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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4696
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0389
Abhijit Vishnu Londhe, Dinesh Kalani, Aabid Ali
This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0390
Sangdo Park, Jong-Kweon Pyun, Byung Yong Choi, Dongwoo Jeong, HakGyun Kim
Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0391
Peter T. Bovenzi, Don Bender, Ray Bloink, Michael Conklin, John Abrahamian
In today's dynamic automotive environment, reducing the lead-time to introduce new product technologies to the market place can be a key competitive advantage. Employing proactive risk reduction techniques to define key product and process relationships is essential to enhance the production worthiness of a design while it is still in the advanced development phase of the program. This paper describes how Delphi Powertrain Systems applied the Shainin proactive risk reduction methodology in advanced product development to focus resources on understanding and mitigating the risk associated with the development of a new Delphi ammonia sensor. Organizational and technical strategies to accelerate profound knowledge capture, along with corresponding test results, are presented and discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0392
Mukul Mitra, Shaiju M. Belsus
The primary factors influencing vehicle's dynamic behavior are the vehicle hard point definition, driver behavior and road inputs. The more the latter two are random and incorrigible in nature, the former one is quantifiable and can be controlled from designer's standpoint. In this paper, we have made an attempt to set targets to the vehicle hard point definition and thereby to optimize the vehicle for better ride behavior. This approach hence helped to converge to vehicle specifications set fundamentally designed to respond to random operating conditions and driving behavior intelligently. The work also involves study of various methodologies to predict roll, pitch, bounce and dive behaviors on a typical commercial passenger vehicle and is concluded by a sensitivity analysis to understand significance of these hard points on vehicle's real time behavior.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0393
Baeyoung Kim, Hyunjun Kim, YoungTak Son, Hae-ryong Kim, Haekyung Kim, Myung-Won Suh
The noise of interior plastic parts has been one of the major driving factors in the design of automotive interior assemblies. This phenomenon is one of the major contributors to the perceived quality in a vehicle. The noise is caused by interior plastic parts and other parts as a result of permanent deformation. Traditionally, noise issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing. However, to reduce the product development cycle and minimize the number of costly hardware builds, hardware testing must rely on engineering analysis and upfront simulation in the design cycle. In this paper, an analytical study to reduce permanent deformation in a cockpit module is presented. The analytical investigation utilizes a novel and practical methodology, which is implemented through the software tools, ABAQUS and iSight, for the identification and minimization of permanent deformation.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0395
Feng Pan, Ping Zhu
Lightweight vehicle design has become an imperative in today's automotive industry. And it is a difficult task, which usually involves non-obvious decisions beyond the designer's intuition. In practice, optimization through finite element simulation is prohibitively inappropriate due to massive computational cost. As a consequence, approximation method is extensively used. In this paper, lightweight design of front side rail through high strength steel is performed. And the advantages of weighted average surrogate (WAS) for approximating the crashworthiness responses in frontal crash are also discussed. It shows the strategy of using WAS is effective, with great potential applications for vehicle crashworthiness approximation and lightweight design.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0433
Ioan Hociota, Pankaj K. Mallick
Among the various high strength steels available today, boron steels are finding increasing applications in bumper beams and other crash resistant structures, primarily for their high strength. However, to overcome the forming difficulty at room temperature and to achieve the microstructural changes needed for high strength, manufacturing of boron steel parts is done under hot forming conditions. In this study, the effect of three principal bumper design parameters, namely depth, thickness and corner radius on the formability of a hat section bumper beam was considered. Using a forming simulation program, 27 different combinations of these three design parameters were examined for forming limits, failure types and failure locations. The bumper beams were also examined for energy absorption in pendulum impact tests. Recommendations are made for the design of boron steel bumper beams based on both impact energy absorption and formability.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0425
Jody Shaw, Yukihisa Kuriyama, Marc Lambriks
FutureSteelVehicle’s (FSV) objective is to develop detailed design concepts for a radically different steel body structure for a compact Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). It also will identify structure changes to accommodate larger Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) and Fuel Cell (FCEV) vehicle variants. The paper will demonstrate seven optimised structural sub-systems that contribute to the programme's 35 percent mass reduction goals and meet its safety and life cycle emissions targets. It will explain the advanced design optimisation process used and the resulting aggressive steel concepts.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0515
Jeffrey Croteau, John Zolock, Robert Larson, Cleve Bare, Daniel Peterson, Donald Parker
The debate surrounding roof deformation and occupant injury potential has existed in the automotive community for over 30 years. In analysis of real-world rollovers, assessment of roof deformation and occupant compartment space starts with the post-accident roof position. Dynamic movement of the roof structure during a rollover sequence is generally acknowledged but quantification of the dynamic roof displacement has been limited. Previous assessment of dynamic roof deformation has been generally limited to review of the video footage from staged rollover events. Rollover testing for the evaluation of injury potential has typically been studied utilizing instrumented test dummies, on-board and off-board cameras, and measurements of residual crush. This study introduces an analysis of previously undocumented real-time data to be considered in the evaluation of the roof structure's dynamic behavior during a rollover event.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0699
Shaiju M. Belsus, Mukul Mitra
In today's world with a dynamic market and varying customer expectations, it becomes inevitable that we find means of recognizing customer needs with all dimensions and instill them as inherent specifications of a product. Automobiles no way fall away from these intangible demands of the changing world, as personal conveyance (car/motorcycle/scooter) nowadays is more of a basic need. It becomes more of challenge to automotive manufacturers, to offer continuously improving quality products, at competitive prices to be in business. It's very important that as automotive designers we recognize quality in its totality and establish a predictive methodology to inculcate quality into the design at early stages of vehicle development.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0219
Hariharan Peringara Vaidyanathan, Pilaka Murty, Sai Pavan Eswara
Auto industry faces twin problems of pollution and exorbitant rise in petroleum prices. These two problems are best addressed by reducing the weight of the body structure. Under the current technology reduction in weight of an automobile is accomplished by replacing metal with synthetic composites. Reduced weight of the body structure economizes on fuel consumption but this method does not solve the problem of containing pollution because synthetic fibers are used. However, the authors in this paper suggest the use of Hybrid Composites which substantially reduces body weight of an automobile and simultaneously addresses the pollution problem. This is done by substituting natural fibers for synthetic fibers. From an engineering stand point Natural Fibers in the form of Banana Fibers, Sisal, Jute, Coir could prove to be potential competitors to synthetic fibers currently used in polymer composites such as E-Glass, S-Glass, Basalt, Carbon/ Graphite Fibers, and KEVLAR-49.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0203
Steve Thorne, Bruce W. Leppla
ACC radar systems gather valuable data about the speed of forward vehicles, and then utilize that information to best regulate the spacing between those forward vehicles and the ACC host. However, such radar-gathered data can also be useful to help prevent rear-end collisions involving the host vehicle. Embedded in that data is information revealing decelerations of forward vehicles that holds particular value to any driver that might be trailing the host vehicle - especially if their vision is screened by the bulk of the host vehicle. In this paper, a hybrid stop lamp system is proposed whereby ACC radar data gathered by a host vehicle is automatically conveyed to the trailing driver utilizing a new light element integrated with the host vehicle's stop lamp system.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0151
Taeyoung Han, Chris Hill, Shailesh Jindal
Understanding the flow characteristics and, especially, how the aerodynamic forces are influenced by the changes in the vehicle body shape, are very important in order to improve vehicle aerodynamics. One specific goal of aerodynamic shape optimization is to predict the local shape sensitivities for aerodynamic forces. The availability of a reliable and efficient sensitivity analysis method will help to reduce the number of design iterations and the aerodynamic development costs. Among various shape optimization methods, the Adjoint Method has received much attention as an efficient sensitivity analysis method for aerodynamic shape optimization because it allows the computation of sensitivity information for a large number of shape parameters simultaneously.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0108
Rainer Neumann, Thorsten Warwel
Due to the general requirements in the automotive industry to reduce the power consumption, fuel consumption rate and CO2 emission a new HID (High Intensity Discharge) bulb with only 25W is under development for front lighting systems. A first headlamp integrated in a hybrid vehicle is now launched as a first application in the market. The current regulation in ECE allows to get rid of the mandatory headlamp cleaning system and the automatic leveling requirement once the 25W HID bulb is applied. The reason for this is the objective luminous flux of the 25W HID bulb, which emits less than 2000 lm, a boundary defined in the regulation, where a headlamp cleaning and an automatic leveling is requested. That simplifies especially the integration in smaller vehicles and electric and hybrid vehicles. The paper describes the special design of the headlamp, the projector unit, the light performance, packaging advantages and future outlook of further applications in the near future.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0109
Flavio Cimolin, Michele Rabito, Andrea Menotti
A complete methodology for the thermo-mechanical analysis of optical devices for the automotive industry is presented. The objective is to predict the thermal field all over the lamp, highlighting the zones with risk of melting, and the deformations and stresses associated with it. The proposed approach is based on a Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulation capable of capturing all the heat transfer phenomena occurring inside and outside the lamp: conduction between different components of the device, natural convection associated with density changes in air (buoyancy effects), and radiation heat transfer. The latter requires a fairly complex modeling strategy in order to provide a satisfactory (and conservative) treatment for the source of power, i.e. the filament, which can be obtained by means of a proper inclusion of transparency.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0116
Josef Schug
Today, LED automotive exterior lighting is already widely used on high end and upper middle class vehicles. We see already first examples of application as the standard lighting solution even in the mid class segment. A compact design and the feasibility of car life sealed solution is a strong argument to use LEDs for CHMSLs. Long lifetime and new styling opportunities speak for LEDS in front or rear position lights as well as in daytime running lamps;. Mainstream penetration of LED lighting solutions will first happen for functions where the benefits of LEDs have the highest positive impact and where this value can be realized in the most cost-effective way. During the different phases of the introduction of LEDs different requirements dominate the decision process. Providing unique styling opportunity and showing advanced technical functionality is leading for the early adopters.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0114
Lawrence M. Rice
Light emitting diode (LED) modules (standardized light sources) for use in automotive illumination design will soon become available in production volumes. Designing products with these devices is not the same as working with conventional tungsten halogen or high intensity discharge (HID or Xenon) light sources. There are a number of LED module characteristics which must be kept in mind when designing lighting systems.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0111
John D. Bullough
Photometric performance specifications for vehicle headlamp specifications in North America are given in terms of luminous intensity values at various angular locations with the objective of providing sufficient illumination for forward visibility while controlling for glare toward oncoming and preceding vehicle drivers. Abundant evidence suggests that luminous intensity is an appropriate metric for characterizing the degree to which a headlamp can produce disability glare through veiling luminances under a wide range of viewing conditions. Notwithstanding that discomfort glare exhibits a differential spectral sensitivity from the photopic luminous efficiency function used to characterize light, luminous intensity does not always predict discomfort glare. For example, the luminance of the luminous element(s) can be more predictive of discomfort when headlamps are viewed from relative close distances.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0118
Daniel Le Messurier, John S. Orisich
Monte Carlo simulations are shown to be a useful tool when determining the flux output of LED arrays during the design phase. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are able to show the statistical distribution of output flux based on multi-LED arrays, thus allowing engineers to optimise their design, rather than using worst case scenario design principles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0117
Sidharth Gupta
This paper will present the method for activation of exterior and interior lighting system during the vehicle level fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults, ignition switch failure etc. with intelligent light sensor. In vehicle the user safety is very important and exterior lighting system is playing a very important role during night driving condition. By considering the customer safety during any fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults or any other faults condition the vehicle exterior and interior lighting system should not be switched off.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0126
Steven Gasworth, Triloka Tankala
Heat transfer between the ambient and the air in a vehicle cabin determines the nominal steady state load on the vehicle's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, a significant factor for vehicle efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper highlights the effect of glazing (i.e. window) thermal conductivity on steady state heat transfer, with high and low thermal conductivities represented respectively by monolithic glass and standard polycarbonate. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are summarized for a model car cabin including HVAC vents, interior seating, and a rooflite. Passenger and moisture effects are not included. Monthly temperature and radiation data for Phoenix, Arizona and Minneapolis, Minnesota are used to define hot and cold climate scenarios.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0061
Tadashi Naito, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Yuta Urushiyama, Kunihiro Takahashi
A new index U* for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U*, which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure. U* enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Different loading conditions are applied to a body structure, and the similarity of the U* distributions is evaluated using the direction cosine and U* 2-dimensional correlation diagrams. It is shown as a result that body structures can be macroscopically grasped by using the U* distribution rather than using the stress distribution. In addition, as an example, the U* distribution of torsion loading condition is shown to comprehensively include characteristics of the U* distribution of other loading conditions.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0070
Stuart J. Brown
In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0508
G Song, C A Tan
Shell Elements based Parametric Frame Modeling is a powerful CAE tool, which can generate robust frame design concept optimized for NVH and durability quickly when combined with Taguchi Design of Experiments. The scalability of this modeling method includes cross members length/location/section/shape, frame rail segments length/section and kick in/out/up/down angle, and access hole location & size. In the example of the D. O. E. study, more than fifteen parameters were identified and analyzed for frequency and weight. The upper and lower bounds were set for each design parameter based on package and manufacturing constraints. Sixteen Finite Element frame were generated by parametrically updating the base model, which shows this modeling method is comparatively convenient. Sensitivity of these sixteen parameters to the frequency and weight was summarized through statics, so the favorable design alternative can be achieved with the major parameters' combination.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0509
Megumu Oshima, Kanya Nara
This paper describes the development of a design method and process for quality variation control. Conventional approaches utilizing Taguchi method [6,7,8] can quantify the sensitivities of parts characteristics on a system characteristic from both viewpoints of nominal value and variation. But the interpretation of the sensitivities depends on engineers' judgments. At the new process, function deployment has been introduced as the tool for breaking down hierarchically vehicle performance to the level of parts characteristics. And the relation between vehicle performance and parts characteristics is formulated based on a physical model in order to interpret the sensitivities more technically. The methodology combining the formulated function deployment and Taguchi method is referred to as design response analysis and variation effect analysis. These approaches can facilitate the interpretation of the quantified sensitivities considering the mechanism.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0490
Sharvin Motamedi, John Dennis, Ted T. Stawiarski, A.K. Khosrovaneh, Li L. Sun, Mohamed El-Sayed
Large hood mounted plastic trim components are subjected to complex and often extreme loading conditions. Typical loading conditions include solar and thermal cycling, as well as road and powertrain induced vibrations, aero lift and buffeting, and mechanical loads such as car wash. For the above components understanding and classifying the typical loading conditions is an essential and important step in achieving long term quality. This paper discusses different approaches to the design, analysis, development, and testing of plastic trim components. Samples of analysis and test results are presented to demonstrate how to identify and prevent the loss of the part function. Some useful guidelines and practices for addressing thermal expansion, dimensional variation, and redundancy in attachments are also discussed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0496
Shung Sung, Sung Chao, Hari Lingala, Lee Mundy
A structural-acoustic finite element model of an automotive vehicle is developed and applied to evaluate the effect of structural and acoustic modifications to reduce low-frequency ‘boom’ noise in the passenger compartment. The structural-acoustic model is developed from a trimmed body structural model that is coupled with an acoustic model of the passenger compartment and trunk cavities. The interior noise response is computed for shaker excitation loads at the powertrain mount attachment locations on the body. The body panel and modal participation diagrams at the peak response frequencies are evaluated. A polar diagram identifies the dominant body panel contributions to the ‘boom’ noise. A modal participation diagram determines the body modes that contribute to the ‘boom’ noise. Finally, structural and acoustic modifications are evaluated to determine their effect on reducing the ‘boom’ noise and on the overall lower-frequency sound pressure level response.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0595
Robert E. Llaneras, M. Lucas Neurauter, Charles Quinn, Charles Green
Research was conducted to assess driver acceptance and performance associated with a spotter mirror feature intended to reduce the incidence of lane-change conflicts by enhancing drivers' ability to detect vehicles in their side blind zone. The spotter mirror consisted of an integrated spherical convex blind zone mirror inset within a larger planar mirror. The spotter mirror's field-of-view was designed to target the vehicle's side blind zone area and to help drivers quickly detect the presence or absence of a vehicle in the blind zone. The study captured normative lane-change behavior during an extended drive on public roadways, with and without access to the spotter mirror system, for a sample of familiar and unfamiliar supplemental mirror users. In order to capture more naturalistic lane-change behavior, drivers were informed that the purpose of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of existing road signs for navigating to a destination.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0841
Zhenhua Zhu, Andrew Yablonski, Howard Mearns, William Wayne
West Virginia University (WVU) is a participant in EcoCAR - The NeXt Challenge, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, and General Motors Corporation. During the first year of the competition, the goal of the WVU EcoEvolution Team was to design a novel hybrid-electric powertrain for a 2009 Saturn Vue to increase pump-to-wheels fuel economy, reduce criteria tailpipe emissions and well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) while maintaining or improving performance and utility. To this end, WVU designed a 2-Mode split-parallel diesel-electric hybrid system. Key elements of the hybrid powertrain include a General Motors 1.3L SDE Turbo Diesel engine, a General Motors Corporation 2-Mode electrically variable transmission (EVT) and an A123 Systems Lithium-Ion battery system. The engine will be fueled on a blend of 20% soy-derived biodiesel and 80% petroleum-derived ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (B20).
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1944
David Stotera, Terence Connelly, Bryce Gardner, Eric Seifferlein, Ricardo de Alba Alvarez
The excitation of structural modes of vehicle roofs due to structure-borne excitations from the road and powertrain can generate boom and noise issues inside the passenger cabin. The use of elastomeric foams between the roof bows and roof panel can provide significant damping to the roof and reduce the vibration. If computer-aided engineering (CAE) can be used to predict the effect of elastomeric foams accurately on vibration and noise, then it would be possible to optimize the properties and placement of foam materials on the roof to attenuate vibration. The properties of the different foam materials were characterized in laboratory tests and then applied to a flat test panel and a vehicle body-in-white. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the testing and CAE analysis of the vibration and radiated sound power of flat steel panels and the roof from the BIW of an SUV with anti-flutter foam and Terophon® high damping foam (HDF) materials.
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