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Viewing 1 to 30 of 53
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0061
Kai W. Beck, Fatih Sarikoc, Ulrich Spicher, Hans Van den Hoevel, Martin Duerrwaechter, Heribert Kammerstetter, Tim Gegg, Armin Kölmel
Unstable combustion and high cyclic variations of the in-cylinder pressure associated with low engine running smoothness and high emissions are mainly caused by cyclic variations of the fresh charge composition, the variability of the ignition and the fuel mass. These parameters affect the inflammation, the burn rate and thus the whole combustion process. In this paper, the effects of fluctuating fuel mass on the combustion behavior are shown. Small two-stroke engines require special measuring and testing equipment, especially for measuring the fuel consumption at very low fuel flow rates as well as very low fuel supply pressures. To realize a cycle-resolved measurement of the injected fuel mass, fuel consumption measurement with high resolution and high dynamic response is not enough for this application.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2109
Steffen Kuhnert, Uwe Wagner, Ulrich Spicher, Simon-Florian Haas, Klaus Gabel, Immanuel Kutschera
Diesel engines face difficult challenges with respect to engine-out emissions, efficiency and power density as the legal requirements concerning emissions and fuel consumption are constantly increasing. In general, for a diesel engine to achieve low raw emissions a well-mixed fuel-air mixture, burning at low combustion temperatures, is necessary. Highly premixed diesel combustion is a feasible way to reduce the smoke emissions to very low levels compared to conventional diesel combustion. In order to reach both, very low NOX and soot emissions, high rates of cooled EGR are necessary. With high rates of cooled EGR the NOX formation can be suppressed almost completely. This paper investigates to what extent the trade-off between emissions, fuel consumption and power of a diesel engine can be resolved by highly premixed and low temperature diesel combustion using injection nozzles with reduced injection hole diameters and high pressure fuel injection.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2271
Stephen Busch, Christian Disch, Heiko Kubach, Ulrich Spicher
Investigations of the fuel injection processes in a spark ignition direct injection engine have been performed for two different fuels. The goal of this research was to determine the differences between isooctane, which is often used as an alternative to gasoline for optical engine investigations, and a special, non-fluorescing, full boiling range multicomponent fuel. The apparent vaporization characteristics of isooctane and the multicomponent fuel were examined in homogeneous operating mode with direct injection during the intake stroke. To this end, simultaneous Mie scattering and planar laser induced fluorescence imaging experiments were performed in a transparent research engine. Both fuels were mixed with 3-Pentanone as a fluorescence tracer. A frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser was used as both the fluorescent excitation source and the light scattering source.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0600
Christophe Pfister, Soeren Bernhardt, Ulrich Spicher
Spray-guided gasoline direct injection demonstrates great potential to reduce both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, conventional materials used in high-pressure pumps wear severely under fuel injection pressures above 20 MPa as the lubricity and viscosity of gasoline are very low. The use of ceramic components promises to overcome these difficulties and to exploit the full benefits of spray-guided GDI-engines. As part of the Collaborative Research Centre “High performance sliding and friction systems based on advanced ceramics” at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, a single-piston high-pressure gasoline pump operating at up to 50 MPa has been designed. It consists of 2 fuel-lubricated sliding systems (piston/cylinder and cam/sliding shoe) that are built with ceramic parts. The pump is equipped with force, pressure and temperature sensors in order to assess the behaviour of several material pairs.
2013-10-15
Journal Article
2013-32-9143
Markus Bertsch, Kai W. Beck, Thomas Matousek, Ulrich Spicher
Small gasoline engines are used in motorcycles and handheld machinery, because of their high power density, low cost and compact design. The reduction of hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption is an important factor regarding the upcoming emission standards and operational expenses. The scavenging process of the two-stroke engine causes scavenging losses. A reduction in hydrocarbon emissions due to scavenging losses can be achieved through inner mixture formation using direct injection (DI). The time frame for fuel vaporization is limited using two-stroke SI engines by the high number of revolutions. A high pressure DI system was used to offer fast and accurate injections. An injection pressure of up to 140 MPa was provided by a common rail system, built out of components normally used in automotive engineering. A standard electromagnetic injector is applied for the fuel injection. This injection unit is dimensioned for multi-point injections in diesel engines.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1947
Markus Luft, Uwe Wagner, Ulrich Spicher, Fatih Sarikoc
Rapeseed oil can be a possible substitute for fossil fuel in Diesel engines. Due to different physical properties of rapeseed oil like higher viscosity and higher compressibility compared to diesel fuel, rapeseed oil cannot be easily used in conventional Diesel engines without modifications. Especially incomplete combustion leads to deposits in the combustion chamber and higher exhaust gas emissions. These unfavorable characteristics are caused primarily by insufficient mixture preparation. The adjustment of the injection system will improve the mixture preparation and the combustion of a Diesel engine, operated with rapeseed oil. The nozzle geometry is the main parameter of the whole injection system chain to realize a better combustion process and so higher efficiency and lower exhaust gas emissions.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3658
Volker Weng, Jörg Gindele, Georg Töpfer, Ulrich Spicher, Reinhard Latsch, Dieter Kuhnert
In this work a new concept for GDI engines is presented. Concerning a stable ignition a main goal of the so called Bowl-Pre-chamber-Ignition (BPI) process is to reduce the influence of varying flow and spray effects. The characteristic signs of the concept are the dual direct injection, a centrally arranged piston bowl and the special pre-chamber spark plug, that partly dips into the bowl at TDC. During that process most fuel is injected early (intake stroke) into the intake manifold or directly into the cylinder to form a homogeneous pre-mixture. Later in the compression stroke, only a small amount of fuel is injected into the piston bowl. So formed locally stratified charge mixture is transported by the piston bowl to the pre-chamber-spark plug, the pre-chamber dips into the bowl and the mixture flows directly to the spark plug electrode. The result is a very stable lean combustion.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3644
Gregor Rottenkolber, Klaus Dullenkopf, Sigmar Wittig, Armin Kölmel, Biao Feng, Ulrich Spicher
The focus of this work was to determine the influence of spray targeting on temperature distributions, combustion progress and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions at cold operating conditions, and to show the capability of model and full engine tests adapted for different measurement techniques. A comprehensive study applying endoscopic visualization, infrared thermography, combustion and emission measurements was carried out in a 4-stroke 4-cylinder 16-valve production engine with intake port injection during different engine operating conditions including injection angle and timing. In addition 2D visualization and PIV measurements were performed in a back-to-back model test section with good optical access to the intake manifold and the combustion chamber. The measurements in both set ups were in good agreement and show that model tests could lead to useful findings for a real engine.
2011-11-08
Journal Article
2011-32-0529
Markus Bertsch, Kai Schreer, Christian Disch, Kai W. Beck, Ulrich Spicher
The two-stroke SI engine remains the dominant concept for handheld power tools. Its main advantages are a good power-to-weight ratio, simple mechanical design and low production costs. Because of these reasons, the two-stroke SI engine will remain the dominant engine in such applications for the foreseeable future. Increasingly stringent exhaust emission laws, in conjunction with the drive for more efficiency, have made new scavenging and combustion processes necessary. The main foci are to reduce raw emissions of unburned hydrocarbons via intelligent guidance of the fresh air-fuel mixture and to improve performance to reduce specific emissions. The flow velocity in the electrode gap of the spark plug is of great interest for the ignition of the air-fuel-mixture and the early combustion phase of all kinds of SI engines. In these investigations, the flow velocity in the spark plug gap of a two-stroke gasoline engine with stratified scavenging was measured under various conditions.
2015-09-01
Journal Article
2015-01-1990
Christian Disch, Jürgen Pfeil, Heiko Kubach, Thomas Koch, Ulrich Spicher, Olaf Thiele
The investigation of transient engine operation plays a key role of the future challenges for individual mobility in terms of real driving emissions (RDE). A fundamental investigation of the transient engine operation requires the simultaneous application of measurement technologies for an integrated study of mixture formation, combustion process and emission formation. The major prerequisite is the combustion cycle and crank angle resolved analysis of the process for at least several individual consecutive combustion cycles during transient operation. The investigations are performed with a multi cylinder DISI engine at an Engine-in-the-Loop test bench, able to operate the engine in driving cycles as well as within target profiles (e.g. speed and torque profiles). The research project describes the methodology of analyzing elementary transient operational phases, (e.g. different variants of load steps).
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3688
Maurice Kettner, Markus Rothe, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher, Dieter Kuhnert, Reinhard Latsch
Engines with gasoline direct injection promise an increase in efficiency mainly due to the overall lean mixture and reduced pumping losses at part load. But the near stoichiometric combustion of the stratified mixture with high combustion temperature leads to high NOx emissions. The need for expensive lean NOx catalysts in combination with complex operation strategies may reduce the advantages in efficiency significantly. The Bowl-Prechamber-Ignition (BPI) concept with flame jet ignition was developed to ignite premixed lean mixtures in DISI engines. The mainly homogeneous lean mixture leads to low combustion temperatures and subsequently to low NOx emissions. By additional EGR a further reduction of the combustion temperature is achievable. The BPI concept is realized by a prechamber spark plug and a piston bowl. The main feature of the concept is its dual injection strategy.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3703
Uwe Wagner, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher
Different particulate filter systems with an electrical heating for starting the filter regeneration were designed and tested to evaluate the parameters important for a successful filter and heating device layout. These results led to a new filter system with an improved electrical heating module. Particular emphasis was put on a modular design which allows a separate optimization of the different system parts with regard to function, durability and costs. In this paper the different development steps are presented. Experimental results show the performance and limitations for electrically heated particulate traps. The analysis of the experiments was done on the one hand by using data such as temperatures, pressures and exhaust gas composition during the regeneration. On the other hand the assessment of the regeneration rate was done by weighing the filter and optically with non-destructive and partly destructive methods.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3684
Isabell Gilles-Birth, Sören Bernhardt, Ulrich Spicher, Manfred Rechs
For spark ignition engines, the most effective way to reduce the overall fuel consumption and CO2 emissions respectively is the implementation of gasoline direct injection technology. In comparison to the current wall and air guided systems, the direct injection system of the second generation - the spray guided DI- is the most promising one with respect to fuel economy and emission. In order to exploit its full potential, a thorough combustion process development regarding injector and spark plug design and their positioning within the combustion chamber is essential. Especially multihole injectors offer many degrees of freedom with regard to the nozzle shape and spray pattern. To reduce the development work and costs necessary to identify the ideal nozzle characteristic and spray pattern, reliable CFD models are necessary.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4016
Uwe Wagner, Sascha Merkel, Peter Eckert, Ulrich Spicher
In this study different methods to reduce the soot emissions of Diesel engines were investigated and compared to obtain their soot reduction potential. Apart from investigations on the practically usable engine map area with so called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion processes a new heterogeneous combustion processes was developed and investigated which offers significantly reduced soot emissions while still applicable in the entire engine map. For the HCCI experiments the emphasis was put on the achievable engine load range when using conventional injector nozzles which still allow a conventional heterogeneous engine operation.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0355
Christoph Dahnz, Kyung-Man Han, Ulrich Spicher, Max Magar, Robert Schiessl, Ulrich Maas
This paper presents the results of a study on reasons for the occurrence of pre-ignition in highly supercharged spark ignition engines. During the study, the phenomena to be taken into account were foremost structured into a decision tree according to their physical working principles. Using this decision tree all conceivable single mechanisms to be considered as reasons for pre-ignition could be derived. In order to judge each of them with respect to their ability to promote pre-ignition in a test engine, experimental investigations as well as numerical simulations were carried out. The interdependence between engine operating conditions and pre-ignition frequency was examined experimentally by varying specific parameters. Additionally, optical measurements using an UV sensitive high-speed camera system were performed to obtain information about the spatial distribution of pre-ignition origins and their progress.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0352
Amin Velji, Kitae Yeom, Uwe Wagner, Ulrich Spicher, Martin Rossbach, Rainer Suntz, Henning Bockhorn
In this work the formation and oxidation of soot inside a direct injection spark ignition engine at different injection and ignition timing was investigated. In order to get two-dimensional data during the expansion stroke, the RAYLIX-technique was applied in the combustion chamber of an optical accessible single cylinder engine. This technique is a combination of Rayleigh-scattering, laser-induced incandescence (LII) and extinction which enables simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved soot concentration, mean particle radii and number densities. These first investigations show that the most important source for soot formation during combustion are pool fires, i.e. liquid fuel burning on the top of the piston. These pool fires were observed under almost all experimental conditions.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0030
Kai W. Beck, Thomas Heidenreich, Steve Busch, Ulrich Spicher, Tim Gegg, Armin Kölmel
This paper demonstrates the potential of optical sensors in the combustion chamber of a small two-stroke SI engine to detect conditions that hinder an optimal combustion process using emission bands and/or emission lines. The primary focus is on the spectroscopic examination of the combustion radiation emissions cycle-by-cycle. For this purpose, spark-ignition type combustion events, as well as the influence of both the air-fuel-ratio and the fuel type, are investigated on a crank angle resolved basis. Furthermore, an assessment of the radiation emissions of the OH, CH and C2 radicals is made. As a next step, the calculation of a temperature profile inside the combustion chamber is attempted by means of the line-emission-method regarding the thermally excited alkaline metals sodium and potassium. These data enable recognition of diffusion combustion and the detection of inadequate mixture quality.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0013
Kai Schreer, Kai W. Beck, Sören Bernhardt, Ulrich Spicher, Werner Geyer, Stephan Meyer
The trend of higher specific power and increased volumetric efficiency leads to unwanted combustion phenomenon such as knocking, pre-ignition and self-ignition. For four-stroke engines, the literature reports that knocking depends, to a large extent, on the ignition angle, the degree of enrichment and the volumetric efficiency. In recent research, knock investigations in two-stroke engines have only been carried out to a limited extent. This paper discusses an investigation of the influence of various parameters on the knock characteristics of a small, high-speed, two-stroke SI engine. In particular, the degree of enrichment, the volumetric efficiency and the ignition timing serve as the parameters.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1770
Fatih Sarikoc, Sebastian Hensel, Kyung-Man Han, Heiko Kubach, Ulrich Spicher
Controlled Autoignition (CAI) is a very promising technology for simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and engine-out emissions [3, 4, 9, 16]. But the operating range of this combustion mode is limited on the one hand by high pressure gradients with the subsequent occurrence of knocking, increasing NOX-emissions and cyclic variations, and on the other hand by limited operating stability due to low mixture temperatures. At higher loads the required amount of internal EGR decrease to reach self-ignition conditions decrease and hence the influence of the ignition spark gain. The timing of the ignition spark highly influence the combustion process at higher loads. With the ignition spark, pre-reactions are initialized with a defined heat release. Thus the location of inflammation and flame propagation can be strongly influenced and cyclic variations at higher loads can be reduced.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1804
Sebastian Hensel, Fatih Sarikoc, Florian Schumann, Heiko Kubach, Ulrich Spicher
In this work, heat loss was investigated in two different HCCI single cylinder engines. Thermocouples were adapted to the surfaces of the cylinder heads and the temperature oscillations were detected in a wide range of the engine operation conditions. The local heat transfer is analyzed with port fuel and direct injection, for different engine parameters and operating points. It is shown that the spatially averaged measured heat loss in HCCI operation represents the global heat loss well. The spatial variations are small in the operation map presuming stable operating points with low cyclic variations and good engine performance. Furthermore, the heat loss measured in HCCI operation is compared to the heat loss detected in homogeneous and stratified DI-SI operation in the same engine. It is shown that the local heat losses in stratified DI-SI operation show large variations, depending on the direction of the flame propagation.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0129
Sebastian Hensel, Fatih Sarikoc, Florian Schumann, Heiko Kubach, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher
In this work, heat loss was investigated in two different HCCI single cylinder engines. Thermocouples were adapted to the surfaces of the cylinder heads and the temperature oscillations were detected in a wide range of the engine operation maps. The resultant heat transfer profiles were compared to the heat losses predicted by existing models. As major discrepancies were stated, a new phenomenological model was developed that is well-manageable and describes the heat loss in HCCI mode more precisely than existing models. To analyze the insulating effect of deposits, the heat transfer equation was solved analytically by an approach that allows consideration of multiple layers with different material properties and thickness. This approach was used for the first time in conjunction with engines to calculate the heat flux at the surface of deposits and the deposit thickness.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0060
Kai Beck, Kai Schreer, Soeren Bernhardt, Ulrich Spicher, Heiko Rosskamp, Tim Gegg
When developing effective exhaust emission reduction measures, a better understanding of the complex working cycle in crankcase scavenged two-stroke gasoline engines. However, in a two-stroke gasoline engine detailed measurement and analysis of combustion data requires significantly more effort, when compared to a lower speed four-stroke engine. Particularly demanding are the requirements regarding the high speed (>10,000 rpm) which inevitably goes along with heavy vibrations and high temperatures of the air cooled cylinders. Another major challenge to the measuring equipment is the increased cleaning demand of the optical sensor surface due to the two-stroke gasoline mixture. In addition, the measuring equipment has to be adapted to the small size engines. Therefore, only a fiber optical approach can deliver insight into the cylinder for analyzing the combustion performance.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0062
Nataliya Hunzinger, Markus Rothe, Ulrich Spicher, Tim Gegg, Martin Rieber, Axel Klimmek, Andreas Jäger
The paper presents an application of a quasi-dimensional (QD) model for the combustion simulation in a two-stroke engine. In contrast to 0D-models the QD-models provide an opportunity to describe the development of the combustion process in dependence on the actual thermodynamic state in the combustion chamber. The QD-models enable to couple the flame propagation with the combustion chamber geometry and with the flow field. An extensive sensitivity analysis is performed for the QD-model by varying the parameters of the QD-model itself and of the operating points. The constructed QD-model is examined under various conditions (engine speed, the delivery ratio and the air to fuel ratio) and shows a good agreement with experimental results.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3377
Werner Sauter, Jürgen Pfeil, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher, Nils Laudenbach, Frank Altenschmidt, Uwe Schaupp
The hollow cone spray from a high pressure outward opening nozzle was investigated inside a pressure vessel by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The flow velocities of the air outside the spray were measured via PIV in combination with fluorescent seeding particles and optical filters. The high pressure piezo electric injector has an annular nozzle to provide a hollow cone spray with an angle of about 90°. During injection a very strong and stable vortex structure is induced by the fuel spray. Besides the general spray/air interaction, the investigation of double and triple fuel injections was the main focus of this study.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2154
Markus Stumpf, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher, Beate Jungfleisch, Rainer Suntz, Henning Bockhorn
In this work the influence of various engine load changes with different engine speeds on the soot particle concentrations and properties was investigated because these operating modes are well known for short but high soot emissions. To derive specific information on emission behavior of particle matters tests were carried out with the Two-Color-Method and the so called RAYLIX technique in a four-cylinder CR-Diesel engine. The Two-Color-Method (2CM) gives crank angle resolved information about soot formation and oxidation processes inside the combustion chamber of a single cylinder. The RAYLIX technique is a combination of Rayleigh-scattering, Laser-Induced-Incandescence (LII) and extinction measurements which enable simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved soot concentration, mean primary particle radii and number densities in the exhaust gas manifold of the same cylinder investigated by the Two-Color-Method.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2103
Jan Patrick Häntsche, Günter Krause, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher
Modern direct injection spark ignition engines (DISI-engines) require increasing fuel-injection-pressures in order to accelerate mixture preparation. Therein the fuel-pump is an essential component. Non-conventional materials offer a high potential to realize high pressure combined with low wear and friction. An exemplary high pressure fuel pump was developed in order to evaluate the use of different combinations of ceramic materials and steel as sliding parts. Forces and friction coefficients can be retrieved as a function of the crank angle in the sliding contacts. The leakage in the gap between cylinder and piston was analyzed and an analytical model was developed. Important effects of clearance, stroke frequency and surface roughness on forces and friction coefficients are presented for different combinations of materials and fuels.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2922
Heiko Kubach, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher, Wolfgang Fischer
Contemporary diesel engines are high-tech power plants that provide high torques at very good levels of efficiency. By means of modern injecting-systems such as Common-Rail Injection, combustion noise and emissions could be influenced positively as well. Diesel engine are therefore used increasingly in top-range and sports cars. Today's production ECUs have no or only very low feedback regarding the process in the combustion chamber. As long as this data is missing, the design of the maps in the ECU can only be a compromise, since production tolerances and aging processes have to be considered in advance. Disturbances in the combustion process may not be detected at all. If more knowledge about the course of combustion is provided, especially the start of combustion (SOC), various operating parameters, such as the pilot injection quantity or the beginning of current feed to the injector, could be adjusted more precisely and individually for every cylinder.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-2031
Markus Lüft, Sören Bernhardt, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher
Natural vegetable oil like rape seed oil is a potential substitute for regular fuel for diesel engines. Compared to other biogen fuels like rape seed methyl ester (RME), pure rape seed oil is neutral towards groundwater and it needs considerably less energy and additives for production. Different physical properties of rape seed oil compared to Diesel fuel are the reason why conventional Diesel engines can hardly be used satisfactorily with rape seed oil without being modified. Poor exhaust-emission behavior is caused by the incomplete combustion. Due to poor spray atomization of vegetable oil, an increased fuel entrainment in the lubricating oil, carbonization in the combustion chamber and deposits at injectors and valves are further drawbacks of injection systems designed for conventional diesel fuel. The preheating of this fuel can solve some problems.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1261
Fatih Sarikoc, Maurice Kettner, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher, Alina Krause, Alfred Elsaesser
In this paper, results of experimental and numerical investigations of stratified exhaust gas recirculation in a single-cylinder gasoline engine are presented. The engine was operated in spray guided direct injection mode. The radial exhaust gas stratification was achieved by a spatial and temporal separated intake of exhaust gas and fresh air. The spatial separation of both fluids was realized by specially shaped baffles in the inlet ports, which prevent an early mixing up to the inlet valves. The temporally separation was performed by impulse charge valves, with one for the fresh air and one for the exhaust gas. From various possible strategies for time-dependent intake of fresh air and exhaust gas, four different strategies for the exhaust gas stratification were examined.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3315
Kyung-Man Han, Amin Velji, Ulrich Spicher
This paper introduces a new measuring and analyzing method for the investigation of the spatial flame propagation in IC engines. Three optical high-speed measuring devices are connected and synchronized in order to detect the flame radiation from different perspectives via fiberoptical endoscopes. The resulting two-dimensional images provide a starting basis for the subsequent reconstruction of the three-dimensional flame geometry. The reconstruction is carried out by a newly developed software tool. The capability of the new methodology has been proven in a first test series. A one-cylinder SI engine with direct-injection is operated in both homogeneous and spray-guided stratified injection mode. Intake flow conditions and air/fuel ratio are varied in order to investigate the effects on flame spread. The volumetric flame developments are analyzed as well as the location of the combustion center in absolute coordinates.
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