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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2303
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0389
Abhijit Vishnu Londhe, Dinesh Kalani, Aabid Ali
This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0390
Sangdo Park, Jong-Kweon Pyun, Byung Yong Choi, Dongwoo Jeong, HakGyun Kim
Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0391
Peter T. Bovenzi, Don Bender, Ray Bloink, Michael Conklin, John Abrahamian
In today's dynamic automotive environment, reducing the lead-time to introduce new product technologies to the market place can be a key competitive advantage. Employing proactive risk reduction techniques to define key product and process relationships is essential to enhance the production worthiness of a design while it is still in the advanced development phase of the program. This paper describes how Delphi Powertrain Systems applied the Shainin proactive risk reduction methodology in advanced product development to focus resources on understanding and mitigating the risk associated with the development of a new Delphi ammonia sensor. Organizational and technical strategies to accelerate profound knowledge capture, along with corresponding test results, are presented and discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0392
Mukul Mitra, Shaiju M. Belsus
The primary factors influencing vehicle's dynamic behavior are the vehicle hard point definition, driver behavior and road inputs. The more the latter two are random and incorrigible in nature, the former one is quantifiable and can be controlled from designer's standpoint. In this paper, we have made an attempt to set targets to the vehicle hard point definition and thereby to optimize the vehicle for better ride behavior. This approach hence helped to converge to vehicle specifications set fundamentally designed to respond to random operating conditions and driving behavior intelligently. The work also involves study of various methodologies to predict roll, pitch, bounce and dive behaviors on a typical commercial passenger vehicle and is concluded by a sensitivity analysis to understand significance of these hard points on vehicle's real time behavior.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0393
Baeyoung Kim, Hyunjun Kim, YoungTak Son, Hae-ryong Kim, Haekyung Kim, Myung-Won Suh
The noise of interior plastic parts has been one of the major driving factors in the design of automotive interior assemblies. This phenomenon is one of the major contributors to the perceived quality in a vehicle. The noise is caused by interior plastic parts and other parts as a result of permanent deformation. Traditionally, noise issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing. However, to reduce the product development cycle and minimize the number of costly hardware builds, hardware testing must rely on engineering analysis and upfront simulation in the design cycle. In this paper, an analytical study to reduce permanent deformation in a cockpit module is presented. The analytical investigation utilizes a novel and practical methodology, which is implemented through the software tools, ABAQUS and iSight, for the identification and minimization of permanent deformation.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0395
Feng Pan, Ping Zhu
Lightweight vehicle design has become an imperative in today's automotive industry. And it is a difficult task, which usually involves non-obvious decisions beyond the designer's intuition. In practice, optimization through finite element simulation is prohibitively inappropriate due to massive computational cost. As a consequence, approximation method is extensively used. In this paper, lightweight design of front side rail through high strength steel is performed. And the advantages of weighted average surrogate (WAS) for approximating the crashworthiness responses in frontal crash are also discussed. It shows the strategy of using WAS is effective, with great potential applications for vehicle crashworthiness approximation and lightweight design.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0425
Jody Shaw, Yukihisa Kuriyama, Marc Lambriks
FutureSteelVehicle’s (FSV) objective is to develop detailed design concepts for a radically different steel body structure for a compact Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). It also will identify structure changes to accommodate larger Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) and Fuel Cell (FCEV) vehicle variants. The paper will demonstrate seven optimised structural sub-systems that contribute to the programme's 35 percent mass reduction goals and meet its safety and life cycle emissions targets. It will explain the advanced design optimisation process used and the resulting aggressive steel concepts.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0515
Jeffrey Croteau, John Zolock, Robert Larson, Cleve Bare, Daniel Peterson, Donald Parker
The debate surrounding roof deformation and occupant injury potential has existed in the automotive community for over 30 years. In analysis of real-world rollovers, assessment of roof deformation and occupant compartment space starts with the post-accident roof position. Dynamic movement of the roof structure during a rollover sequence is generally acknowledged but quantification of the dynamic roof displacement has been limited. Previous assessment of dynamic roof deformation has been generally limited to review of the video footage from staged rollover events. Rollover testing for the evaluation of injury potential has typically been studied utilizing instrumented test dummies, on-board and off-board cameras, and measurements of residual crush. This study introduces an analysis of previously undocumented real-time data to be considered in the evaluation of the roof structure's dynamic behavior during a rollover event.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0699
Shaiju M. Belsus, Mukul Mitra
In today's world with a dynamic market and varying customer expectations, it becomes inevitable that we find means of recognizing customer needs with all dimensions and instill them as inherent specifications of a product. Automobiles no way fall away from these intangible demands of the changing world, as personal conveyance (car/motorcycle/scooter) nowadays is more of a basic need. It becomes more of challenge to automotive manufacturers, to offer continuously improving quality products, at competitive prices to be in business. It's very important that as automotive designers we recognize quality in its totality and establish a predictive methodology to inculcate quality into the design at early stages of vehicle development.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0219
Hariharan Peringara Vaidyanathan, Pilaka Murty, Sai Pavan Eswara
Auto industry faces twin problems of pollution and exorbitant rise in petroleum prices. These two problems are best addressed by reducing the weight of the body structure. Under the current technology reduction in weight of an automobile is accomplished by replacing metal with synthetic composites. Reduced weight of the body structure economizes on fuel consumption but this method does not solve the problem of containing pollution because synthetic fibers are used. However, the authors in this paper suggest the use of Hybrid Composites which substantially reduces body weight of an automobile and simultaneously addresses the pollution problem. This is done by substituting natural fibers for synthetic fibers. From an engineering stand point Natural Fibers in the form of Banana Fibers, Sisal, Jute, Coir could prove to be potential competitors to synthetic fibers currently used in polymer composites such as E-Glass, S-Glass, Basalt, Carbon/ Graphite Fibers, and KEVLAR-49.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0151
Taeyoung Han, Chris Hill, Shailesh Jindal
Understanding the flow characteristics and, especially, how the aerodynamic forces are influenced by the changes in the vehicle body shape, are very important in order to improve vehicle aerodynamics. One specific goal of aerodynamic shape optimization is to predict the local shape sensitivities for aerodynamic forces. The availability of a reliable and efficient sensitivity analysis method will help to reduce the number of design iterations and the aerodynamic development costs. Among various shape optimization methods, the Adjoint Method has received much attention as an efficient sensitivity analysis method for aerodynamic shape optimization because it allows the computation of sensitivity information for a large number of shape parameters simultaneously.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0061
Tadashi Naito, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Yuta Urushiyama, Kunihiro Takahashi
A new index U* for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U*, which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure. U* enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Different loading conditions are applied to a body structure, and the similarity of the U* distributions is evaluated using the direction cosine and U* 2-dimensional correlation diagrams. It is shown as a result that body structures can be macroscopically grasped by using the U* distribution rather than using the stress distribution. In addition, as an example, the U* distribution of torsion loading condition is shown to comprehensively include characteristics of the U* distribution of other loading conditions.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0508
G Song, C A Tan
Shell Elements based Parametric Frame Modeling is a powerful CAE tool, which can generate robust frame design concept optimized for NVH and durability quickly when combined with Taguchi Design of Experiments. The scalability of this modeling method includes cross members length/location/section/shape, frame rail segments length/section and kick in/out/up/down angle, and access hole location & size. In the example of the D. O. E. study, more than fifteen parameters were identified and analyzed for frequency and weight. The upper and lower bounds were set for each design parameter based on package and manufacturing constraints. Sixteen Finite Element frame were generated by parametrically updating the base model, which shows this modeling method is comparatively convenient. Sensitivity of these sixteen parameters to the frequency and weight was summarized through statics, so the favorable design alternative can be achieved with the major parameters' combination.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0509
Megumu Oshima, Kanya Nara
This paper describes the development of a design method and process for quality variation control. Conventional approaches utilizing Taguchi method [6,7,8] can quantify the sensitivities of parts characteristics on a system characteristic from both viewpoints of nominal value and variation. But the interpretation of the sensitivities depends on engineers' judgments. At the new process, function deployment has been introduced as the tool for breaking down hierarchically vehicle performance to the level of parts characteristics. And the relation between vehicle performance and parts characteristics is formulated based on a physical model in order to interpret the sensitivities more technically. The methodology combining the formulated function deployment and Taguchi method is referred to as design response analysis and variation effect analysis. These approaches can facilitate the interpretation of the quantified sensitivities considering the mechanism.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0496
Shung Sung, Sung Chao, Hari Lingala, Lee Mundy
A structural-acoustic finite element model of an automotive vehicle is developed and applied to evaluate the effect of structural and acoustic modifications to reduce low-frequency ‘boom’ noise in the passenger compartment. The structural-acoustic model is developed from a trimmed body structural model that is coupled with an acoustic model of the passenger compartment and trunk cavities. The interior noise response is computed for shaker excitation loads at the powertrain mount attachment locations on the body. The body panel and modal participation diagrams at the peak response frequencies are evaluated. A polar diagram identifies the dominant body panel contributions to the ‘boom’ noise. A modal participation diagram determines the body modes that contribute to the ‘boom’ noise. Finally, structural and acoustic modifications are evaluated to determine their effect on reducing the ‘boom’ noise and on the overall lower-frequency sound pressure level response.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0841
Zhenhua Zhu, Andrew Yablonski, Howard Mearns, William Wayne
West Virginia University (WVU) is a participant in EcoCAR - The NeXt Challenge, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, and General Motors Corporation. During the first year of the competition, the goal of the WVU EcoEvolution Team was to design a novel hybrid-electric powertrain for a 2009 Saturn Vue to increase pump-to-wheels fuel economy, reduce criteria tailpipe emissions and well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) while maintaining or improving performance and utility. To this end, WVU designed a 2-Mode split-parallel diesel-electric hybrid system. Key elements of the hybrid powertrain include a General Motors 1.3L SDE Turbo Diesel engine, a General Motors Corporation 2-Mode electrically variable transmission (EVT) and an A123 Systems Lithium-Ion battery system. The engine will be fueled on a blend of 20% soy-derived biodiesel and 80% petroleum-derived ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (B20).
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1944
David Stotera, Terence Connelly, Bryce Gardner, Eric Seifferlein, Ricardo de Alba Alvarez
The excitation of structural modes of vehicle roofs due to structure-borne excitations from the road and powertrain can generate boom and noise issues inside the passenger cabin. The use of elastomeric foams between the roof bows and roof panel can provide significant damping to the roof and reduce the vibration. If computer-aided engineering (CAE) can be used to predict the effect of elastomeric foams accurately on vibration and noise, then it would be possible to optimize the properties and placement of foam materials on the roof to attenuate vibration. The properties of the different foam materials were characterized in laboratory tests and then applied to a flat test panel and a vehicle body-in-white. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the testing and CAE analysis of the vibration and radiated sound power of flat steel panels and the roof from the BIW of an SUV with anti-flutter foam and Terophon® high damping foam (HDF) materials.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1946
Michael Fasse
The use of acoustic cavity fillers to prevent the propagation of air borne and structure borne noise, water and dust into the interior spaces of vehicle structures has been in practice for many years. Various technologies are available to OEMs to provide sealing that will prevent water and dust penetration, maximize performance of vehicle HVAC systems, and minimize the propagation of noise into a vehicle under operating conditions. The current state of the application of these technologies in the automotive, medium duty and heavy duty truck markets will be reviewed. Comparisons will be drawn between two categories of cavity fillers: pre-formed heat reactive expandable parts; and bulk applied chemically reacting polyurethane foam. Typical OEM material requirements will be discussed for these technologies. The pros and cons of these competing technologies, as well as their acoustic performance applied to a full vehicle will be considered.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1989
Mohamad Qatu, Mohammad Zannon, Golam Mainuddin
With rising fuel prices, light weight structures and materials (like composites) are receiving more attention. Composite materials offer high stiffness to weight ratio when compared with traditional metallic materials. Traditionally, composite materials were generally costly which made them only attractive to very limited industries (e.g., the defense industry). Advances in their manufacturing and new innovations have brought the cost of these materials down and made them reasonably competitive. They have gained more and more usage in the last 3 decades in the aerospace industry and have recently been gaining more usage in the automotive industry. In automotive design, they yield lighter structures which have positive impact on attributes like fuel economy, emission and others. Proper modeling and analyses need to be performed to make sure that other attributes (e.g. noise, vibration and harshness or NVH) are assessed properly and remain competitive.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1985
Dawei Gao, Shi Guijie
A new method based on the drum surface is proposed to fit the dual-curvature glass. The drum surface is obtained from the automotive body cloud data with the kinematic equation using line element geometry and K-Local-RANSAC algorithm. Then the guide rail curve is obtained by the proportional function method based on the drum curve principle. At last, the motion deviation of the glass is analyzed and the maximum motion deviation is not more than 0.6mm. The results have completely achieved the engineering requirements, which prove that the method of fitting the glass and the guide rail is correct and reasonable.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1398
Peter Qiu, Yuan Qu, Shen Wu, Min Sun
The door closing effort is one of the first impressions to customer's mind about the engineering and quality of the vehicle. The door closing force and the minimum door closing speed are two important characteristics for evaluation. But we can obtain these two indices only by experiments and/or subjective assessments. To predict the door closing effort by the simulation method during the design phase, a finite element analysis model is established. The compression load deflection behavior of seals is converted to the parameters of constitutive model of seals by the parameters identification method. Then, the seal resistance force and the minimum door closing speed are calculated. The later correlates very well with the experiment data.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1170
Nia R. Harrison, Andrey Ilinich, Peter A. Friedman, Jugraj Singh, Ravi Verma
Traditional warm forming of aluminum refers to sheet forming in the temperature range of 200°C to 350°C using heated, matched die sets similar to conventional stamping. While the benefits of this process can include design freedom, improved dimensional capability and potentially reduced cycle times, the process is complex and requires expensive, heated dies. The objective of this work was to develop a warm forming process that both retains the benefits of traditional warm forming while allowing for the use of lower-cost tooling. Enhanced formability characteristics of aluminum sheet have been observed when there is a prescribed temperature difference between the die and the sheet; often referred to as a non-isothermal condition. This work, which was supported by the USCAR-AMD initiative, demonstrated the benefits of the non-isothermal warm forming approach on a full-scale door inner panel. Finite element analysis was used to guide the design of the die face and blank shape.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0005
Vishal Gupta, King H. Yang
Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2378
Manimaran Krishnamoorthy, Mathew Sam Paul Albert
In this work, durability of the bus structure is evaluated with a Virtual Test Model (VTM).Full vehicle Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) model of the bus is built, with inclusion of flexibility of the bus structure to capture structural modes. Component mode synthesis method is used for creation of flexible model for use in MBD. Load extraction is done by performing MBD analysis with measured wheel inputs. Modal Superposition Method (MSM) is employed in FE along with these extracted loads for calculation of modal transient dynamic stress response of the structure. e-N based fatigue life is estimated. The estimated fatigue life from the modal superposition method show good correlation with the physical test results done in 6-poster test rig.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2368
Harish Harinarayanan
Commercial vehicle payload depends on the client for which the vehicle fleet owner is operating. Load carriers like flatbed trailer offer the flexibility to be loaded with a large number of light payloads or a few numbers of massive payloads. Such load carriers have to be evaluated for various possibilities of loading patterns that could happen in the market. The objective of this work is to evaluate flatbed trailer for its structural strength for different customer application cases, using computer simulation. Structural load cases due to payloads like containers, steel coils and cement bags are arrived at. Static structural analysis using MSC Nastran is performed to evaluate for the worst customer loading pattern from structural stress point of view. This paper also describes a simplified method for simulating the effect of trailer suspension, tractor suspension and the fifth-wheel coupling in the analysis whose detailed modeling is not possible at the concept level.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0164
R. Mohan Iyengar, T. Chang, S. Laxman, S. Thirupathi, S. Perumalswami
A finite element methodology, based on implicit numerical integration procedure, for simulating oil-canning tests on Door assemblies is presented. The method takes into account nonlinearities due to geometry, material and contact between parts during deformation. The simulation results are compared with experimental observations. Excellent correlation between experimental observations and analytical predictions are obtained in these tests. Armed with the confidence in the methodology, simulations on a door assembly are conducted to study the gage and grade sensitivities of the outer panel. The sensitivity studies are conducted on three different grades of steel for the outer panel. Further studies are conducted to understand the effects of manufacturing (forming operation) on the oil canning behavior of door assembly. Results demonstrate the utility of the method in material selection during pre-program design of automotive structures.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0388
Raj Sohmshetty, Ramana Kappagantu, Basavapatna P. Naganarayana, S. Shankar
Today, the interior noise perceived by the occupants is becoming an important factor driving the design standards for the design of most of the interior assemblies in an automotive vehicle. Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) is a major contributor towards the perceived noise of annoyance to the vehicle occupants. An automotive vehicle consists of many assemblies such as instrumentation panel, doors, sun/moon-roof, deck lids, hood, etc. which are the potential sources of BSR noise. The potential locations of critical BSR noise could be contained within such assemblies as well as across their boundaries. An extensive study is made regarding the overall structural behavior as well as their interaction under typical road loads to come up with enhanced design for improved quality from the BSR noise perspective. The alternative designs were comparatively evaluated for their relative noise level from buzz, squeak and rattle perspective using an analytical tool - N-hance.BSR.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0450
John L. Campbell, David H. Hoffmeister, Raymond J. Kiefer, Daniel J. Selke, Paul Green, Joel B. Richman
This paper describes an effort to develop a valid and reliable process for comprehension testing of candidate automotive symbols and to conduct comprehension testing on a set of new symbols being considered for in-vehicle active safety systems. The comprehension testing process was developed though a multi-year effort, supported by Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) and other organizations, aimed at generating a test methodology that would: yield high-quality comprehension data for new automotive symbols, provide clear and specific guidance back to symbol developers based on the test results, and could be adopted and performed internationally to support international standards efforts. Seventeen (17) candidate symbols were evaluated for three classes of in-vehicle active safety systems: forward collision warning (4 symbols), side collision warning (6 symbols), and lane departure warning (7 symbols).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0451
Marita Irmscher, Martin Ehmann
A driver model is presented that accounts for individual driver behavior and allows driver classification or behavior for common driving tasks. Typical driver errors can be modeled by means of parameters of the driver controller and by influencing the driving course. This is illustrated for some typical driver types and driving maneuvers.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1348
Jian-cai Zhao, Chi-xing Zhou, Xun-sheng Zhu
In order to evaluate the influence of the seal structure on door closing force, nonlinear finite element method is introduced to analyze compression deformation of a door seal for SANTANA (name of the car made by Shanghai Volkswagen Co. Ltd) in this paper. The computed results show that the compression loads of the door seal are larger than the standard value of Shanghai Volkswagen Co. Ltd and the seal structure needs to be optimized. The computed results are proved by experiment.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2303

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