Criteria

Text:
Author:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 50
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1113
Yiliang Zhu, Richard Stobart, Jiamei Deng
Variable compression ratio in conjunction with a control system is an effective way to improve performance and reduce emissions in a diesel engine. There are various methods that may be employed that include geometry changes and varying valve timing to change the effective compression ratio. In this paper, a simulation study is presented that is based on a modern, multi-cylinder, fixed compression ratio diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The engine is represented using the GT-Power code, and includes a predictive combustion model. The aim of the investigation is to identify the impact of variable compression ratio on fuel economy and emission reduction and whether realistic optimal conditions exist. This paper describes how a formal design of experiments procedure is used to define the simulation conditions. Cost functions are defined with different weights for fuel consumption, NOx and soot emissions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0697
Hui Xie, Richard Stobart, Per Tunestal, Lars Eriksson, Yiqun Huang, Patrick Leteinturier
The aim of this paper is to compile the state of the art of engine control and develop scenarios for improvements in a number of applications of engine control where the pace of technology change is at its most marked. The first application is control of downsized engines with enhancement of combustion using direct injection, variable valve actuation and turbo charging. The second application is electrification of the powertrain with its impact on engine control. Various architectures are explored such as micro, mild, full hybrid and range extenders. The third application is exhaust gas after-treatment, with a focus on the trade-off between engine and after-treatment control. The fourth application is implementation of powertrain control systems, hardware, software, methods, and tools. The paper summarizes several examples where the performance depends on the availability of control systems for automotive applications.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0423
Olivier Grondin, Richard Stobart, Houcine Chafouk, Jean Maquet
Constraints change as pollutant standards or embedded diagnosis demands require improvements in model accuracy and their suitability for control algorithm synthesis. From thermodynamic mathematical modelling to non-parametric models, a wide range of techniques has been investigated for the last thirty years involving both physicists and control engineers. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of current modelling techniques oriented control analysis and design for compression ignition engines. Short examples illustrate each techniques and existing applications are considered. Comparison of various engine models exhibit the trend to include more physical knowledge inside model-based control design.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1303
Jiamei Deng, Bastian Maass, Richard Stobart, Edward Winward, Zhijia Yang
One of the most critical challenges currently facing the diesel engine industry is how to improve fuel economy under emission regulations. Improvement in fuel economy can be achieved by precisely controlling Air/Fuel ratio and by monitoring fuel consumption in real time. Accurate and repeatable measurements of fuel rate play a critical role in successfully controlling air/fuel ratio and in monitoring fuel consumption. Volumetric and gravimetric measurements are well-known methods for measuring fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. However, these methods are not suitable for obtaining fuel flow rate data used in real-time control/measurement. In this paper, neural networks are used to solve the problem concerning discontinuous data of fuel flow rate measured by using an AVL 733 s fuel meter. The continuous parts of discontinuous fuel flow rate are used to train and validate a neural network, which can then be used to predict the discontinuous parts of the fuel flow rate.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1417
Bastian Maass, Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart
More and more stringent emission regulations require advanced control technologies for combustion engines. This goes along with increased monitoring requirements of engine behaviour. In case of emissions behaviour and fuel consumption the actual combustion efficiency is of highest interest. A key parameter of combustion conditions is the in-cylinder pressure during engine cycle. The measurement and detection is difficult and cost intensive. Hence, modelling of in-cylinder conditions is a promising approach for finding optimum control behaviour. However, on-line controller design requires real-time scenarios which are difficult to model and current modelling approaches are either time consuming or inaccurate. This paper presents a new approach of in-cylinder condition prediction. Rather than reconstructing in-cylinder pressure signals from vibration transferred signals through cylinder heads or rods this approach predicts the conditions.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0001
Sean Casten, Peter Teagan, Richard Stobart
While it is generally agreed that the PEM fuel cell technology is best for road vehicles, the need for a source of relatively pure hydrogen poses significant challenges. There are two distinct options that are currently being considered: On-board processing of gasoline or methanol Fueling with hydrogen gas made in an off-board facility Each option has different implications for the fueling infrastructure and for the technologies required both on- and off-board the vehicle. In addition, various fueling strategies shift the balance of risk between fuel providers and vehicle manufacturers. Generally speaking, alternative fueling options can be seen to trade off technical risk (e.g., will it work?) for commercial risk (e.g., will anyone buy it?). In seeking a satisfactory business solution, a key issue is the balance between these two risks on the part of the vehicle manufacturer and the fuel provider.
2012-11-01
Journal Article
2011-01-2458
Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart, Andrzej Ordys
Measurement accuracy and repeatability for fuel rate is the key to successfully improve fuel economy of diesel engines as fuel economy could only be achieve by precisely controlling air/fuel ratio and monitor real-time fuel consumption. The volumetric and gravimetric measurement principles are well-known methods to measure the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. However, the fuel flow rate measured by these methods is not suitable for either real-time control or real-time measurement purposes. The problem concerning discontinuous data of fuel flow rate measured by using an AVL 733s fuel meter was solved for the steady state scenario by using neural networks. It is easier to choose inputs of the neural networks for the steady state scenario because the inputs could be chosen as the particular inputs which excited the system in the application.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0054
Evangelos Gonatas, Richard Stobart
The process of controlling tailpipe emissions leads to the need to understand the dynamic behaviour of the after-treatment devices. The model provides the basis for design prediction, on-line diagnosis and real time control. Although a number of models have been presented in the literature, their efficient performance continues to require further development and validation to meet increasingly demanding requirements. Models have been developed that use the basic physical framework including thermal behaviour, fluid mechanics and basic chemistries. As more demands are placed on models, more phenomena need to be taken into account and in particular, progressively more of the chemistry of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) itself. In this paper we present a black-box model for a three-way catalytic converter that has been developed and tested using real experimental data.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0332
Jiamei Deng, Edward Winward, Richard Stobart, Paresh Desai
In modern production diesel engine control systems, fuel path control is still largely conducted through a system of tables that set mode, timing and injection quantity and with common rail systems, rail pressure. In the hands of an experienced team, such systems have proved so far able to meet emissions standards, but they lack the analytical underpinning that lead to systematic solutions. In high degree of freedom systems typified by modern fuel injection, there is substantial scope to deploy optimising closed loop strategies during calibration and potentially in the delivered product. In an optimising controller, a digital algorithm will explicitly trade-off conflicting objectives and follow trajectories during transients that continue to meet a defined set of criteria. Such an optimising controller must be based on a model of the system behaviour which is used in real time to investigate the consequences of proposed control actions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0171
Xunzhe Zhang, Richard Stobart, Ran Bao
Abstract China is the world’s largest automotive producer and has the world’s biggest automobile market. However, in the past decades, the development of China’s automotive industry has depended primarily on the foreign direct investment; domestic automakers have struggled in the lower ranks of car producers. In recent years, China’s automotive industry, supported by government policies, has been improving their Research and Development (R&D) capacity, to compete with their international peers. Against this background, China’s automotive industry requires a large number of R&D professionals who have not only a higher degree but also the applied and practical knowledge and skills of research. For the purpose of meeting the industry’s needs, a new Professional Automotive Engineering Masters Programme was launched in 2009, which aims to deliver the Masters to be the R&D professionals in the future.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0189
Song Lan, Cedric Rouaud, Richard Stobart, Rui Chen, Zhijia Yang, Dezong Zhao
Abstract This paper reports on an investigation into the potential for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to improve the fuel economy of a mild hybrid vehicle. A simulation model of a parallel hybrid vehicle equipped with a TEG in the exhaust system is presented. This model is made up by three sub-models: a parallel hybrid vehicle model, an exhaust model and a TEG model. The model is based on a quasi-static approach, which runs a fast and simple estimation of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The model is validated against both experimental and published data. Using this model, the annual fuel saving, CO2 reduction and net present value (NPV) of the TEG’s life time fuel saving are all investigated. The model is also used as a flexible tool for analysis of the sensitivity of vehicle fuel consumption to the TEG design parameters. The analysis results give an effective basis for optimization of the TEG design.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0082
Anita Chaudhari, Alexandros Plianos, Richard Stobart
This paper presents a control system design strategy for a novel fuel cell - internal combustion engine hybrid power system. Dynamic control oriented models of the system components are developed. The transient behavior of the system components is investigated in order to determine control parameters and set-points. The analysis presented here is the first step towards development of a controller for this complex system. The results indicate various possibilities for control design and development. A control strategy is discussed to achieve system performance optimization.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0309
Sandra Hounsham, Richard Stobart, Adam Cooke, Peter Childs
Energy recovery from IC engines has proved to be of considerable interest across the range of vehicle applications. The motivation is substantial fuel economy gain that can be achieved with a minimal affect on the “host” technology of the vehicle. This paper reviews the initial results of a research project whose objective has been to identify system concepts and control methods for thermal recovery techniques. A vapour power cycle is the means of energy transfer. The architecture of the system is considered along with support of the fuel economy claims with the results of some hybrid vehicle modelling. An overview of the latest experimental equipment and design of the heat exchanger is presented. The choice of control architecture and strategy, whose goal is overall efficiency of the engine system, is presented and discussed. Some initial control results are presented.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2796
Bastian Maass, Richard Stobart, Jiamei Deng
This work describes the application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Models with Exogenous Inputs (NLARX) in order to predict the NOx emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines. Two experiments are presented: 1.) a Non-Road-Transient-Cycle (NRTC) 2.) a composition of different engine operation modes and different engine calibrations. Data sets are pre-processed by normalization and re-arranged into training and validation sets. The chosen model is taken from the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox using the algorithms provided. It is teacher forced trained and then validated. Training results show recognizable performance. However, the validation shows the potential of the chosen method.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1333
Richard Stobart, Dan Milner
The pursuit of improved fuel economy is becoming an increasingly important objective for automotive manufacturers. The field of thermo-electrics is highlighted as a promising technology. The figure of merit, Z is the primary measure of the effectiveness of a thermo-electric material, and the values now being offered by researchers have reached the level where new applications become attractive. It is feasible to consider such modules incorporated into a thermoelectric generator to recover waste heat from exhaust gas flow – an available energy stream that has traditionally been neglected as unusable. As a precursor to a costly experimental study it is desirable to accurately simulate the application of a thermo-electric system to a vehicle exhaust to understand both the feasibility and potential drawbacks.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1632
Ming Jia, Zhijun Peng, Maozhao Xie, Richard Stobart
Diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines with early injection can result in significant spray/wall impingement which seriously affects the fuel efficiency and emissions. In this paper, the spray/wall interaction models which are available in the literatures are reviewed, and the characteristics of modeling including spray impingement regime, splash threshold, mass fraction, size and velocity of the second droplets are summarized. Then three well developed spray/wall interaction models, O'Rourke and Amsden (OA) model, Bai and Gosman (BG) model and Han, Xu and Trigui (HXT) model, are implemented into KIVA-3V code, and validated by the experimental data from recent literatures under the conditions related to diesel HCCI engines. By comparing the spray pattern, droplet mass, size and velocity after the impingement, the thickness of the wall film and vapor distribution with the experimental data, the performance of these three models are evaluated.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1711
Matt Best, Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart, James Marco
Traditionally, university research in engine technology has been focused on fundamental engine phenomena. Increasingly however, research topics are developing in the form of systems issues. Examples include air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) management, after-treatment systems, engine cooling, hybrid systems and energy recovery. This trend leads to the need for engine research to be conducted using currently available products and components that are re-configured or incrementally improved to support a particular research investigation. A production engine will include an electronic control unit (ECU) that must be understood and utilised or simply removed and circumvented. In general the intellectual property (IP) limitations places on ECUs by their suppliers mean that they cannot be used. The supplier of the ECU is usually unable to reveal any detail of the implementation. As a consequence any research using production hardware is seriously disadvantaged from the beginning.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0146
Anita Chaudhari, Alexandros Plianos, Richard Stobart
Fuel cell hybrid systems have emerged rapidly in efforts to reduce emissions. The success of these systems mainly depends on implementation of suitable control architectures. This paper presents a control system design for a novel fuel cell - IC Engine hybrid power system. Control oriented models of the system components are developed and integrated. Based on the simulation results of the system model, the control variables are identified. The main objective for the control design is to manage fuel, air and exhaust flows in a way to deliver the required load on the system within local constraints. The controller developed for regulating flows in the system is based on model predictive control theory. The performance of the overall control system is assessed through simulations on a nonlinear dynamic model.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0270
Richard Stobart, Sandra Hounsham, Rohitha Weerasinghe
The idea of thermal energy recovery from vehicle engine exhaust flow is now well supported and funded. Through a number of research projects, several component technologies have been identified. Rankine cycle, turbo-compounding and thermo-electric systems have all attracted interest. Fuel economy improvements vary depending on the drive cycle and the capability of the underlying technologies, but have been reported as high as 25%. Our work at Sussex on a form of Rankine cycle has revealed generic issues about the control of thermal recovery and the associated modelling requirements. Typical issues include the balancing the rate of heat input to the recovery system with the loss of useful work from large temperature differences. The size of components dictates the control authority over the system and consequently its ability to follow changing conditions.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0971
Alexandros Plianos, Richard Stobart, Ali Achir
In this paper, a robust adaptive optimal tracking control design for the air-path system of diesel engines with uncertain parameters and external driver commands is proposed. First, an optimal controller based on the analytic solution of a performance index is derived. It achieves tracking of suitable references (corresponding to low emissions and fuel consumption) for both the air-fuel ratio and the fraction of the recirculated exhaust gas. Then, a fuzzy estimation algorithm is used to identify the plant parameters and consequently to adapt the controller online. The simulated diesel engine is a medium duty Caterpillar 3126B with six cylinders, equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger and an exhaust gas recirculation valve. The proposed controller design is based on the reduced third order mean value model and implemented as a closed-form nonlinear model predictive control law on the full order model.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0662
Richard Stobart, Rohitha Weerasinghe
The pursuit of fuel economy is forcing technology change across the range of control and engine management technologies. Improved thermal management has been addressed in order to promote fast warm-up, improved exhaust gas after-treatment performance, and lower variance in combustion through a consistent and high cylinder head temperature. Temperature management of exhaust gas is of increasing interest because of the need to maintain efficiency in after-treatment devices. More effective temperature management places requirements on heat exchange systems, and offers the potential for bottoming and heat recovery cycles that use energy transferred from the exhaust stream. Turbo-compounding is already established in heavy duty engines, where a reduction in exhaust gas temperature is the consequence of an additional stage of expansion through an exhaust turbine. A new project in electric turbo-compounding offers flexibility in the control of energy extracted from the exhaust stream[1].
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1018
Alexandros Plianos, Richard Stobart
The two-stage turbocharging technique is an effective way to improve performance and reduce emissions in diesel engines. In this paper, we consider a diesel engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve and two turbochargers in series. The low pressure turbine is of fixed geometry and the high pressure turbine is a variable geometry turbine (VGT). The control objective is to regulate air-to-fuel (AFR), EGR exhaust fraction and the power ratio of the two turbines by coordinated manipulation of the EGR and VGT actuators. Unlike engines with a single turbocharger, in two-staged turbocharged engines, regulation of the power ratio of the turbines is also needed in order to adequately define the equilibrium point of the engine airpath. First, a mean value engine model (MVEM) is proposed to physically describe the air path dynamics. With rich excitation of the controls in the MVEM, we identify several linear models for different areas of the engine speed-torque envelope.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950971
Richard Stobart, Jeremy Clare
The introduction of more intelligence into vehicle control systems increases functionality but at the same time threatens to overload the driver. A second and potentially more serious effect is that the driver's understanding of how the vehicle is behaving may be incorrect. The user interface may have the capacity to misrepresent important information. The SUSI™ methodology devised to assess hazard driving system design is directed towards this problem. SUSI™ exploits modem software design methods to represent human and machine behaviour in a uniform context. A form of HAZOP is then used to draw out potential hazards from which risk assessment and risk mitigation actions can be developed. SUSI™ has been applied in the automotive environment and has shown its utility at various stages of the design process.
2000-04-26
Technical Paper
2000-01-1485
Guy Coulson, Richard Stobart
Many automotive manufacturers have announced their intention to launch fuel cell powered cars in the next few years. This has led to large research budgets aimed at new or emerging technologies. The emergence of a new automotive power and drive system allows a new beginning in designing the components of these systems with environmental impact in mind. That is, the whole car, from the ground up, can be built from “design for the environment” principles with an appreciation of “well to wheels” impact of its fuel. Using this approach, vehicles can be designed for minimum resource and energy use during manufacture and for low cost, low impact disassembly, leading not only to improved environmental performance but also to reduced manufacturing costs.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1004
Richard Stobart
Modeling is of increasing significance to the automotive applications of catalyst systems. For exhaust gas after-treatment, prediction of exhaust emissions plays an important role in the design process for new vehicles. However both control and diagnosis requirements on the vehicle have created the need for control-oriented models. A control-oriented model is both compact and accurate and may be embedded in a computer system as a component of a real-time algorithm. Modeling of catalysts can take place at a molecular level where computational techniques are only just emerging. Detailed kinetics modeling done alongside thermal and fluid modeling of the catalyst yields important details about the dynamic behavior of the catalyst system. Approaches to developing control-oriented model have tended to use the simplest statements of kinetics. In general, the development of such models requires the inclusion of some chemical kinetics.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
98C055
Richard Stobart
The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is already available commercially and is demonstrating the very significant benefit of improved fuel consumption. The costs associated with the hybrid vehicle are still high, and for novel types of auxiliary power unit are still undefined. Measures to improve the performance of HEV technology are emerging and include the traffic and navigation information which forms part of the telematics infrastructure. One of the key issues in enhancing HEV performance is journey prediction. Journey time and energy requirements can be products of a telematics system but form the basis for a significant performance enhancement to an HEV.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1525
Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart
Variable valve actuation in heavy duty diesel engines is not well documented, because of diesel engine feature, such as, unthrottled air handling, which gives little room to improve pumping loss; a very high compression ratio, which makes the clearance between the piston and valve small at the top dead center. In order to avoid strike the piston while maximizing the valve movement scope, different strategies are adopted in this paper: (1) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, exhaust valve opening is changed; (2) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, late exhaust valve opening: (3) While inlet valve opening is fixed, inlet valve closing is changed; (4) Delayed Inlet valve and exhaust valve openings and closings; (5) Changing exhaust valve timing; (6) changing inlet valve timing; (7) Changing both inlet and exhaust timing, will be used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1640
Farraen Mohd Azmin, Richard Stobart
Abstract Design of Experiments (DOE) introduces a number of design types such as space filling design and optimal design. However, optimal design type is best for a system with high prior knowledge. Meanwhile, space-filling design is good for unknown systems, which is normal for engine calibration. It would be best to have a design that can support constructive model building, where a block of engine test is run for most of the day and followed by engine modeling at the end of the day. However, this needs separate space filling design for each day and separate design is susceptible to redundant test points. Among of the five space-filling design type, Sobol sequences and Halton sequences can support constructive model building due to the deterministic random sequence characteristic. When the model is good enough for system prediction, the remaining engine test can stop and proceed to model optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1159
Ran Bao, Richard Stobart
Abstract The objective of the work reported in this paper was to identify how turbocharger response time (“turbo-lag”) is best managed using pneumatic hybrid technology. Initially methods to improve response time have been analysed and compared. Then the evaluation of the performance improvement is conducted using two techniques: engine brake torque response and vehicle acceleration, using the engine simulation code, GT-SUITE [1]. Three pneumatic hybrid boost systems have been considered: Intake Boost System (I), Intake Port Boost System (IP) and Exhaust Boost System (E). The three systems respectively integrated in a six-cylinder 7.25 l heavy-duty diesel engine for a city bus application have been modelled. When the engine load is increased from no load to full load at 1600 rpm, the development of brake torque has been compared and analysed. The findings show that all three systems significantly reduce the engine response time, with System I giving the fastest engine response.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0617
Dezong Zhao, Edward Winward, Zhijia Yang, John Rutledge, Richard Stobart
Abstract Engine electrification is a critical technology in the promotion of engine fuel efficiency, among which the electrified turbocharger is regarded as the promising solution in engine downsizing. By installing electrical devices on the turbocharger, the excess energy can be captured, stored, and re-used. The electrified turbocharger consists of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and an electric motor (EM) within the turbocharger bearing housing, where the EM is capable in bi-directional power transfer. The VGT, EM, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve all impact the dynamics of air path. In this paper, the dynamics in an electrified turbocharged diesel engine (ETDE), especially the couplings between different loops in the air path is analyzed. Furthermore, an explicit principle in selecting control variables is proposed. Based on the analysis, a model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) decoupling controller is designed to regulate the air path dynamics.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 50

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: