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Viewing 1 to 30 of 51
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2170
Hermann Obermair, Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner
This paper reports on research activities aiming to improve the efficiency of direct injected, hydrogen powered internal combustion engines. In a recent major change in the experimental setup the hydrogen single cylinder research engine at Argonne National Laboratory was upgraded to a new engine geometry providing increased compression ratio and a longer piston stroke compared to its predecessor. The higher compression ratio and the more advantageous volume to surface ratio of the combustion chamber are both intended to improve the overall efficiency of the experimental setup. Additionally, a new series of faster acting, piezo-activated injectors is used with the new engine providing increased flexibility for the optimization of DI injection strategies. This study focuses on the comparison of experimental data of the baseline versus the improved single cylinder research engine for similar engine operating conditions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0675
Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Nicholas Matthias, Victor Salazar, Sebastian Kaiser
This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
2010-05-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1571
Thomas Wallner, Richard Frazee
Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines have been the subject of numerous studies. The new U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Because corn-based ethanol will be capped at 15 billion gallons, 21 billion gallons must come from the advanced biofuels category. A potential source to fill the gap may be butanol and its isomers as they possess fuel properties superior to ethanol. Recently, concerns have been raised about emission of currently non-regulated constituents, aldehydes in particular, from alcohol-based fuels. In an effort to assess the relative impact of the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standards on emissions from a modern gasoline engine, both regulated and non-regulated gas constituents were measured from the combustion of three different alcohol isomers in a modern direct-injected (DI) spark ignition (SI) gasoline engine.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2422
Yu Zhang, Ilya Sagalovich, William De Ojeda, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner, David D. Wickman
Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2001
Thomas Wallner, Nicholas S. Matthias, Riccardo Scarcelli
Energy security and climate change are two of the main drivers for development of sustainable and renewable transportation solutions. Entities around the globe have been working on strategic plans to reduce energy consumption and curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this context hydrogen is frequently mentioned as the fuel and energy carrier of the future. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program has identified hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles as an important mid-term technology on the path to a large-scale hydrogen economy. DOE has set challenging goals for hydrogen internal combustion engines including 45% peak brake thermal efficiency (BTE). This paper summarizes recent research engine test results employing hydrogen direct injection with different injection strategies.
2011-01-19
Technical Paper
2011-26-0003
Thomas Wallner
This paper reviews and summarizes recent developments in hydrogen (H2) powered engine and vehicle research. Following an overview of mixture formation strategies, general trade-offs when operating engines on hydrogen are analyzed and highlights regarding accomplishments in efficiency improvement and emissions reduction are presented. These include estimates of efficiency potential of direct-injection hydrogen engines based on single-cylinder research engine data, fuel economy and emissions results of hydrogen powered passenger cars and pickup trucks as well as the impact and potential of hydrogen/methane blended operation.
2011-09-11
Journal Article
2011-24-0096
Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Nicholas Matthias, Victor Salazar, Sebastian Kaiser
This paper describes the validation of a CFD code for mixture preparation in a direct injection hydrogen-fueled engine. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located injector. A single-hole and a 13-hole nozzle are used at about 100 bar and 25 bar injection pressure. Numerical results from the commercial code Fluent (v6.3.35) are compared to measurements in an optically accessible engine. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence provides phase-locked images of the fuel mole-fraction, while single-cycle visualization of the early jet penetration is achieved by a high-speed schlieren technique. The characteristics of the computational grids are discussed, especially for the near-nozzle region, where the jets are under-expanded. Simulation of injection from the single-hole nozzle yields good agreement between numerical and optical results in terms of jet penetration and overall evolution.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0108
Andreas Wimmer, Thomas Wallner, Jürgen Ringler, Falk Gerbig
Hydrogen is frequently cited as a future energy carrier. Hydrogen allows a further optimization of internal combustion engines, especially with direct injection. In order to assess various concepts, detailed thermodynamic analyses were carried out. Effects, which can be neglected with conventional fuels (e.g. losses due to injection during compression stroke) are considered. These basics as well as several results from test bed investigations are described within this article. Wall heat losses were found to have a major influence on overall efficiency and are thus investigated in detail, based on local surface temperature measurement. Finally, concepts that allow an increase in engine efficiency and lowest NOx emissions are demonstrated.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0653
Nicholas S. Matthias, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli
Striving for sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen is often identified as a promising energy carrier and internal combustion engines are seen as a cost effective consumer of hydrogen to facilitate the development of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. Driven by efficiency and emissions targets defined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a research team at Argonne National Laboratory has worked on optimizing a spark-ignited direct injection engine for hydrogen. Using direct injection improves volumetric efficiency and provides the opportunity to properly stratify the fuel-air mixture in-cylinder. Collaborative 3D-CFD and experimental efforts have focused on optimizing the mixture stratification and have demonstrated the potential for high engine efficiency with low NOx emissions. Performance of the hydrogen engine is evaluated in this paper over a speed range from 1000 to 3000 RPM and a load range from 1.7 to 14.3 bar BMEP.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0640
Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, James Sevik, Katarzyna Matusik, Thomas Wallner, Christopher F. Powell
Abstract Understanding the short-lived structure of the plasma that forms between the electrodes of a spark plug is crucial to the development of improved ignition models for SI engines. However, measuring the amount of energy deposited in the gas directly and non-intrusively is difficult, due to the short time scales and small length scales involved. The breakdown of the spark gap occurs at nanosecond time scales, followed by an arc phase lasting a few microseconds. Finally, a glow discharge phase occurs over several milliseconds. It is during the arc and glow discharge phases that most of the heat transfer from the plasma to the electrodes and combustion gases occurs. Light emission can be used to measure an average temperature, but micron spatial resolution is required to make localized measurements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0965
James M. Sevik, Thomas Wallner, Scott Miers, Jeff Wasil
Abstract In 1990, Roy Douglas developed an analytical method to calculate the global air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method has considerable application to two-stroke engines, it does not permit the calculation of air-to-fuel ratios for oxygenated fuels. This study proposed modifications to the Roy Douglas method such that it can be applied to oxygenated fuels. The ISO #16183 standard, the modified Spindt method, and the Brettschneider method were used to evaluate the modifications to the Roy Douglas method. In addition, a trapped air-to-fuel ratio, appropriate for two-stroke engines, was also modified to incorporate oxygenated fuels. To validate the modified calculation method, tests were performed using a two-stroke carbureted and two-stroke direct injected marine outboard engine over a five-mode marine test cycle running indolene and low level blends of ethanol and iso-butanol fuels.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1871
Thomas Wallner, James M. Sevik, Riccardo Scarcelli, Brian C. Kaul, Robert M. Wagner
Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are quickly becoming more prominent in light-duty automotive applications because of their potential improvements in efficiency and fuel economy. While EGR dilute and lean operation serve as potential pathways to further improve efficiencies and emissions in GDI engines, they also pose challenges for stable engine operation. Tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine that is representative of current automotive-style GDI engines. Baseline cases were performed under steady-state operating conditions where combustion phasing and dilution were varied to determine the effects on indicated efficiency and combustion stability. Sensitivity studies were then carried out by introducing binary low-high perturbation of spark timing and injection duration on a cycle-by-cycle basis under EGR dilute and lean operation to determine dominant feedback mechanisms.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1796
Andrew Ickes, Reed Hanson, Thomas Wallner
Dual-fuel combustion using port-injected gasoline with a direct diesel injection has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. Reducing compression ratio, in conjunction with a higher expansion ratio using alternative valve timings, decreases compressed charge reactivity while maintain a high expansion ratio for maximum work extraction. Experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection. The engine employs intake variable valve actuation (VVA) for early (EIVC) or late (LIVC) intake valve closing to yield reduced effective compression ratio.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0768
Louis Sileghem, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract Stricter CO2 and emissions regulations are pushing spark ignition engines more and more towards downsizing, enabled through direct injection and turbocharging. The advantages which come with direct injection, such as increased charge density and an elevated knock resistance, are even more pronounced when using low carbon number alcohols instead of gasoline. This is mainly due to the higher heat of vaporization and the lower air-to-fuel ratio of light alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. These alcohols are also attractive alternatives to gasoline because they can be produced from renewable resources. Because they are liquid, they can be easily stored in a vehicle. In this respect, the performance and engine-out emissions (NOx, CO, HC and PM) of methanol, ethanol and butanol were examined on a 4 cylinder 2.4 DI production engine and are compared with those on neat gasoline.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1238
Nicholas Matthias, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli
The pressing need to improve U.S. energy independence and reduce climate forcing fossil fuel emissions continues to motivate the development of high-efficiency internal combustion engines. A recent trend has been to downsize and turbocharge automotive spark-ignited engines coupled with direct fuel injection to improve engine efficiency while maintaining vehicle performance. In-line with recent trends in state-of-the-art engine technology, the focus of this study is lean and EGR dilute combustion in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The lean and dilute operating limits are defined by combustion stability typically in terms of COVIMEP so experiments were carried out on an automotive size single-cylinder research engine to characterize combustion stability. From a 20,000 cycle sequence analysis, lean operating conditions exhibit binary high- to low-IMEP cycle sequences. This may be because the cycle-to-cycle feedback mechanisms are physically limited to one or two cycles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1230
Thomas Wallner, Andrew Ickes, Jeff Wasil, James Sevik, Scott Miers
Abstract This study evaluates iso-butanol as a pathway to introduce higher levels of alternative fuels for recreational marine engine applications compared to ethanol. Butanol, a 4-carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to gasoline than ethanol. Isobutanol at 16 vol% blend level in gasoline (iB16) exhibits energy content as well as oxygen content identical to E10. Tests with these two blends, as well as indolene as a reference fuel, were conducted on a Mercury 90 HP, 4-stroke outboard engine featuring computer controlled sequential multi-port Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI). The test matrix included full load curves as well as the 5-mode steady-state marine engine test cycle. Analysis of the full load tests suggests that equal full load performance is achieved across the engine speed band regardless of fuel at a 15-20°C increase in exhaust gas temperatures for the alcohol blends compared to indolene.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1008
Antoine Delorme, Aymeric Rousseau, Phil Sharer, Sylvain Pagerit, Thomas Wallner
Fuel cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and there is limited demand for hydrogen at present, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen powertrains to conventional gasoline vehicles. Several timeframes are considered: 2010, 2015, 2030, and 2045. To address the technology status uncertainty, a triangular distribution approach was implemented for each component technology. The fuel consumption and cost of five powertrain configurations will be discussed and compared with the conventional counterpart.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1920
Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli, Abhijeet M. Nande, Jeffrey Naber
Hydrogen is widely considered a promising fuel for future transportation applications for both, internal combustion engines and fuel cells. Due to their advanced stage of development and immediate availability hydrogen combustion engines could act as a bridging technology towards a wide-spread hydrogen infrastructure. Although fuel cell vehicles are expected to surpass hydrogen combustion engine vehicles in terms of efficiency, the difference in efficiency might not be as significant as widely anticipated [1]. Hydrogen combustion engines have been shown capable of achieving efficiencies of up to 45 % [2]. One of the remaining challenges is the reduction of nitric oxide emissions while achieving peak engine efficiencies. This paper summarizes research work performed on a single-cylinder hydrogen direct injection engine at Argonne National Laboratory.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1418
Thomas Wallner, Abhijeet M. Nande, Jeffrey Naber
The application of hydrogen (H2) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for fuel cells as well as IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. The potential of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel can be optimized by direct injection (DI) as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently the engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. This paper studies a single-hole nozzle and examines the effects of injection strategy on engine efficiency, combustion behavior and NOx emissions. The experiments for this study are done on a 0.5 liter single-cylinder research engine which is specifically designed for combustion studies and equipped with a cylinder head that allows side as well as central injector location.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2381
Scott A. Miers, Richard W. Carlson, Steven S. McConnell, Henry K. Ng, Thomas Wallner, Jack LeFeber Esper
The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests. The results showed that for the urban drive cycle, both total hydrocarbon (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions increased as larger quantities of butanol were added to the diesel fuel.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2378
Aymeric Rousseau, Thomas Wallner, Pagerit Sylvain, Henning Lohse-Busch
Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2377
Abhijeet M. Nande, Thomas Wallner, Jeffrey Naber
The application of hydrogen (H2) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. At certain operating conditions the stratification associated with hydrogen direct injection (DI) leads to an efficiency improvement. However, it also results in higher emissions levels. This paper examines the effects of combining an advanced direct injection strategy with water injection for efficiency benefits and emissions reduction of a hydrogen fuelled DI spark ignition (SI) engine.
2007-01-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-0016
Thomas Wallner, Henning Lohse-Busch
This paper presents the results of efficiency, emissions, and performance testing of a supercharged, hydrogen-powered, four-cylinder engine. Tests were run at various speeds, loads, and air/fuel ratios in order to identify advantageous operating regimes. The tests revealed that a maximum thermal brake efficiency of 37% could be achieved and that certain operating regimes could achieve NOx emissions as low as 1 ppm without aftertreatment. Measurement of cylinder pressure traces in all four cylinders allowed a detailed assessment of cylinder-cylinder deviation. Several measures to further increase hydrogen engine performance in order to reach the goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy are being discussed.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0474
Thomas Wallner, Henry K. Ng, Robert W. Peters
Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane blends (5% and 20% methane [by volume] in hydrogen equal to 30% and 65% methane [by mass] in hydrogen) and compare them to those of pure hydrogen as a reference. The study confirms that only minor adjustments in spark timing and injection duration are necessary for an engine calibrated and tuned for operation on pure hydrogen to run on hydrogen/methane blends.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1464
Thomas Wallner, Stephen Ciatti, Bipin Bihari
In order to achieve the targets for hydrogen engines set by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - a brake thermal efficiency of 45% and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions below 0.07 g/mi - while maintaining the same power density as comparable gasoline engines, researchers need to investigate advanced mixture formation and combustion strategies for hydrogen internal combustion engines. Hydrogen direct injection is a very promising approach to meeting DOE targets; however, there are several challenges to be overcome in order to establish this technology as a viable pathway toward a sustainable hydrogen infrastructure. This paper describes the use of endoscopic imaging as a diagnostic tool that allows further insight into the processes that occur during hydrogen combustion. It also addresses recent progress in the development of advanced direct-injected hydrogen internal combustion engine concepts.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-2046
Henning Lohse-Busch, Thomas Wallner, Neeraj Shidore
As an energy carrier, hydrogen has the potential to deliver clean and renewable power for transportation. When powered by hydrogen, internal combustion engine technology may offer an attractive alternative to enable the transition to a hydrogen economy. Port-injected hydrogen engines generate extremely low emissions and offer high engine efficiencies if operated in a lean combustion strategy. This paper presents experimental data for different constant air/fuel ratio engine combustion strategies and introduces variable air/fuel ratio strategies for engine control. The paper also discusses the shift strategy to optimize fuel economy and contrasts the different engine control strategies in the conventional vehicle environment. The different strategies are evaluated on the urban driving cycle, then engine behaviors are explained and fuel economy is estimated. Finally, the paper projects the potential of hybridization and discusses trends in powertrain cycle efficiencies.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3430
Henning Lohse-Busch, Thomas Wallner, John Fleming
Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers. There are several challenges that must be overcome in order to establishing a “hydrogen economy”, including the development of a practical, efficient, and cost-effective power conversion device. Using hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a huge step toward developing a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. This paper summarizes the testing of a hydrogen powered pick-up truck on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle is powered by a port-injected 8-cylinder engine with an integrated supercharger and intercooler. The 4-wheel drive chassis dynamometer is equipped with a hydrogen delivery, metering and safety system as well as hydrogen specific instrumentation. This instrumentation includes numerous sensors, includes a wide-band lambda sensor and an exhaust gas hydrogen analyzer. This analyzer quantifies the amount of unburned hydrogen in the exhaust indicating the completeness of the combustion.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1785
Thomas Wallner, Abhijeet M. Nande, Jeffrey Naber
The favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) make it an excellent alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Hydrogen direct injection provides multiple degrees of freedom for engine optimization and influencing the in-cylinder combustion processes. This paper compares the results in the mixture formation and combustion behavior of a hydrogen direct-injected single-cylinder research engine using two different injector locations as well as various injector nozzle designs. For this study the research engine was equipped with a specially designed cylinder head that allows accommodating a hydrogen injector in a side location between the intake valves as well as in the center location adjacent to the spark plug.
2003-06-23
Technical Paper
2003-01-2267
Helmut Eichlseder, Thomas Wallner, Raymond Freymann, Jürgen Ringler
Focus is pointed on the highly favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) with regard to its combustion characteristics in internal combustion engines. Thereby it will be shown in how far the performance of next generation hydrogen engines can be improved by implementing a direct fuel injection system instead of the conventional port injection approach. Results from numerical as well as from experimental investigations will be used to clearly give a vision of the overall future potential of hydrogen for combustion engines in comparison to fuel cell systems.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0806
James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli, Ronald Reese, Asim Iqbal, Brad Boyer, Steven Wooldridge, Carrie Hall, Scott Miers
Abstract Interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel. Steady-state baseline tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped for port-fuel injection of gasoline and natural gas, as well as centrally mounted direct injection of natural gas.
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