Viewing 1 to 30 of 60
Technical Paper
Hideaki Osada, Yuzo Aoyagi, Kazuaki Shimada, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
For reducing NOx emissions, EGR is effective, but an excessive EGR rate causes the deterioration of smoke emission. Here, we have defined the EGR rate before the smoke emission deterioration while the EGR rate is increasing as the limiting EGR rate. In this study, the high rate of EGR is demonstrated to reduce BSNOx. The adapted methods are a high fuel injection pressure such as 200 MPa, a high boost pressure as 451.3 kPa at 2 MPa BMEP, and the air intake port that maintains a high air flow rate so as to achieve low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, for withstanding 2 MPa BMEP of engine load and high boosting, a ductile cast iron (FCD) piston was used. As the final effect, the installations of the new air intake port increased the limiting EGR rate by 5%, and fuel injection pressure of 200 MPa raised the limiting EGR rate by an additional 5%. By the demonstration of increasing boost pressure to 450 kPa from 400 kPa, the limiting EGR rate was achieved to 50%.
Technical Paper
Daisuke Kawano, Hiroyoshi Naito, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Shigeo Hori, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions from diesel engine. In general, high octane number and volatility fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because very lean mixture must be formed during ignition delay of the fuel. However, it is necessary to improve fuel injection systems, when these fuels are used in diesel engine. The purpose of the present study is the achievement of HCCI combustion in DI diesel engine without the large-scale improvements of engine components. Various high octane number fuels are mixed with diesel fuel as a base fuel, and the mixed fuels are directly applied to DI diesel engine. At first, the cylinder pressure and heat release rate of each mixed fuel are analyzed. The ignition delay of HCCI operation decreases with an increase in the operation load, although that of conventional diesel operation does not almost varied.
Technical Paper
Yuichi Goto, Jinha Lee, Terunao Kawai, Matsuo Odaka
The regulation of particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines is coming to be very stringent at present. The usage of diesel particulate filter (DPF) is now under consideration in many heavy-duty diesel vehicle manufacturers to reduce PM emission from a diesel engine. The possibility that very fine particles may pass through DPF is suggested. The understanding of fine particles emission behaviors and the countermeasure of reducing particle emissions from DPF will come to be important in near future. The behavior of particle size distribution after DPF has not been studied enough yet. In this study, fine particles generated by a diesel engine are introduced to honeycomb type and SiC (Silicon Carbite) fiber type DPFs and the collection performances of fine particles by various DPFs with different surface structures have been examined.
Technical Paper
Terunao Kawai, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
Recently, particulate matter (PM) emission from internal combustion engines, especially particles having the diameter of less than 100 nm (Nano-particles) are being considered for their potential hazards posed to human health and the environment. Nano-particles are unstable and easily influenced by the conditions of engine operation and measurement techniques. In this study, the influences of cooling and dilution processes on nano- particles are presented to understand the generation and dilution mechanisms, and to further development of an accurate measurement method. It is found that the thermo-dilurter is necessary for measuring the nano-particles with higher accuracy. Accurate measurement of nano-particles requires immediate dilution of the exhaust gases by hot air.
Technical Paper
Kimitaka Yamane, Mai Nogami, Yukio Umemura, Masakuni Oikawa, Yoshio Sato, Yuichi Goto
Key requirements of engines for vehicles are large output power and high efficiency, low emission as well as small size and light weight. Hydrogen combustion engines with direct injection have the characteristics to meet these factors. Tokyo City University, former Musashi Institute of Technology, has studied hydrogen fueled engines with direct injection since 1971. The key technology in the development of hydrogen fueled engines is the hydrogen injector for direct injection with the features such as high injection rate, high response and no hydrogen gas leakage from the needle valve of the hydrogen injector. A common-rail type system to actuate the needle valves of the high pressure hydrogen injectors was intentionally applied to fulfill good performances such as large injection rate, high response and no hydrogen gas leakage.
Technical Paper
Norifumi Mizushima, Daisuke Kawano, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Hiroki Arai
The use of biofuel is essential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. This paper highlights the use of biodiesel as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emission from the diesel engine of heavy-duty vehicles. Biodiesel is fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) obtained through ester exchange reaction by adding methanol to oil, such as rapeseed oil, soybean oil, palm oil, etc. The CO₂ emission from combustion of biodiesel is defined to be equivalent to the CO₂ volume absorbed by its raw materials or plants in their course of growth. On the other hand, however, biodiesel is known to increase the NOx emission when compared with operating with conventional diesel fuel, then suppressing this increase is regarded as a critical issue. This study is intended to identify the fuel properties of biodiesel free from increase in the NOx emission.
Technical Paper
Masayuki Kobayashi, Yuzo Aoyagi, Takayuki Adachi, Tetsuya Murayama, Munemasa Hashimoto, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC was studied for high pressure, wide range, and high EGR rates in a Super-clean Diesel six-cylinder heavy duty engine. The GVW 25-ton vehicle has 10.52 L engine displacement, with maximum power of 300 kW and maximum torque of 1842 Nm. The engine is equipped with high-pressure fuel injection of a 200 MPa level common-rail system. A variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) was newly designed. The maximum pressure ratio of the compressor is about twice that of the previous design: 2.5. Additionally, wide range and a high EGR rate are achieved by high pressure-loop EGR (HP-EGR) and low pressure-loop EGR (LP-EGR) with described VGT and high-pressure fuel injection. The HP-EGR can reduce NOx concentrations in the exhaust pipe, but the high EGR rate worsens smoke. The HP-EGR system layout has an important shortcoming: it has great differences of the intake EGR gas amount into each cylinder, worsens smoke.
Technical Paper
Daisuke Kawano, Norifumi Mizushima, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Koichiro Iwasa
The application of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for petroleum diesel fuel is very effective for the reduction of CO₂ emission, because biodiesel is produced from renewable biomass resources. In Japan, neat biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil has often been applied to commercial vehicles. However, it is possible that the difference of fuel properties between conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel causes the problems on exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engine. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effect of biodiesel fuelling on exhaust emissions from commercial vehicles. Light-duty garbage trucks and heavy-duty diesel buses which were actually fueled with biodiesel in Kyoto, Japan, were used for test vehicles in this study. The exhaust emissions from these vehicles during JE05 mode tests were compared between biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil and conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
Tetsuya Murayama, Yuzo Aoyagi, Masayuki kobayashi, Takayuki Adachi, Kazuaki Shimada, Hisakazu Suzuki, Yuichi Goto, Yoshio Sato
Lean NOx trap (LNT) and Urea-SCR system are effective aftertreatment systems as NOx reduction device in diesel engines. On the other hand, DPF has already been developed as PM reduction device and it has been used in various vehicles. LNT can absorb and reduce NOx emission in wide range exhaust temperatures, from 150°C to 400°C, and the size of LNT component can be compact in comparison with Urea-SCR system because LNT uses the diesel fuel as a reducing agent and it is needless to install the reducing agent tank in the vehicle. In this study, authors have shown that the NOx conversion rate of LNT is high in the case of extremely low NOx concentration from the engine. Also, the effects of LNT and DPF were examined using the Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine, which has low NOx level before aftertreatment and has been finished as Japanese national project.
Technical Paper
Rahman M. Montajir, Terunao Kawai, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
Conditioning of diluted exhaust gas by Thermo-Conditioner prior to measurement has been proposed by the GRPE/PMP Research Council of the United Nation in order to achieve stability in nano-particle measurement. In this study the effect of thermo-conditioner on the thermo-physical behavior of nano-particle under different conditions have been clarified. Stability in measurement was also attempted depending on the characteristics of nano-particles. Quality of the raw exhaust gas, the dilution ratio and temperature, and the thermal conditioning temperature were considered as the main parameters. Exhaust gas from a medium duty DI diesel engine was used for analysis. Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer was used for measuring the concentration of nano-particles. It was concluded that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles within the size range of 15∼30 nm are significantly influenced by the thermal conditioning temperature.
Technical Paper
Yuichi Goto
As alternatives to heavy-duty vehicles, this project seeks to promote the development of Next-Generation EFVs, which will present a solution to the severe air pollution problem particularly in big cities, and drastically improve exhaust gas emissions and reduce carbon dioxide emissions in order to lessen the contribution to global warming. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) started the Next-Generation Environmentally Friendly Vehicles Development and Commercialization Project in 2002. MLIT at that time entrusted this project to National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (NTSEL). NTSEL as a core research organization organized a cooperative system with automobile manufacturers, suppliers, universities, academic experts, that is to say, “industry-academic-government” and launched the development activities.
Technical Paper
Kenichiroh Koshika, Nobuya Iwami, Takayuki Ichikawa, Hisakazu Suzuki, Toshiro Yamamoto, Yuichi Goto, Masakazu Iwamoto
Abstract Degradation of the deNOx performance has been found in in-use heavy-duty vehicles with a urea-SCR system in Japan. The causes of the degradation were studied, and two major reasons are suggested here: HC poisoning and deactivation of pre-oxidation catalysts. Hydrocarbons that accumulated on the catalysts inhibited the catalysis. Although they were easily removed by a simple heat treatment, the treatment could only partially recover the original catalytic performance for the deNOx reaction. The unrecovered catalytic activity was found to result from the decrease in conversion of NO to NO2 on the pre-oxidation catalyst. The pre-oxidation catalyst was thus studied in detail by various techniques to reveal the causes of the degradation: Exhaust emission tests for in-use vehicles, effect of heat treatment on the urea-SCR systems, structural changes and chemical changes in active components during the deactivation were systematically investigated.
Technical Paper
Toshio Shudo, Atsushi Fujibe, Motoharu Kazahaya, Yuzo Aoyagi, Ishii Hajime, Yuichi Goto, Akira Noda
The purpose of this study is to improve low-temperature flow-properties of biodiesel fuels (BDF) by blending with ethanol and to analyze the combustion characteristics in a diesel engine fueled with BDF/ethanol blended fuel. Because ethanol has a lower solidifying temperature, higher oxygen content, lower cetane number, and higher volatility than BDF, ethanol blending would have a large effect on cold flow performance, mixture formation, ignition, combustion, and exhaust emissions. The engine experiments in the study were performed with a diesel engine and blends of BDF and ethanol at different blending ratios. The cold flow performance of the blended fuels was evaluated by determining the fuel cloud point. The experimental results show that the ethanol blending lowers the cloud point of the blended fuel and significantly reduces smoke emissions from the engine without deteriorating other emissions or thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper
Daisuke Kawano, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Akira Noda, Yuzo Aoyagi
Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because bio-diesel is carbon neutral in principle. However, when biodiesel was applied to conventional diesel engines without modification for biodiesel, NOx emission was increased by the change in fuel characteristics. It is necessary to introduce some strategies into diesel engines fuelled with biodiesel for lower NOx emission than conventional diesel fuel case. The purpose of this study is to reveal that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the solutions for the reduction of NOx emission and meeting the future emission regulations when using biodiesel. Neat Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) as a biodiesel (B100) was applied to diesel engines equipped with high pressure loop (HPL) EGR system and low pressure loop (LPL) EGR system. Cooled HPL EGR was increased during steady-state operations and JE05 transient mode tests.
Technical Paper
Hajime Ishii, Hisakazu Suzuki, Shigeo Hori, Yuichi Goto
In order to discuss future technical issues for urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system, it is necessary to assess various technical possibilities that would be applied to urea SCR systems which is capable of complying with future emission level requirements, for example Japanese 2009 emission regulation. In this paper, three measures (enhanced insulation on a DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), aggressive urea solution injection and idling stop) are installed on a urea SCR system of a commercial engine system in order to achieve further NOx (nitrogen oxide) reductions. With combination of these three measures, NOx is drastically reduced to the levels lower than 0.7 g/kWh, which is a NOx limit value of the Japanese 2009 emission regulation. NH3 (ammonia) and HCN (hydro cyanide) are also measured as unregulated harmful components.
Technical Paper
Kentaro Misawa, Shun-ichi Ishiuchi, Masaaki Fujii, Jun Matsumoto, Koichi Tanaka, Jun Nakagawa, Katsumi Endo, Shun-ichi Hayashi, Kotaro Tanaka, HiroYuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto
Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
Journal Article
Yuichi GOTO, Daisuke KAWANO, Koji SATO, Kentaro ECHIGO
The investigation of vehicle performances under on-road conditions has been required for emission reduction and energy saving in the real world. In this study, Real Car Simulation Bench (RC-S) was developed as an instrument for actual vehicle bench tests under on-road driving conditions, which could not be performed by using conventional chassis dynamometer (CH-DY). The experimental results obtained by RC-S were compared with the on-road driving data on the same car as used in RC-S tests. As a result, it was confirmed that RC-S could accurately reproduce the behavior of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions under on-road driving conditions.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Adachi, Yuzo Aoyagi, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tetsuya Murayama, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper
Daisuke Kawano, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, Jiro Senda
Flash-boiling occurs when a fuel is injected to a combustion chamber where the ambient pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel. It has been known that flashing is a favorable mechanism for atomizing liquid fuels. On the other hand, alternative fuels, such as gaseous fuels and oxygenated fuels, are used to achieve low exhaust emissions in recent years. In general, most of these alternative fuels have high volatility and flash-boiling takes place easily in fuel spray, when they are injected into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine under high pressure. In addition, fuel design concept the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels has been proposed in the previous study in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. It is found that the multicomponent fuel produce flash-boiling with an increase in the initial fuel temperature.
Technical Paper
Kotaro Tanaka, Keitaro Watanabe, Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto, Kentaro Misawa, Jun Matsumoto, Shunichi Ishiuchi, Masaaki Fujii, Koichi Tanaka, Jun Nakagawa, Katsumi Endo, Shunichi Hayashi
A simple real-time measurement system for the components of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in automobile exhaust gas using a laser ionization method was developed. This method was used to detect VOCs and PAHs in the exhaust gas of a diesel truck while idling, at 60 km/h, and in the Japanese driving mode JE05. As a result, various VOCs and PAHs, such as xylene and naphthalene, were simultaneously detected, and real-time changes in their concentration were obtained at 1 s intervals.
Technical Paper
Daisuke Kawano, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto
The use of biodiesel fuels as an alternative fuel for petroleum diesel fuel is very effective for the reduction of CO2 emission, because biodiesel is produced from renewable biomass resources. Biodiesel is usually blended to conventional diesel fuel in various proportions. It is possible that this biodiesel blending causes the problems on emission characteristics of modern diesel engine, because it could be confirmed that the application of neat biodiesel to modern diesel engines whose control parameters were optimized for conventional diesel fuel deteriorated the emission performances. It is necessary to clarify the effect of biodiesel blending on exhaust emissions of modern diesel engine. Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was selected as a biodiesel used in this study.
Journal Article
Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto
Repeatabilities of PM measurements on a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) using a filter weighing method and a number counting method with a full flow dilution system and a partial flow system were evaluated. The filter method with partial flow exhibited the best repeatability. However, a good correlation between the full flow and the partial flow number counting results suggests that the fluctuations observed using the number counting method were caused by changes in the engine exhaust. Applying a strict preconditioning procedure should improve the repeatability of the number counting method because this method is more sensitive than the filter weighing method. In addition, the effects of the specifications for the number counting method were evaluated. The results indicate that the hose length from the tip of the sampling probe to the inlet of the number counting system had a negligible effect.
Technical Paper
Kotaro Suzaki, Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto
The formation pathway for poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied by not only fundamental chemists but also motor engineers due to the formation of nanoparticle precursors and soot in vehicle emissions. In this study, the formation process of up to triple-ring PAHs was investigated using a flow tube reactor. The gaseous products from the pyrolysis of benzene were analyzed by using GC-MS in the temperature range of 850 - 1277 K and pressure range of 50 - 760 mmHg. We found that PAH products formed at temperatures greater than 1050 K, and the formation process was pressure dependent.
Technical Paper
Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto
The Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) formation process from benzene was studied using a laminar flow reactor and GC-MS. In addition to PAH, acetylene and ethylene were observed. Without oxygen at temperatures over 1070 K, the amount of PAH and C2 species increased as the benzene concentration decreased. Addition of oxygen caused a linear decrease in the benzene concentration, and almost all of the benzene was consumed under stoichiometric conditions at all temperatures. At 1053 K, the concentrations of PAH and C2 species were not affected by the addition of oxygen. On the other hand, when the temperature was greater than 1070 K, the amount of PAH formed increased as the equivalence ratio increased, until the equivalence ratio was about 4. Above this equivalence ratio, the amounts decreased. Amounts of phenanthrene and biphenyl were large compared to those of other PAHs, which indicated that the dominant PAH formation path is the formation of phenanthrene via biphenyl.
Technical Paper
Hideaki Osada, Yuzo Aoyagi, Kazuaki Shimada, Kenichi Akiyama, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
The engine in the research is a single cylinder DI diesel using the emission reduction techniques such as high boost, high injection pressure and broad range and high quantity of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The study especially focuses on the reduction of particulate matter (PM) under the engine operating conditions. In the experiment the authors measured engine performance, exhaust gases and mass of PM by low sulfur fuel such as 3 ppm and low sulfur lubricant oil such as 0.26%. Then the PM components were divided into soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble organic fraction (ISOF) and they were measured at each engine condition. The mass of SOF was measured from the fuel fraction and lubricant oil fraction by gas chromatography. Also each mass of soot fraction and sulfate fraction was measured as components of ISOF. The experiment was conducted at BMEP = 2.0 MPa as full load condition of the engine and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40 %.
Technical Paper
Yoshio Tonegawa, Makoto Oguchi, Kenji Tsuchiya, Sousuke Sasaki, Takahiko Ohashi, Yuichi Goto
A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
Technical Paper
Rahman M. Montajir, Terunao Kawai, Hiroyoshi Naito, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
In the previous study design of two-component normal paraffin fuel was attempted considering the components and blending ratio. Only the thermodynamic analysis of combustion and analysis of emission characteristics were performed to evaluate the design performance. In this study mixture formation behavior and combustion phenomena of pure and mixed n-paraffin fuels were investigated by direct visualization in an AVL engine with bottom view piston. The experiments included laser-illuminated high-speed photography of the fuel injection phase and combustion phase to investigate physical differences. The results obtained for the proposed fuels are compared with the results of conventional diesel fuel. It was found that the two component normal paraffin fuels with similar thermo physical properties have very similar spray development pattern but evaporation rates are different.
Technical Paper
Daisuke Kawano, Terunao Kawai, Hiroyoshi Naito, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, William D. Bachalo
Particulate Matter (PM) from diesel engines is thought to be seriously hazardous for human health. Generally, it is said that the hazard depends on the total number and surface area of particles rather than total mass of PM. In the conventional gravimetric method, only the total mass of PM is measured. Therefore, it is very important to measure not only the mass of PM but also size and number density of particulates. Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) is a useful diagnostic for transient measurement of soot particulate volume fraction and primary particle size. On the other hand, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) is also used to measure the size distribution of soot aggregate particulates at a steady state condition. However, the measurement processes and the phenomena used to acquire the information on soot particulate are quite different between the LII and SMPS methods. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the detailed characteristics of both LII and SMPS.
Technical Paper
Yuichi Goto, Terunao Kawai
A new PM measurement method, such as particle measurement equipments, samplings and so on, is being studied at present for a type approval test in the future. Particles emitted from diesel engines, especially the particles that are called “Nuclei Mode Particles” are very unstable and easily influenced by the engine operating conditions and the measurement conditions. Most of nuclei mode particles are said to consist of volatile organic particles with mainly high carbon numbers. It is said that a continuous regenerative type DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) consisting of oxidation catalyst and ceramic filter will prevail in the near future. These particles may be able to be reduced by an oxidation catalyst in this DPF.
Technical Paper
Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, Yutaka Murata, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
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