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Viewing 1 to 30 of 48
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2181
Forrest Jehlik, Eric Rask
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) techniques are applied to develop brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps of a test vehicle over standard drive cycles under various ambient conditions. This technique allows for modeling and predicting fuel consumption of an engine as a function of engine operating conditions. Results will be shown from Federal Test Procedure engine starts of 20°C, and colder conditions of -7°C. Fueling rates under a broad range of engine temperatures are presented. Analysis comparing oil and engine coolant as an input factor of the model is conducted. Analysis comparing the model to experimental datasets, as well as some details into the modeling development, will be presented. Although the methodology was applied to data collected from a vehicle, the same technique could be applied to engines run on dynamometers.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2185
Alessandro di Gaeta, Veniero Giglio, Giuseppe Police, Fabrizio Reale, Natale Rispoli
In this work the authors present a model to simulate the in-cylinder pressure oscillations due to knock. Pressure oscillations are predicted by the explicit integration of a Partial Differential Wave Equation (PDWE) similar, in its structure, to the so-called “Equation of Telegraphy”. This equation differs mainly from the classical wave formulation for the presence of a loss term. The general solution of such equation is obtained by the Fourier method of variables separation. The integration space is a cylindrical acoustic cavity whose volume is evaluated at the knock onset. The integration constants are derived from the boundary and initial conditions. A novel approach is proposed to derive the initial condition for the derivative of the oscillating component of pressure. It descends, conceptually, from the integration of the linearized relation between the derivative of pressure versus time and the expansion velocity of burned gas.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2184
Alberto Boretti
Recovery of kinetic energy during driving cycles is the most effective option to improve fuel economy and reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Flywheel kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) may boost this efficiency up to values of about 70%. An engine and vehicle model is developed to simulate the fuel economy of a compact car equipped with a TDI diesel engine and a KERS. Introduction of KERS reduces the fuel used by the 1.6L TDI engine to 3.16 liters per 100 km, corresponding to 82.4 g of CO₂ per km. Downsizing the engine to 1.2 liters as permitted by the torque assistance by KERS, further reduces the fuel consumption to 3.04 liters per 100 km, corresponding to 79.2 g of CO₂ per km. These CO₂ values are 11% better than those of today's most fuel efficient hybrid electric vehicle.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2182
Markus Wenig, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
Regarding further development of gasoline engines several new technologies are investigated in order to diminish pollutant emissions and particularly fuel consumption. The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) seems to be a promising way to reach these targets. Therefore, in the past years there had been a lot of experimental efforts in this field of combustion system engineering. Negative valve overlap with pilot injection before pumping top dead center (PTDC) and an “intermediate” compression and combustion during PTDC, followed by the main injection after PTDC, is one way to realize and to proper control a HCCI operation. For conventional CI and SI combustion the pressure trace analysis (PTA) is a powerful and widely used tool to analyse, understand and optimize the combustion process.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2183
Rafael Lugo, Vahid Ebrahimian, Catherine Lefebvre, Chawki Habchi, Jean-Charles de Hemptinne
The adequacy of the fuels with the engines has been often a major goal for the oil industry or car manufacturers. As the formulation of fuels becomes more complex, the use of numerical simulation provides an efficient way to understand and analyze the combustion process. These conclusions become increasingly true with the appearance of second generation biofuels. This paper describes a methodology for the representation of fuels and biofuels using a lumping procedure combined with adequate thermodynamic and thermophysical models. This procedure allows computing different thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for simulation purposes in internal combustion engines. The lumping approach involves reducing analytical data to a few pseudo-components characterized by their molecular weight, critical properties and acentric factor.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2186
M. Cagri Cevik, Hendrik Hermann, Carl Ritterskamp
Calculating the bearing reliability and behavior is one of the primary tasks which have to be performed to define the main dimensions of the cranktrain of an internal combustion engine. Since the bearing results are essential for the pre-layout of the cranktrain, the conclusion on the bearing safety should be met as early as possible. Therefore detailed simulations like T-EHD or EHD analysis may not be applied to define the dimensions in such an early development phase. In the frame of this study a prediction methodology, based on a HD bearing approach, for bearing reliability of inline-4 crankshafts of passenger cars is proposed. In this way not only the design phase is shortened but also achieving the optimal solution is simplified. Moreover the requirement of a CAD model is eliminated for the preliminary design phase. The influencing parameters on the bearing behavior are first selected and divided into two groups: geometry and loading.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0036
Christoph Dutzler, Gregor Heizinger, Andreas Mair
The continuously increasing product complexity on the one side, and the demand to constantly decrease development times and costs on the other, require new development processes in the automotive industry. This paper describes a product development process which, by intensively and systematically applying computer-aided modeling techniques, makes a significant contribution to the management of this tremendous complexity in a cost- and time- efficient manner. The presented process strives for a widespread usage of modeling techniques (such as physical system modeling and simulation, model-based control system design, rapid prototyping, etc.) over all technical domains involved in the product (mechanics, hydraulics, electrics, electronics, software, etc.) as well as over several stages of the product development process.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2334
Falke Hendriks, Riné Pelders, Martijn Tideman
Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are added to existing comfort systems, rather than adding new safety systems to the vehicle. Comfort systems such as cruise control are extended via ACC to pre-crash braking systems. Testing of active safety systems must follow these developments. Whereas standardized test programs are available for passive safety systems, such test programs are hardly available yet for active safety systems. Furthermore, test programs for passive safety systems consist of only a handful of scenarios. Test programs for active safety systems, however, should consist of much more scenarios, as those systems should function well in many different situations.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2098
Petter Tornehed, Ulf Olofsson
The drive to reduce particle emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines has reached the stage where the contribution from the lubricant can have a major impact on the total amount of particulate matter (PM). This paper proposes a model to predict the survival rate (unburnt oil divided by oil consumption) of the hydrocarbons from the lubricant consumed in the cylinder. The input data are oil consumption and cylinder temperature versus crank angle. The proposed model was tuned to correlate well with data from a six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine that meets the Euro 5 legislation without exhaust gas aftertreatment. The measured (and modelled) oil survival shows a strong correlation with engine power. The maximum oil survival rate measured (19%) was at motoring conditions at high speed. For this engine, loads above 100 kW yielded an oil survival rate of nearly zero.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2092
Maya R. Desai, Monica Tutuianu, Mehrdad Ahmadinejad, Timothy C. Watling, Andrew P.E. York, Joseph W. Stevenson
The aftertreatment challenge in the non-road market is making the same system work and fit not just in one machine, but in hundreds of different machines, some of which can be used for many different purposes. This huge diversity of applications and the relatively small unit numbers for each application, coupled with the rapid introduction of new standards and the very high performance needed from the engines and machines, requires a sophisticated approach to product development. Furthermore, as emissions requirements become ever more stringent, designing a system to meet the legislation subject to packaging and cost constraints becomes progressively more difficult. This is further exacerbated by increasing system complexity, where more than one technology may be required to control all the legislated pollutants and/or an active control strategy is involved. Also a very high degree of component integration is required.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2093
Byan Wahyu Riyandwita, Myung-Whan Bae
A three-dimensional model with the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous gas at a steady-state is developed to simulate a urea-SCR system by the SIMPLE algorithm. A porous medium coated by a metal-oxide-based catalyst is considered in this study. The flow field and chemical reactions inside the reactor are calculated simultaneously by a porous medium approach. In a urea-SCR modeling, the gas transport properties exist as parameters in each of the conservation equations. The evaluations of density, diffusion coefficients, viscosities, thermal conductivities and specific heats are required to select the most suitable gas transport properties in a numerical modeling of a multi-component gaseous mixture and chemically reacting flow.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2089
M. P. Sturgess, S. F. Benjamin, C. A. Roberts
Modeling of SCR in diesel exhaust systems with injection of urea spray is complex and challenging but many models use only the conversion observed at the brick exit as a test of the model. In this study, the case modeled is simplified by injecting ammonia gas in nitrogen in place of urea, but the spatial conversion profiles along the SCR brick length at steady state are investigated. This is a more rigorous way of assessing the ability of the model to simulate observations made on a test exhaust system. The data have been collected by repeated engine tests on eight different brick lengths, all which were shorter than a standard-sized SCR. The tests have been carried out for supplied NH₃ /NOx ratios of a 1.5, excess ammonia, a 1.0, balanced ammonia, and a 0.5, deficient ammonia. Levels of NO, NO₂ and NH₃ have been measured both upstream and downstream of the SCR using a gas analyzer fitted with ammonia scrubbers to give reliable NOx measurements.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2034
Kambiz Rezapour, Kambiz M. Ebrahimi, Alastair S. Wood, Abolfath Nikranjbar
The strict regulation of environmental laws, the oil price and restricted resources has made the vehicle manufacturers to use other energy resources instead of fuel oil. Iran is recognized as the second holder of gas reservoirs in the world and can use hydrocarbon gases broadly in particular compressed natural gas (CNG) as the fuel for vehicles specifically in its public transportation fleet and thereby reduce the consumption of diesel fuel and gasoline. This will bring about the reduction of environmental pollutants and reduce the economic costs of transportation sector. With regard to the climatic situation of Iran and concerning the existence of broad network of gas distribution, CNG is a suitable alternative for other fuels. Therefore, developing bi-fuel engine (gasoline and CNG) in the short and middle term strategy for achieving this important subject will be necessary.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2237
Tobias Joelsson, Rixin Yu, Xue-Song Bai, Noriyuki Takada, Ichiro Sakata, Hiromichi Yanagihara, Johannes Lindén, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Bengt Johansson
Temperature stratification plays an important role in HCCI combustion. The onsets of auto-ignition and combustion duration are sensitive to the temperature field in the engine cylinder. Numerical simulations of HCCI engine combustion are affected by the use of wall boundary conditions, especially the temperature condition at the cylinder and piston walls. This paper reports on numerical studies and experiments of the temperature field in an optical experimental engine in motored run conditions aiming at improved understanding of the evolution of temperature stratification in the cylinder. The simulations were based on Large-Eddy-Simulation approach which resolves the unsteady energetic large eddy and large scale swirl and tumble structures. Two dimensional temperature experiments were carried out using laser induced phosphorescence with thermographic phosphors seeded to the gas in the cylinder.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2234
Abdurrahman Imren, Valeri Golovitchev, Cem Sorusbay, Gerardo Valentino
With the advent of the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh to represent the engine geometry, the gap in flexibility between commercial and research modeling software becomes more narrow. In this study, we tried to perform a full cycle simulation of a 4-stroke HD diesel engine represented by a highly boosted research IF (Isotta Fraschini) engine using the KIVA-4 code. The engine mesh including the combustion chamber, intake and exhaust valves and helical manifolds was constructed using optional O-Grids catching a complex geometry of the engine parts with the help of the ANSYS ICEM CFD software. The KIVA-4 mesh input was obtained by a homemade mesh converter which can read STAR-CD and CFX outputs. The simulations were performed on a full 360 deg mesh consisting of 300,000 unstructured hexahedral cells at BDC. The physical properties of the liquid fuel were taken corresponding to those of real diesel #2 oil.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2235
Tobias Joelsson, Rixin Yu, Johan Sjöholm, Per Tunestal, Xue-Song Bai
This paper presents a computational study of the effects of fuel and thermal stratifications on homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process in a personal car sized internal combustion engine. Stratified HCCI conditions are generated using a negative valve overlap (NVO) technique. The aims of this study are to improve the understanding of the flow dynamics, the heat and mass transfer process and the onset of auto-ignition in stratified charges under different internal EGR rate and NVO conditions. The fuel is ethanol supplied through port-fuel injection; the fuel/air mixture is assumed to be homogenous before discharging to the cylinder. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to resolve in detailed level the flow structures, and the mixing and heat transfer between the residual gas and fresh fuel/air mixtures in the intake and compression strokes.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2238
Yongli Qi, Hao Liu, Kenneth Midkiff, Paulius Puzinauskas
Today's engine and combustion process development is closely related to the intake port layout. Combustion, performance and emissions are coupled to the intensity of turbulence, the quality of mixture formation and the distribution of residual gas, all of which depend on the in-cylinder charge motion, which is mainly determined by the intake port and cylinder head design. Additionally, an increasing level of volumetric efficiency is demanded for a high power output. Most optimization efforts on typical homogeneous charge spark ignition (HCSI) engines have been at low loads because that is all that is required for a vehicle to make it through the FTP cycle. However, due to pumping losses, this is where such engines are least efficient, so it would be good to find strategies to allow the engine to operate at higher loads.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2239
Yongli Qi, Hao Liu, Kenneth Midkiff, Paulius Puzinauskas
Hybrid vehicle engines modified for high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are a good choice for high efficiency and low NOx emissions. Such operation can result in an HEV when a downsized engine is used at high load for a large fraction of its run time to recharge the battery or provide acceleration assist. However, high EGR will dilute the engine charge and may cause serious performance problems such as incomplete combustion, torque fluctuation, and engine misfire. An efficient way to overcome these drawbacks is to intensify tumble leading to increased turbulent intensity at the time of ignition. The enhancement of turbulent intensity will increase flame velocity and improve combustion quality, therefore increasing engine tolerance to higher EGR. It is accepted that the detailed experimental characterization of flow field near top dead center (TDC) in an engine environment is no longer practical and cost effective.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0541
Chitralkumar V. Naik, Karthik Puduppakkam, Cheng Wang, Jeyapandian Kottalam, Long Liang, Devin Hodgson, Ellen Meeks
Designing advanced, clean and fuel-efficient engines requires detailed understanding of fuel chemistry. While knowledge of fuel combustion chemistry has grown rapidly in recent years, the representation of conventional fossil fuels in full detail is still intractable. A popular approach is to use a model-fuel or surrogate blend that can mimic various characteristics of a conventional fuel. Despite the use of surrogate blends, there remains a gap between detailed chemistry and its utilization in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), due to the prohibitive computational cost of using thousands of chemical species in large numbers of computational cells. This work presents a set of software tools that help to enable the use of detailed chemistry in representing conventional fuels in CFD simulation. The software tools include the Surrogate Blend Optimizer and a suite of automated mechanism reduction strategies.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0540
Pouria Mehrani, Harry C. Watson
Cyclic variability in spark ignition engine combustion, especially at high dilution through lean burn or high EGR rates, places limits on in-cylinder NOx reduction and thermal efficiency. Flame wrinkling, resulting from interactions with turbulence, is a potential source of cyclic variations in turbulence. Previous studies have shown that flame kernels are subject to significant distortions when they are smaller than the integral length scale of turbulence. With the assumption that flame development is not subject to noticeable variations, after it reaches the integral length scale, the authors have shown that turbulent-burning-caused combustion variability can be successfully modeled as a function of laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity. This paper explores the contributions of flame wrinkling to flame kernel growth variation. As the kernel growth problem is complex, this study only explores one of the many aspects of the problem.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0542
Marcel Skarohlid
This paper deals with the influence of CO, CO₂, N₂, H₂, C₂H₆, C₃H₈ and C₄H₁₀ content in fuel on basic engine integral parameters. The focus is on the influence of biogas fuel composition on engine thermodynamic features. The paper describes the iterative regression method evaluating the influence of individual gas mass fraction and engine operation parameters on cumulative heat release curve of SI engines. The parameters for recalculation of heat release patterns depending on individual gas mass fraction in fuel and operation parameters are derived. The modeled cumulative heat release patterns are converted into burned fuel fraction pattern. The particular outputs are generalized using GT-POWER-based model results.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0543
Chen Huang, Valeri Golovitchev, Andrei Lipatnikov
A semi-detailed chemical mechanism for combustion of gasoline-ethanol blends, which is based on sub-mechanisms of gasoline surrogate and for ethanol is developed and validated aiming at CFD engine modeling. The gasoline surrogate is composed of iso-octane, toluene, and n-heptane in volumetric proportions of 55%:35%:10%, respectively. In this way, the hydrogen-carbon atomic ratio H/C, which is around 1.87 for real gasoline, is accurately reproduced as well as a mixture equivalence ratio that is important for Gasoline Direct Injection engine applications. The integrated mechanism for gasoline-ethanol blends includes 120 species participating in 677 reactions. The mechanism is tested against experimental data on ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds, obtained for various n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene/ethanol-air mixtures under various equivalence ratios, initial temperatures, and pressures. Chemical, thermodynamic and transport properties used in the calculations are discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0544
Kentaro Watanabe, Shingo Ito, Tadashi Tsurushima
Gasoline engines employ various mechanisms for improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions to deal with environmental problems. Direct fuel injection is one such technology. This paper presents a new quasi-dimensional combustion model applicable to direct injection gasoline engine. The Model consists of author's original in-cylinder turbulence and mixture homogeneity sub model suitable for direct fuel injection conditions. Model validation results exhibit good agreement with experimental and 3D CFD data at steady state and transient operating conditions.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0548
Itsuhei Kohri, Yuji Kobayashi, Yukio Matsushima
The technology concerning thermo and fluid dynamics is one of the important fields which have made great progress along with rapid advance in computational resources. Especially, the CFD technology has been proved as successful contribution to the development of the engine cooling system. Therefore, this technology is widely used at early phase of the vehicle development. However, a serious problem has been remained that it does not always give practical precision. Particularly, the cooling fan is one of the primary components in the cooling system to determine the performance, while practical calculation method without depending on large resources has not established.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0546
Roda Bounaceur, Oliver Herbinet, Rene Fournet, Pierre-Alexandre Glaude, Frederique Battin-Leclerc, Antonio Pires da Cruz, Mohammed Yahyaoui, Karine Truffin, Gladys Moreac
An unified model with a single set of kinetic parameters has been proposed for modeling laminar flame velocities of several alkanes using detailed kinetic mechanisms automatically generated by the EXGAS software. The validations were based on recent data of the literature. The studied compounds are methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, iso-octane, and two mixtures for natural gas and surrogate gasoline fuel. Investigated conditions are the following: unburned gases temperature was varied from 300 to 600 K, pressures from 0.5 to 25 bar, and equivalence ratios range from 0.4 to 2. For the overall studied compounds, the agreement between measured and predicted laminar burning velocities is quite good.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0549
Federico Brusiani, Gian Marco Bianchi, Alberto Bianchi D' Espinosa
The fluid dynamic of fully turbulent flows is characterized by several length scales bounded between the flow field dimension (large scales) and the diffusive action of the molecular viscosity (small scale). The large scales of motion are responsible of the main momentum transport while the small scales of motion are responsible of the energy dissipation into heat. In some cases the analysis of the large scales could be enough to explain the behaviour of the fluid dynamic system under investigation but, in other cases, the effect of all the turbulent scales have to be considered. A classic example of the latter working condition is the aerodynamic field where the efficiency is dictated by a fine equilibrium between mean flow conditions (driven by large turbulent scales) and laminar/turbulent boundary layer evolution (driven by small turbulent scales).
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0601
Atsushi Matsumoto, Wayne R. Moore, Ming-Chia Lai, Yi Zheng, Matthew Foster, Xing-Bin Xie, David Yen, Keith Confer, Eunjoo Hopkins
Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0245
Zhenfei Zhan, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric which can evaluate the differences of both the time history and the key features, such as phase shift, magnitude, and slope between test and CAE curves. One of the promising metrics is Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EARTH), which was recently developed. Three independent error measures that associated with physically meaningful characteristics (phase, magnitude, and slope) were proposed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0258
Yang Yang, William Liou, James Sheng, David Gorsich, Sudhakar Arepally
Ground vehicle subjecting to a blast can sustain vehicle damages and occupant injuries. Direct blast thermal and force loadings compromise vehicle structural integrity and cause damages. Computer simulations of vehicle blast wave damages can be obtained by solving the gas dynamics of the blast wave and the structural dynamics of the vehicle, through a projection of the wave's impact on the vehicle structure. There are various possible ways that the blast can cause injuries to the vehicle occupants, such as direct collision with objects instantly accelerated by the blast pressure and impact by the secondary shock waves transmitted through the platform structure. This paper describes a parallel computer simulation methodology that can potentially be applied to predict the structure damage and the associated occupant kinematics during a blast event by solving the multi-physics problem of fluid dynamics, solid dynamics, and multi-body dynamics.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0268
Jeffery R. Anderson, E. Harry Law
Traditional Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for automobiles is usually accomplished through the use of estimated vehicle dynamics from simplified models that rely on parameters such as cornering stiffness that can change with the vehicle state and time. This paper proposes a different method for electronic stability control of oversteer by predicting the degree of instability in a vehicle. The algorithm is solely based on measurable response characteristics including lateral acceleration, yaw rate, speed, and driver steering input. These signals are appropriately conditioned and evaluated with fuzzy logic to determine the degree of instability present. When the “degree of instability” passes a certain threshold, the appropriate control action is applied to the vehicle in the form of differential yaw braking. Using only the measured response of the vehicle alleviates the problem of degraded performance when vehicle parameters change.
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