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2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0236
Hidenori Kosaka, Volker H. Drewes, Luca Catalfamo, Allen A. Aradi, Norimasa Iida, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The time of, and location where ignition first occurs in a diesel fuel spray were investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM) using the two–dimensional techniques of silicone oil particle scattering imaging (SSI), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde has been hypothesized to be one of the stable intermediate species marking the start of oxidation reactions in a transient spray under compression ignition conditions. In this study, the LIF images of the formaldehyde formed in a diesel fuel spray during ignition process have been successfully obtained for the first time by exciting formaldehyde with the 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. SSI images of the vaporizing spray, and the LIF images of formaldehyde were obtained together with the corresponding time record of combustion chamber pressures at initial ambient temperatures ranging from 580 K to 790 K.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1945
Christopher Kolodziej, Ekathai Wirojsakunchai, David E. Foster, Niklas Schmidt, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Terunao Kawai, Mike Akard, Tomoshi Yoshimura
The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910261
Yasuo Moriyoshi, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hideo Ohtani, Miki Yagita
Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910225
Haruyuki Yokota, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka, Kinji Tsujimura
The relation between the characteristics of a non-evaporating spray and those of a corresponding frame achieved in a rapid compression machine was investigated experimentally. The fuel injection pressure was changed in a range of 55 to 260 MPa and the other injection parameters such as orifice diameter and injection duration were changed systematically. The characteristics of the non-evaporating spray such as the Sauter mean diameter and the mean excess air ratio of the spray were measured by an image analysis technique. The time required for a pressure rise due to combustion was taken as an index to characterize the flame. It was concluded that the mean excess air ratio of a spray is the major factor which controls the burning rate and that the high injection pressure is effective in shortening the combustion duration and reducing soot formation.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920630
Akio Takamura, Takashi Ohta, Susumu Fukushima, Takeyuki Kamimoto
An experimental evaluation of the reliability of the Zeuch's method was carried out. The following were derived: 1) cavitation limits the minimum back pressure available; 2) the injection rate measured by the Zeuch's method agrees with that by the W.Bosch's method; 3) the effect of dynamic pressure of the injected fuel jet has a negligible effect on the pressure sensor which is attached to the chamber wall; and 4) the high-frequency noise after the end of injection observed in the Zeuch's measurement can be effectively removed by either a low-pass filter or an inverse Fourier transform processing.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941924
Shi-Wen Li, Hidenori Kosaka, Takeyuki Kamimoto
Air-entrainment characteristics of non-evaporating sprays and flames were measured by means of high-speed photography including ordinary shadowgraphy of sprays, back diffused light illumination photography and laser shadow photography of flames. Effects of injection pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on air-entrainment characteristics were investigated parametrically. The amount of air entrained into a flame was calculated by a two-zone thermodynamic model with data obtained from the photographs and the pressure measurement in the combustion chamber. The air-entrainment characteristics of flames were compared with those of the corresponding sprays. It showed that immediately after the start of ignition, the air entrainment into a flame increased more rapidly as compared with the corresponding spray and then, with the development of diffusion combustion, the air entrainment gradually approached that of the spray.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941953
Chi-Nan Yeh, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka, Shigeharu Kobori
A new method to determine simultaneously the temperature and the fuel vapor concentration inside an evaporating spray was described by using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. A TMPD doped base fuel composed of C12H26: 22%, C13H28: 54% and C14H30: 30% was injected into the combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine which is filled with a high temperature and high pressure nitrogen. The laser sheet was used for incident light, which was reflected by a prism located inside the combustion chamber and propagated through the center of an evaporating spray. The laser induced fluorescence intensity was imaged by a high speed-gated intensifier from a direction perpendicular to the incident light. The results shows that mixtures with high equivalence ratio are observed in the central region, while low equivalence ratio mixtures are observed in the periphery of the spray. It is also observed that the temperature of richest mixture is 50 K as low as the surrounding gas temperature.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952451
Hidenori Kosaka, Takahiro Nishigaki, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shinichi Harada
Two kinds of planar soot imaging techniques, laser induced incandescence (LII) and laser induced scattering (LIS) techniques were applied simultaneously to an unsteady free spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine. An analysis of LII and LIS images yielded three kinds of qualitative images of soot concentration, size of soot particles, and number density of soot in the flame. These images revealed the fact that the soot is formed mainly in the center region of a flame resulting in an appearance of soot cloud with high number density and small particle size in this region, and then the soot size increases and the number density decreases while soot is conveyed downstream.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952433
Hidenori Kosaka, Takao Suzuki, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The turbulent dispersion of particles in an unsteady two dimensional particle-laden jet was simulated by a discrete vortex method coupling with a model of gas/particles interaction. Numerical analysis of a spray yielded the distributions of vorticity, fuel mass concentration and local Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of droplets in a spray. The predicted distribution of local SMD of droplets in a spray demonstrated that the size of droplets in the spray periphery is larger than that of droplets in the center region of spray. This trend of distribution of drop size coincided with that of measured one. The predicted distributions of drop size and vorticity revealed that the larger droplets are easily centrifuged to the periphery of the spray. The effects of the pattern of injection rate on the mixing process in a transient spray were also investigated.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952514
Shigeharu Kobori, Takeyuki Kamimoto
A rapid compression-expansion machine was developed, which can simulate intake, compression, expansion and exhaust strokes in a single Diesel cycle by an electrically controlled and hydraulically actuated driving system. The whole system which is composed of a hydraulic actuator, fuel injector and a valve driving device, is sequentially controlled by a micro-computer. The machine features; 1) accurate control of piston position at TDC, 2) no effect of lubricant on HC emission due to the use of dry piston rings; 3) independent control of local wall temperature; and 4) high power output to drive heavy piston at high frequency. The single cycle operation permits Diesel combustion experiments under a wide range of operating conditions and easy access of optical diagnostics with minimized amount of test fuel. The performance test showed that the machine can drive a DI Diesel type piston with a 100 mm bore at a maximum frequency of 16.7 Hz at a maximum compression pressure of 15 MPa.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960321
Shigeharu Kobori, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka
In an attempt to achieve lean combustion in Diesel engines which has a potential for simultaneous reduction in no and soot, the authors developed a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter as small as 0.06 mm. Combustion tests were carried out using a rapid compression-expansion machine which has a DI Diesel type combustion chamber equipped with the micro-hole nozzle. A comparison with the result of a conventional nozzle experiment revealed that the ignition delay was shortened by 30 %, and in spite of that, both peaks of initial premixed combustion and diffusion combustion increased significantly. The combustion in the case of the micro-hole nozzle experiment was accompanied with a decrease in soot emission, whereas an increase in NO emission.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932653
Hidenori Kosaka, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The cross-sectional distribution of fuel vapor concentration in an evaporating spray was measured quantitatively by a new scattering imaging technique, silicone particle scattering imaging method, which was proposed in a previous paper[1]. When fuel containing silicone oil injected into a nitrogen environment at high temperature, the volatile base fuel in the droplets vaporized rapidly, leaving behind small droplets of silicone oil suspended in the vapor-gas mixture. The silicone oil droplets were illuminated by a thin laser sheet, and the scattered light was imaged by a CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of vapor concentration was estimated from the scattering image of the silicone oil droplets by Mie scattering theory. The results demonstrated clearly the inhomogeneity of the fuel vapor concentration. The distribution of vapor concentration was discontinuous, and islands of rich mixture with a scale of several millimeters existed in the center region of the spray.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932652
Chi-Nan Yeh, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shigeharu Kobori, Hidenori Kosaka
To measure the fuel vapor concentration in an unsteady evaporating spray injected into nitrogen atmosphere, the exciplex-forming method, which produces spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phase, was applied in this study. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative applicability of the technique in a high temperature and high pressure atmosphere during the fuel injection period. One is to examine the thermal decomposition of TMPD dopant at a high temperature and a high pressure nitrogen atmosphere during a short period of time. The other is to calibrate the relationship between fluorescence intensity and vapor concentration of TMPD at different vapor temperatures. And then, the qualitative measurement of fuel vapor concentration distributions in diesel sprays was made by applying the technique.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962087
Yasuo Moriyoshi, Hideaki Morikawa, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Tomokazu Hayashi
Local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration affects combustion characteristics in the lean burn system and also in the stratified charge combustion system. To investigate such combustion systems, the effects of inhomogeneous mixtures were examined using a carefully controlled experimental system. In this study, a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge by using a removable partition inside the chamber, was developed. Flow and combustion characteristics were examined by indicated pressure analysis, Schlieren photography, ion probe measurements and local equivalence ratios measurements while varying the combination of initial equivalence ratios on each side of the partition. As a result, combustion characteristics of charge stratified, very lean propane-air mixture were clarified.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922208
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shigeharu Kobori, Seok Hong Noh, Yoshiteru Enomoto
Local heat flux from the flame to the combustion chamber wall, q̇, was measured the wall surfaces of a rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate diesel combustion. Temperature of the flame zone, T1, was calculated by a thermodynamic two-zone model using measured values of cylinder pressure and flame volume. A local heat transfer coefficient was proposed which is defined as q̇/(T1-Tw). Experiments showed that the local heat transfer coefficient depends slightly on the temperature difference, T1-Tw, but depends significantly on the velocity of the flame which contacts the wall surface.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0527
Tadashi Ikeda, Yukimitsu Ohmori, Akio Takamura, Yoshio Sato, LI Jun, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The accuracy of the injection rate meter based on W. Zeuch's method in the measurement of multiple injection rate and amount was calibrated using a small cam driven piston that is driven by an electric motor. For the pre- or early-injection, a sensor with a high sensitivity can be applied to measure the small pressure increase due to the small injection amount. In case of the multiple injection that has the post and/or late injection, a pressure sensor with a low sensitivity must cover not only the large pressure increase due to the main injection but also the small pressure increase due to the post and/or late injection because the output of the high sensitivity sensor is saturated after the main injection. So the linearity of the low sensitivity pressure sensor was calibrated with the cam driven piston prior to the experiment with the actual injection system.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-1257
Satoshi Ishikawa, Yukimitsu Ohmori, Susumu Fukushima, Takao Suzuki, Akio Takamura, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The injection rate meter based on W. Zeuch's method was improved to meet the recent requirement for precise measurement of the multiple injection rate and amount in CDI (Common rail Direct Injection) diesel engines. A pressure sensor with a high sensitivity was added to measure the small pressure increase due to the pilot injection and after injection. At the same time a flow meter having a high accuracy was installed in the discharge pipe line to obtain a correction factor to the modulus of elasticity of volume. As a result it became possible to measure the multiple injection amount at an accuracy of ±0.2mm3/stroke in a range up to 40mm3/stroke.
2000-06-19
Technical Paper
2000-01-1892
Tomohiro Minagawa, Hidenori Kosaka, Takeyuki Kamimoto
To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a discrete droplet spray model (DDM) coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions. Predicted results show that the fuel mixture injected at the start of injection, which travels along midway between the spray axis and the spray periphery, contributes heavily to the first ignition in a spray. The equivalence ratio and temperature of the first ignited mixture are kept nearly constant until the start of hot ignition. The temperature of the first ignited mixture is kept at a constant value of higher temperature than the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature of the mixture before the hot ignition starts. The equivalence ratio of the first ignited mixture is around 1.6 at initial gas temperatures between 750 K and 850 K.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760551
Shin Matsuoka, Katsukiko Yokota, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Masanori Igoshi
In this study, the authors show their analytical model of the fuel injection system in a diesel engine, which is constructed to be as accurate but as simple as possible and to have good application in the development of new fuel injection systems. In the first part, the authors initially describe the model assumptions, classification of injection phenomena, and fundamental equations considering the compressibility, inertia and viscocity of hydraulics and the movements of valves and other components to improve the accuracy of the systems. Secondly, regarding the experimental constants and physical properties of the fuel, the authors show the method of selection they used to simplify the analytical model and to get good agreement as a result but without losing physical meanings.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770413
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shin Matsuoka
A theoretical model for predicting the evaporation process of liquid fuel sprays in both diesel and S.I. stratified charge engines is presented: The injected liquid fuel is assumed to break up into droplets with a certain time delay which is determined through careful experiments on the heat absorption process of injected fuel in a high temperature, high pressure inert atmosphere. The evaporation, heat absorption, and motion of these droplets are computed, together with the change of gas conditions inside the spray, by solving a coupled system of equations made up of heat and mass balance between droplets and gas. The effects of such parameters as the surrounding gas conditions, fuel properties, and spray characteristics on evaporation are investigated by the model. Reference is also made to the application of a predicted result to the calculation of burning rate in a direct injection diesel engine.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800254
Yuzo Aoyagi, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Yukio Matsui, Shin Matsuoka
The concentrations of soot, NO and the other combustion products were measured by incylinder gas sampling in a DI diesel engine. The effects of injection timing, swirl ratio, and combustion chamber geometry on the formation and emission processes of soot and NO were studied. The following results were obtained: (1) Soot is promptly formed in the flame during the early combustion period where the equivalence ratio in the flame is high over 1.0. Thereafter almost all the formed soot is swiftly burnd up by oxidation during the middle combustion period. This process mainly determines the exhaust soot concentration. (2) NO is formed in the flame during the early and middle combustion period where the flame temperature is high over 2000 K. The highest NO concentration is observed at the flame tip swept by the air swirl. Though the concentration of the formed NO decreases by dilusion it nearly constant during the later combustion period.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800253
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Yuzo Aoyagi, Yukio Matsui, Shin Matsuoka
The rate of air entrainment into the flame and the rate of heat release are thermodynamically calculated in a DI diesel engine: A two-zone model is proposed which uses as input data three measured values of cylinder pressure, flame temperature, and injection rate. The correlations between both rates under various conditions make it clear that the combustion during early and main periods of diffusion combustion is mainly controlled by air entrainment into the flame. The effects of injection pressure, piston configuration, and swirl intensity on the air entrainment are also studied. And the extent of mixing in the flame is evaluated by the equivalence ratio in the flame which is also obtained by the same model. The trends of exhausted NO and soot concentrations well correlate with the equivalence ratios in the flame and measured flame temperatures under all conditions studied.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980501
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Masataka Akiyoshi, Hidenori Kosaka
To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a simple quasi-steady spray model coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions and validity of this model is assessed by a comparison with existing experimental data. The calculated results indicate that the competition between the heat absorption of fuel and the hot air entrainment determines the equivalence ratio of mixtures favorable for the ignition to occur in the shortest time.
1984-02-01
Technical Paper
840519
Haruki Kobayashi, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shin Matsuoka
A phenomenological model for predicting the rate of heat release of an axisymmetrical diesel flame which was achieved in a rapid compression machine has been proposed: Basing on the experimental observations, authors have introduced a new expression about the effects of abrupt thermal expansion due to the initial combustion on the air entrainment. A simple probability density function was also employed to express the distribution of the local equivalence ratio in the flame. The predicted rate of heat release showed good agreement with the experimental results in the diffusion combustion phase.
1981-02-01
Technical Paper
810183
Soo Kil Ahn, Yukio Matsui, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shin Matsuoka
A new technique was proposed for measuring instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factor of luminous flames. Here the principle of the two-color method was used to calculate flame temperature and KL factor from the two-color densities of a film image taken on a nega-color film. We applied this technique to the high speed nega-color photographs of flames in a D. I. diesel engine operated with varying swirl ratios, and discussed the measured results of instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factors.
1981-02-01
Technical Paper
810259
Haruki Kobayashi, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shin Matsuoka
A diesel spray and flame in a quiescent atmosphere were realized without interference with combustion chamber walls in a newly constructed rapid compression machine. High speed shadow photography and pressure measurement were employed to obtain data for calculating the amount of air entrainment into the the flame and spray. From a comparison of air entrainment between the flame and spray, it turned out that when ignition delay becomes longer air entrainment into flames is promoted by the thermal expansion of multi-points ignition sources in the central region of the spray.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
800965
Shin Matsuoka, Katsuhiko Nagakura, Taiyo Kawai, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Yuzo Aoyagi
Some problems associated with applying LDA to the measurement of air motion in the engine’s cylinder are studied experimentally for both the forward and the back scattering technique in a motored diesel engine. The effects of the doppler broadening caused by the velocity gradient and the diameters of the scattering particles are discossed. The decaying process and the structure of the in-cylinder flow field are studied using the measurements of the main flow velocity, the turbulent intensity and macro scales and normalised power spectrum of the turbulence. A comparison measurement is also made between the forward scattering and the back scattering techniques.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
800970
Yukio Matsui, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shin Matsuoka
Flame temperature and KL factor in a DI diesel engine are measured optically by the two-color method. Some differences are observed between the measure values at visible and infrared wavelengths. These differences are caused by: (1) effect of change of index α in time at infrared wavelength during combustion period; (2) effect of distributions of temperature and soot concentration along optical path; and (3) effect of reflection at the walls. The optical characteristics and some other problems on the instrumentation of the two-color method at both wavelengths are also discussed.
1981-09-01
Technical Paper
811004
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Haruki Kobayashi, Shin Matsuoka
As a basic tool for fundamental studies on combustion and heat transfer in diesel engines, a new rapid compression machine with a cylinder bore of 200 mm was developed which can realize in it a free diesel flame in a quiescent atmosphere, a diesel flame in a swirl, and a diesel flame impinging on the wall. The piston of this machine is driven by high pressure nitrogen, and its speed is controlled by a sophisticated hydraulic system. This paper describes the details of the mechanism and performances of the machine, and presents some examples of studies conducted with this machine.
1983-09-12
Technical Paper
831297
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shuichi Osako, Shin Matsuoka
A DI diesel engine with an air cell was developed as one of the combustion systems for reducing soot emission from diesel engines: The air is accumulated in the air cell during the compression stroke and is injected into the main chamber during a period after the end of injection. The air jet stirs the stagnant flame and promotes soot oxidation. A comparative experiments with the conventional system made it clear that the air-cell system effectively reduces soot emission at a medium and high load condition.
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