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Viewing 1 to 30 of 48
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0721
Lingyang Li, Yunqing Zhang, Shiwei Wu, Liping Chen
Elastomeric bushings are widely used in the passenger cars to make the cars have an ideal vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance. However, elastomeric bushings also influence on the vehicle handling, ride and the durability performance of each component in the vehicle suspension system. It is relatively easy and cost effective to change the compliance of the bushing components compared with other method because they are made of elastomeric materials. The design of an elastomeric bushing is really a big challenge. One of the main difficulties comes from the different target compliance is wanted according to the handling, ride and durability demand at each different orientation (indicated by X Y Z) of the bushing. In this paper the following procedure was used for optimization of suspension elastomeric bushing compliance. Firstly, a detailed multi-body model was built including the nonlinear bushing effects and lower control arm flexibility.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0720
Xingxing Feng, Jinglai Wu, Yunqing Zhang, Ming Jiang
Abstract Vehicle systems often operate with some degree of uncertainty. This study applies the Chebyshev interval method to model vehicle dynamic systems operating in the presence of interval parameters. A full vehicle model is used as the numerical model and the methodology is illustrated on the steering wheel angle pulse input test. In the numerical simulation, suspension stiffness coefficients and suspension damping coefficients are chosen as interval parameters and lateral acceleration and yaw rate are chosen to capture vehicle dynamic characteristics. System responses in time domain are validated against Monte Carlo simulations and against the scanning approach. Results indicate that the Chebyshev interval method is more efficient than Monte Carlo simulations. The results of scanning method are similar to the ones obtained with the Chebyshev interval method.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1237
Ming Jiang, Wei Chen, Yunqing Zhang, Liping Chen
The automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) was designed by automobile manufacturers to provide a better driving experience, especially in cities where congestion frequently causes stop-and-go traffic patterns. It uses electronic sensors, processors, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators execute clutch actuation and gear shifts on the command of the driver. Such systems coupled with various physical domains have great influence on the dynamic behavior of the vehicle, such as shift quality, driveability, acceleration, etc. This paper presents a detailed AMT model composed of various components from multi-domains like mechanical systems (clutch, gear pair, synchronizer, etc.), pneumatic actuator systems (clutch actuation system, gear select actuation system, gear shift actuation system, etc.). Various components and subsystem models, such as the vehicle, engine, AMT, wheels, etc., are integrated into an overall vehicle system model according to the transmission power flow and control logic.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0905
Pengfei Chen, Yunqing Zhang, Gang Qin, Jinglai Wu
One of the most important vibration isolators in vehicles is the powertrain mounting system (PMS). It transmits the powertrain vibrations to the body, and the chassis vibrations excited by road to the powertrain. The design of a PMS is an essential part in vehicle safety and in improving the vehicle noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performances. Many organizations are increasingly relying on design simulation rather than trail-and-error based experiments which are expensive and time-consuming for PMS evaluation. However, design parameters for PMS are always uncertain in actual cases due to tolerances in manufacturing and assembly processes. In this paper, based on a front wheel drive vehicle with a transversely four-cylinder engine, the uncertain characteristics of PMS are studied by interval analysis method.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0912
Jinglai Wu, Yunqing Zhang, Pengfei Chen, Liping Chen
To solve the dynamic response problem that contains uncertain parameters needs, the stochastic differential equations needs to be calculated. Interval analysis has been widely used to solve engineering problems which contain many uncertain parameters usually. But the numerical solution method for stochastic differential equations based on the interval analysis method was seldom investigated. In this study a new numerical interval method for the stochastic differential equations based on the Euler's method is presented, which can be used to solve the linear system effectively and efficiently. The probabilistic and interval dynamics analysis of a two-degree-of-freedom bike car model with uncertain parameters are presented.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0913
Xuefeng Jiang, Ping He, Yunqing Zhang, Wei Chen, Liping Chen
Hydraulic systems are popular on vehicles, such as power steering, shock absorbers, brakes, etc. Many previously works have been done on the modeling and simulation of the hydraulic systems. However, these models and parameters are usually established on the basis of plans, drawings, measurements, observations, experiences, expert knowledge and standards, and so on. In general, certain information and precise values do not exist. Uncertainty may result, e.g., from human mistakes and errors in the manufacture, from the use and maintenance of constructions, from expert evaluations, and from a lack of information. Actually, many uncertain factors will lead to great errors, and may have great effect on the hydraulic system, so the research on the hydraulic system under uncertainties is very necessary. In this paper, fuzzy algorithm is introduced to analysis the response of the hydraulic system with uncertain parameters.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0271
Ying Sun, Wei Chen, Yunqing Zhang, Liping Chen
Hydraulic power steering system, which can reduce the steering hand force by applying the output from a hydraulic actuator, has been widely used in vehicles. In this paper, a detailed steer model including steering column, steering trapezium, and detailed hydraulic power steering system which is consisting of steering cylinder, relief valve, rotary valve, pump and hydraulic lines were established, and a multi-body model of a heavy truck was established to connect with the hydraulic power steering system. Modelica simulation language, which can be efficiently used to investigate multi-domain problems, was used to in the modeling and simulation of the power steering system and the vehicle. The simulation was carried out to identify the effects of design variables on the lateral stability of the vehicle. The application of Modelica for investigating multi-domain problems is also demonstrated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0433
Zeyu Ma, James Yang, Ming Jiang, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract A new recursive method is presented for real-time estimating the inertia parameters of a vehicle using the well-known Two-Degree-of- Freedom (2DOF) bicycle car model. The parameter estimation is built on the framework of polynomial chaos theory and maximum likelihood estimation. Then the most likely value of both the mass and yaw mass moment of inertia can be obtained based on the numerical simulations of yaw velocity by Newton method. To improve the estimation accuracy, the Newton method is modified by employing the acceptance probability to escape from the local minima during the estimation process. The results of the simulation study suggest that the proposed method can provide quick convergence speed and accurate outputs together with less sensitivity to tuning the initial values of the unidentified parameters.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0432
Xingxing Feng, Jinglai Wu, Yunqing Zhang, Ming Jiang
Abstract The optimization of vehicle suspension kinematic/compliance characteristics is of significant importance in the chassis development. Practical suspension system contains many uncertainties which may result from poorly known or variable parameters or from uncertain inputs. However, in most suspension optimization processes these uncertainties are not accounted for. This study explores the use of Chebyshev polynomials to model complex nonlinear suspension systems with interval uncertainties. In the suspension model, several kinematic and compliance characteristics are considered as objectives to be optimized. Suspension bushing characteristics are considered as design variables as well as uncertain parameters. A high-order response surface model using the zeros of Chebyshev polynomials as sampling points is established to approximate the suspension kinematic/compliance model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0609
Yan Xie, Weiguo Zhang, Xingxing Feng, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Powertrain mounting system (PMS) often operates with some degrees of uncertainty. These uncertainties may result from poorly known or variable parameters such as mount stiffness, or from uncertain inputs. For realistic predictions of the system behavior, the PMS models have to account for these uncertainties. To this end, the Chebyshev interval method is applied to study the uncertain characteristics of PMS. In the PMS, the location and orientation of each mount are off-design variables due to the space limitation of the powertrain. The stiffness coefficients of the mounts are considered as interval variables. The lower bounds and upper bounds of natural frequencies and the mode kinetic energy distributions of PMS are obtained using the Chebyshev interval analysis method. As a comparison, the scanning method is used to validate the interval method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0608
Gang Tang, Hengjia Zhu, Yunqing Zhang, Ying Sun
Abstract The vehicle ride comfort behavior is closely associated with the vibration isolation system such as the primary suspension system, the engine mounting system, the cab suspension system and the seat suspension system. Air spring is widely used in the cab suspension system for its low vibration transmissibility, variable spring rate and inexpensive automatic leveling. The mathematical model of the air spring is presented. The amplitude and frequency dependency of the air spring's stiffness characteristic is highlighted. The air spring dynamic model is validated by comparing the results of the experiment and the simulation. The co-simulation method of ADAMS and AMESim is applied to integrate the air spring mathematical model into the cab multi-body dynamic model. The simulation and ride comfort test results under random excitation are compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0628
Bin Li, Xiaobo Yang, Yunqing Zhang, James Yang
Vehicle tire performance is an important consideration for vehicle handling, stability, mobility, and ride comfort as well as durability. Significant efforts have been dedicated to tire modeling in the past, but there is still room to improve its accuracy. In this study, a detailed in-plane flexible ring tire model is proposed, where the tire belt is discretized, and each discrete belt segment is considered as a rigid body attached to a number of parallel tread blocks. The mass of each belt segment is accumulated at its geometric center. To test the proposed in-plane tire model, a full-vehicle model is integrated with the tire model for simulation under a special driving scenario: acceleration from rest for a few seconds, then deceleration for a few seconds on a flat-level road, and finally constant velocity on a rough road. The simulation results indicate that the tire model is able to generate tire/road contact patch forces that yield reasonable vehicle dynamic responses.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0277
Xingxing Feng, Kaimin Zhuo, Jinglai Wu, Vikas Godara, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Interval inverse problems can be defined as problems to estimate input through given output, where the input and output are interval numbers. Many problems in engineering can be formulated as inverse problems like vehicle suspension design. Interval metrics, instead of deterministic metrics, are used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with five degrees of freedom. The vibration properties of a vehicle vibration model are described by reasonable intervals and the suspension interval parameters are to be solved. A new interval inverse analysis method, which is a combination of Chebyshev inclusion function and optimization algorithm such as multi-island genetic algorithm, is presented and used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with six conflicting objective functions. The interval design of suspension using such an interval inverse analysis method is shown and validated, and some useful conclusions are reached.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0439
Tianqi Lv, Peijun Xu, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract The powertrain mounting system (PMS) plays an important role in improving the NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness) quality of the vehicle. In all running conditions of a vehicle, the displacements of the powertrain C.G. should be controlled in a prescribed range to avoid interference with other components in the vehicle. The conventional model of PMS is based on vibration theory, considering the rotation angles are small, ignoring the sequence of the rotations. However, the motion of PMS is in 3D space with 3 translational degrees of freedom and 3 rotational degrees of freedom, when the rotation angles are not small, the conventional model of PMS will cause errors. The errors are likely to make powertrain interfering with other components. This paper proposes a rigid body mechanics model of the powertrain mounting system. When the powertrain undergoes a large rotational motion, the rigid body mechanics model can provide more accurate calculation results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0422
Guohong Zhang, Qianqian Xie, Shuwei Zhu, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract The sewing machine has been widely used in various aspects of life and it is essential to study its kinematic and dynamic characteristics. A dynamic model of flexible multi-link mechanism for sewing machine including joints with clearance is established to analysis its dynamic response in the present work. The configuration of the sewing machine mainly included five subsystems, feeding mechanism, needle bar mechanism, looper mechanism, shearing mechanism and adjusting mechanism. Since the sewing machine mainly consist of linkage mechanisms that are connected by revolute joints and translational joints, the existence of clearances in the joints and the flexibility of crankshafts and linkage are important factors that affect the dynamic performance. Even little clearance can lead to vibration and fatigue phenomena, lack of precision or even make overall behavior as random.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0428
Tianqi Lv, Yan Wang, Xingxing Feng, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Steering returnability is an important index for evaluating vehicle handling performance. A systematic method is presented in this paper to reduce the high yaw rate residue and the steering response time for a light duty truck in the steering return test. The vehicle multibody model is established in ADAMS, which takes into consideration of the frictional loss torque and hydraulically assisted steering property in the steering mechanism, since the friction, which exists in steering column, spherical joint, steering universal joint, and steering gear, plays an important role in vehicle returnability performance. The accuracy of the vehicle model is validated by road test and the key parameters are determined by executing the sensitivity analysis, which shows the effect of each design parameter upon returnability performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0414
Bin Li, Xiaobo Yang, James Yang, Yunqing Zhang, Zeyu Ma
Abstract In this paper, a detailed three dimensional (3D) flexible ring tire model is first proposed which includes a rigid rim with thickness, different layers of discretized belt points and a number of massless tread blocks attached on the belt. The parameters of the proposed 3D tire model can be divided into in-plane parameters and out-of-plane parameters. In this paper, the relationship of the in-plane parameters between the 3D tire model and the 2D tire model is determined according to the connections among the tire components. Based on the determined relationship, it is shown that the 3D tire model can produce almost the same prediction results as the 2D tire model for the in-plane tire behaviors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0415
Xingxing Feng, Peijun Xu, Penglei Fu, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract This work is motivated by the fact that the surface of a terrain may vary with local pavement properties and number of passes of the vehicle, which means the roughness coefficient and waviness of the terrain may vary in specific intervals. However, in traditional random terrain models, the roughness coefficient and waviness of the terrain are assumed as constants. Therefore, this assumption may be not very reasonable. A novel random terrain model is presented where the roughness coefficient and waviness of the terrain are expressed by interval numbers instead of constants. A 5-degree-of-freedom ride dynamic model of the vehicle with uncertain parameters is derived. The power spectral density (PSD) and root mean square value (RMS) of the vehicle ride responses are shown and analyzed. Analysis results indicate that the vehicle responses vary in specific intervals under the random terrain excitation with interval parameters.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1183
Chao Ding, Zhibao Xu, Yunqing Zhang, Qiming Tao
Abstract Vehicle Thermal Management System (VTMS) is a cross-cutting technology that directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, driver/passenger comfort, emissions. This paper presents a novel methodology to investigate VTMS based on Modelica language. A detailed VTMS platform including engine cooling system, lubrication system, powertrain system, intake and exhaust system, HVAC system is built, which can predict the steady and transient operating conditions. Comparisons made between the measured and calculated results show good correlation and approve the forecast capability for VTMS. Through the platform a sensitivity analysis is presented for basic design variables and provides the foundation for the design and matching of VTMS. Modelica simulation language, which can be efficiently used to investigate multi-domain problems, was used to model and simulate VTMS.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1708
Xiaoxun Chen, Yu Zhang, Yunqing Zhang, Ming Jiang
Abstract In the present study, the research of the exhaust system is performed in three steps. In the first step, the average driving degree of freedom displacement (ADDOFD) is calculated by the free modal analysis of the exhaust system. It is easy to find the reasonable location of the hanger according to the value of the ADDOFD, since it represents the relative size of some DOF's response displacement at excitation state. The second of which is to analyse the vibration isolation performance of the exhaust system based on the first step. The dynamic analysis of the exhaust system together with the powertrain is studied, by which way the unit sinusoidal excitation is applied at the powertrain's mass centre, so that the response force at the hanger can be obtained. Finally, the relationship between the constrained model of the exhaust system and the stiffness of the hanger is investigated, which is significant in engineering.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1455
Shiwei Wu, Yuming Hou, Lingyang Li, Yunqing Zhang, Liping Chen
A Special Analytical Target Cascading (SATC) process is developed for design problem which is difficult to ascertain the targets cascaded from upper level to lower level. The methodology is applied to achieve improving Handling Performance and Ride Quality (HPRQ) of a passenger car. A bi-level hierarchical structure with target-transforming process is established based on conceptual suspension model and multi-body models. DOE, RSM and a combined optimization method of simulated annealing and Programming Quadratic Line search is applied to execute the optimization process. The result shows that HPRQ is improved through special ATC based on CSM and multi-body modeling technique.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1141
Ming Jiang, Wei Chen, Yunqing Zhang, Liping Chen
Clutch actuation systems are complex systems where hydraulic, pneumatic, mechanical and electrical components are coupled. This paper presents a detailed clutch actuation model composed of components from multi-domains like mechanical and pneumatic actuation system, hydraulic boosting system, etc. Various components and subsystem models, such as the driver, engine, gear pairs, clutches, etc., are integrated into an overall vehicle system model according to the transmission power flow and control logic. The model is implemented using the Modelica programming language. The simulation of the clutch actuation system was carried out for the analysis of drivability, shift quality and vehicle overall performance.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0232
Wei Chen, Hongyan Chen, Yunqing Zhang, Gang Qin
To design and optimize the vehicle driveline is necessary to decrease the fuel consumption and improve dynamic performance. This paper describes a methodology to optimize the driveline design including the axle ratio, transmission shift points and transmission shift ratios considering uncertainty. A new and flexible tool for modeling multi-domain systems, Modelica, is used to carry out the modeling and analysis of a vehicle, and the multi-domain model is developed to determine the optimum design in terms of fuel economy, with determinability. Secondly, a robust optimization is carried out to find the optimum design considering uncertainty. The results indicate that the fuel economy and dynamic performance are improved greatly.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1105
Gang Qin, Yunqing Zhang, Liping Chen, Jingzhou Yang
This paper investigates a hierarchical optimization procedure for the optimum synthesis of a double-axle steering mechanism by considering the dynamic load of a vehicle which is seldom discussed in the previous literature. Firstly, a multi-body model of double-axle steering is presented by characterizing the detailed leaf spring effect. Accordingly, the influences of dynamic load including the motion interference of steering linkage resulted from the elastic deformation of leaf spring, and the effects of wheel slip angle and the position discrepancy of wheel speed rotation centers are explored systematically. And then, a hierarchical optimization method based on target cascading methodology is proposed to classify the design variables of double-axle steering mechanism into four levels. At last, a double-axle steering mechanism of a heavy-duty truck is utilized to demonstrate the validity of this method.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0721
Zeyu Ma, Jinglai Wu, Yunqing Zhang, Ming Jiang
In this paper, a new computational method is provided to identify the uncertain parameters of Load Sensing Proportional Valve (LSPV) in a heavy truck brake system by using the polynomial chaos theory. The simulation model of LSPV is built in the software AMESim depending on structure of the valve, and the estimation process is implemented relying on the experimental measurements by pneumatic bench test. With the polynomial chaos expansion carried out by collocation method, the output observation function of the nonlinear pneumatic model can be transformed into a linear and time-invariant form, and the general recursive functions based on Newton method can therefore be reformulated to fit for the computer programming and calculation. To improve the estimation accuracy, the Newton method is modified with reference to Simulated Annealing algorithm by introducing the Metropolis Principle to control the fluctuation during the estimation process and escape from the local minima.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0408
Jinglai Wu, Hongchang Zhang, Yunqing Zhang, Liping Chen
The air brake system has been widely used since its great superiority over many other kinds of brake systems, but the capacity and the stability of air brake system are determined by many factors which are always uncertain and difficult to be evaluated accurately. So it is necessary to improve the robustness of this kind of brake system. In this paper, a physical model of air brake control system is made by a multi-domain physical modeling software-AMESim and the robust design for air brake system is carried out. Firstly, the key design parameters that will greatly affect on the delay time and pressure that leads to the shaking problem are obtained by using the method of design of experiment (DOE). Then, the regress of the response surface based on results of DOE and the robust design using the tolerance design are carried out. The value for those key parameters that can lead to the best performance and robustness of the air brake system are finally determined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0423
Lei Yang, Qiang Li, Chuxuan Wang, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract This paper focuses on dynamic analysis and frame optimization of a FSAE racing car frame. Firstly, a Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model of the racing car is established using ADAMS/Car. The forces and torques of the mechanical joints between the frame and suspensions are calculated in various extreme working conditions. Secondly, the strength, stiffness and free vibration modes of the frame are analyzed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The extracted forces and torques in the first step are used as boundary conditions in FEA. The FEA results suggest that the size of the frame may be not reasonable. Thirdly, the size of the frame is optimized to achieve minimized weight. Meanwhile the strength and stiffness of the frame are constrained. The optimization results reveal that the optimization methodology is powerful in lightweight design of the frame.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0633
Fan Luo, Jinning Li, Xingxing Feng, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract The structure of a classic self-energizing synchronizer is presented, and a simulation model is developed for analyzing the synchronizer performance. The self-energizing synchronizer has a disk spring and several energizing teeth on the sleeve for increasing the shift force. Besides, the asymmetric arrangement of chamfer teeth is applied to increase the torque for rotating ring and shift gears smoothly. The parameterized model of the typical synchronizer is developed with ADAMS for studying the synchronizer performance. In order to truly reflect the reality, the teeth of the claw plate are connected to the gear ring through bushing force alone, and the stiffness coefficient are obtained through the analysis of finite element model. Based on the dynamic model, the behavior of synchronizer with asymmetric arrangement of chamfer teeth, and the energizing effect of stiffness of the disk spring are studied. The simulation results can be used to design the synchronizer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1675
Yongfu Chen, Zhengfei Tang, Peijun Xu, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract In order to reasonably match the variable stiffness and location of the Powertrain Mounting System (PMS) and optimize the ride comfort of commercial vehicle, a thirteen degrees of freedom (DOF) model of a commercial vehicle was established in Adams/view. Specially, the support rod installed on the upside of the transmission case was modeled as a flexible body. The vibration isolation provided by the PMS was evaluated in three aspects: the energy decoupling of the powertrain, the response force of the mount and the displacement of the powertrain. The energy decoupling ratio, the force RMS of the mount when force excitation was applied on the powertrain and the displacement of the powertrain Center of Gravity (C.G) when displacement excitation was applied on the vehicle chassis were selected as the optimal target. Adams and MATLAB were integrated into the optimization software iSIGHT to optimize the PMS. NSGA-II is used to obtain some Pareto-optimal solutions of PMS.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0051
Gang Tang, Jinning Li, Chao Ding, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract This paper describes a simplified model to identify sprung mass using golden section method, the model treats the unsprung mass vertical acceleration as input and the sprung mass vertical acceleration as output, which can avoid the nonlinear influence of trye. Unsprung mass can be also calculated by axle load and the identified sprung mass. This study carries out road test on the vehicle ride comfort and takes a scheme that the group of 20 km/h is used to identify sprung mass and the group of 80 km/h is used to verify the identification result. The similarity of the results from the simulation and experiments performed are, for the sprung mass, 98.59%. A conclusion can be drawn that the simple method to measure the sprung mass in the suspension systems in used vehicles, such as the vehicle shown here, is useful, simple and has sufficient precision.
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