allow better prediction of the cylinder charge properties. A fast response CO2 analyzer is used to validate the model by comparing the recorded and predicted CO2 concentrations in both the intake port and exhaust manifold of one of the cylinders. Data showing the recorded NOx emissions and exhaust gas opacity during a step change in engine load illustrate the spikes in both NOx and smoke seen during transient conditions. The predicted cylinder charge properties from the model are examined and compared with the measured NOx and opacity. Together, the emissions data and charge properties paint a consistent picture of the phenomena occurring during the transient. Alternative strategies for the fueling and cylinder charge during these load transients are investigated and discussed.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-2020
Adam Weall, Nick Collings
Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3276
Stelios Karagiorgis, Nick Collings, Keith Glover, Neil Coghlan, Anthemios Petridis
This paper is concerned with the Residual Gas Fraction measurement and estimation on a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. A novel in-cylinder gas sampling technique was employed to obtain cyclic dynamic measurements of CO2 concentration in the compression stroke and in combination with CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stroke, cyclic Residual Gas Fraction was measured. The measurements were compared to estimations from a physical, 4-cylinder, single-zone model of the HCCI cycle and good agreement was found in steady engine running conditions. Some form of oscillating behaviour that HCCI exhibits because of exhaust gas coupling was studied and the model was modified to simulate this behaviour.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3425
Feilong Liu, Gehan A. J. Amaratunga, Nick Collings
The cylinder pressure signal, as an instantaneous and direct measure of the engine operation, contains valuable information for closed loop engine control and offers very useful engine monitoring and control capabilities. The estimation technique for cylinder pressure has been investigated for many years. Based on the Frequency Analysis Method, a synthetic estimation method is proposed in this paper to estimate pressure. Methods that are successful in obtaining a more accurate estimated cylinder pressure over a wider range of crankshaft angle are reported. Quantitative results obtained from application of the method are also given.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922248
Wei Cai, Nick Collings
Abstract This paper describes a novel catalytic oxidation sensor which represents an attempt to realise a practical sensor for on vehicle detection of catalyst efficiency and misfire. Via experimental and modelling approaches, promising characteristics are established, which could mean that an application to the on-vehicle detection of catalyst efficiency and misfire is feasible.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941874
Sergei M. Schurov, Nick Collings
Abstract The paper presents a computer simulation of flow and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection. Engine cold starting conditions are studied including the effects of in-cylinder mixture back flow into the port. One dimensional air flow and wall fuel film flow models and a two dimensional fuel droplet flow model have been developed using a combination of finite difference approaches. As a result, predictions are obtained that provide detailed picture of the air-fuel mixture properties along the intake port. The model may be of special importance for exhaust gas ignition system simulation as it will provide data concerning mixture formation under conditions of excessive fuel injection during engine start-up. The calculations performed are shown to be phenomenologically correct.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952485
Sergei M. Schurov, Nick Collings
Abstract The transport of fuel during cold start in the intake of a port-injected engine has been investigated using a standard engine with very little modification. A fast response FID sampling from the intake manifold is used to measure the instantaneous vapor concentration during the start. At short times after the start, the engine is stopped, and the port under investigation isolated. The engine is then warmed up by passing hot water through it and at the same time is flushed with hot air, in the port and the cylinder. This evaporates the liquid fuel, and by integrating the vapor concentration multiplied by mass flow of the displaced gas, the fuel mass in the isolated port and cylinder is measured. It is shown how the mass of liquid in the port at the time at which the engine is stopped can reliably be related to the concentration measurement.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
961926
Sergei Schurov, Tim Summers, Nick Collings
Abstract Understanding mixture formation phenomena during the first few cycles of an engine cold start is extremely important for achieving the minimum engine-out emission levels at the time when the catalytic converter is not yet operational. Of special importance is the structure of the charge (film, droplets and vapour) which enters the cylinder during this time interval as well as its concentration profile. However, direct experimental studies of the fuel behaviour in the inlet port have so far been less than fully successful due to the brevity of the process and lack of a suitable experimental technique. We present measurements of the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in the manifold and port of a production SI engine using the Fast Response Flame Ionisation Detector (FRFID).
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0208
Richard Ford, Nick Collings
Two new techniques are introduced for measuring the residual gas fraction in internal combustion engines. Both techniques use a fast chemiluminescent detection (CLD) type NO sensor. The measurement is made in real-time and requires a single misfire of the engine. Development of the techniques revealed several unexpected, but interesting effects; the results obtained show good agreement with existing knowledge.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1314
Jian Li, Nick Collings
A semi-empirical model of fuel transport in the intake manifold of spark ignition engines, which assumes a fraction of injected fuel deposits onto the port walls and describes the detailed fuel film phenomena, is proposed. The model is applied in the throttle ramp transients during which both the air and the fuel flow change significantly. The predicted air fuel ratio excursions, engine torque etc, are in good agreement with the experimental data. Also simulated is another kind of transience, which has only an air flow jump, i.e. with fuelling rate constant, when the engine jumps between stoichiometric and lean running. The results are again in satisfactory agreement with experiment.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2837
Daniel E. Davison, Stephen J. Cornelius, Nick Collings, Keith Glover
This paper presents experimental data showing unexpected transient behaviour in several production universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensors. The spike-like transients occur when passing through the stoichiometric point, and are particularly significant when passing from rich to lean. The paper illustrates how the spikes are affected by exhaust gas flow rate, deviation of air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) from stoichiometry, and rate of change of AFR while passing through stoichiometry. The spikes are most sensitive to the rate at which AFR passes through stoichiometry. Brief discussions on possible causes for the spikes, and on undesirable consequences for feedback control applications, are included.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2870
George Kontarakis, Nick Collings, Tom Ma
A standard port fuel injected, unthrottled single cylinder four-stroke SI engine, with a compression ratio of 10.3:1, and using standard gasoline fuel, has been adapted to operate in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode, by modifying the valve timing. It has been found that over a speed range of between 1300 and 2000 rpm, and lambda values of between 0.95 and 1.1, stable operation is achieved without spark ignition. The internal EGR rate was estimated to be about 60%, and emissions of NOX were typically 0.25 g/kWh. Practical implementation of this HCCI concept will require variable valve timing, which will also enable reversion to standard SI operation for maximum power.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2953
Cory Sutela, Nick Collings, Tim Hands
In a recent paper, a novel fast-response NDIR-based CO2 (fCO2) sensor was described, with applications to automotive engine gas analysis. Certain shortcomings were identified with the sensor. The present paper is concerned with the evolution of the sensor towards a mature instrument and an important application: the measurement of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rates during rapid transients. The application described concerns transient EGR measurements at unprecedented bandwidths. Essentially, the technique is based on comparing the inlet manifold CO2 concentration with that in the exhaust. Sampling complications caused by the wide range of inlet pressures encountered in the inlet manifold are discussed. A comparison of EGR from the present test is made with those deduced by the engine controller and a standard slow bench instrument. EGR calibration errors are then identified and related to legislated emissions measured with a similar frequency response.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1390
Ganapathi Subbu, Nick Collings
A novel technique for measuring the axial distribution of wall flow in diesel particle filters is described. It is based on measuring the dilution of a tracer gas (introduced at the upstream end of an outlet channel) as it passes along a filter channel, due to the wall flow. A relation is derived between the change in concentration and the flow per unit length of air entering the outlet channel from adjacent inlet channels. Typical data showing the axial variation in the wall flow for clean and loaded filters are presented and discussed. We find qualitatively plausible flow distributions, but note that independent verification of the method is required before the data can confidently be interpreted quantitatively. Some of the potential applications of the technique may include studying the regeneration process and measurement of ash deposition.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1010
Jeffrey K. Ball, Martin J. Bowe, C. Richard Stone, Nick Collings
Experimental data was obtained from a Rover K4 optical access engine and analyzed with a combustion analysis package. Cyclic NO values were calculated by mass averaging the measurements obtained by a fast NO analyzer. While the mass averaged results were used as the basis of comparison for the model, results indicate that mass averaging a fast NO signal is not nearly as critical as mass averaging a fast FID signal. A computer simulation (ISIS - Integrated Spark Ignition engine Simulation) was used to model the NO formation on a cyclic basis by means of the extended Zeldovich equations. The model achieves its cyclic variability through the input of experimentally derived burn rates and a completeness of combustion parameter, which is based on the Rassweiler and Withrow method of calculating mass fraction burned and is derived from the pressure-crank angle record of the engine.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1242
Urs Christen, Katie J. Vantine, Nick Collings
Models often use time rather than strokes (crank-angle) as the independent variable to describe engine dynamics despite the fact that the dynamics of an internal combustion engine are intrinsically linked to the combustion events. In this paper, two models are developed in parallel in which not only the independent variable is changed but the notion of mass flows as well: flows are in [g/s] for the time-based model and in [g/st] for the event-based model. Both models are of the same computational complexity and show the same accuracy in validation. The investigation of the model properties shows that variations in the flow-related parameters are reduced by a factor of two to five for the event-based model. However, those of the crankshaft dynamics are increased. It is concluded that the model should be chosen in context of the control system to be designed.
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