Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 3171
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2091
Michael J. Lance, C. Scott Sluder, Samuel Lewis, John Storey
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions standards. In order to better understand fouling mechanisms, eleven field-aged EGR coolers provided by seven different engine manufacturers were characterized using a suite of techniques. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy following mounting the samples in epoxy and polishing. Optical microscopy was able to discern the location of hydrocarbons in the polished cross-sections. Chemical compositions were measured using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Mass per unit area along the length of the coolers was also measured.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2155
Stefan de Goede, Tiaan Rabe, Riaan Bekker, Sibusiso Mtongana, John Edwards
Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine technology is becoming increasingly common in the South African and global vehicle parcs. South Africa is in a unique position because a significant portion of all liquid fuels consumed are synthetically produced from coal and gas. These fuels are mainly supplied into the inland regions, particularly the Gauteng province, the economic heartland of South Africa and the most densely populated area in the country. It is important to understand the performance of synthetic fuels in the latest generation engines, in order to ensure that these fuels are fit for use in these new applications. The latest generation DISI gasoline engines (also known as Gasoline Direct Injection™ and Fuel Stratified Injection™) differ significantly in operation to older Port-Fuel-Injected (PFI) engines.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2243
Jim Barker, G John Langley, Paul Richards
The need to meet the US 2007 emissions legislation has necessitated a change in Diesel engine technology, particularly to the fuel injection equipment (FIE). At the same time as these engine technology changes, legislation has dictated a reduction in fuel sulphur levels and there has also been increased use of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel as a fuel blending component. The combination of changes to the engine and the fuel has apparently led to a sharp rise in the number of reports of field problems resulting from deposits within the FIE. The problem is usually manifested as a significant loss of power or the engine failing to start. These symptoms are often due to deposits to be found within the fuel injectors or to severe fouling of the fuel filter. The characteristics of the deposits found within different parts of the fuel system can be noticeably different.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2254
Russell P. Fitzgerald, Richard R. Steeper
An infrared laser absorption technique has been developed to measure in-cylinder concentrations of CO in an optical, automotive HCCI engine. The diagnostic employs a distributed-feedback, tunable diode laser selected to emit light at the R15 line of the first overtone of CO near 2.3 μm. The collimated laser beam makes multiple passes through the cylinder to increase its path length and its sampling volume. High-frequency modulation of the laser output (wavelength modulation spectroscopy) further enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and detection limits of CO. The diagnostic has been tested in the motored and fired engine, exhibiting better than 200-ppm sensitivity for 50-cycle ensemble-average values of CO concentration with 1-ms time resolution. Fired results demonstrate the ability of the diagnostic to quantify CO production during negative valve overlap (NVO) for a range of fueling conditions.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2262
Cinzia Tornatore, Simona Merola, Paolo Sementa
Nowadays an elevated number of two, three and four wheels vehicles circulating in the world-wide urban areas is equipped with Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engines. Their technological level is high, but a further optimization is still possible, especially at low engine speed and high load. To this purpose, the scientific community is now focused on deepening the understanding of thermo fluid dynamic phenomena that takes place in this kind of engine: the final purpose is to find key points for the reduction in engine specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions without a decrease in performance. In this work, the combustion process was investigated in an optically accessible single cylinder PFI SI engine. It was equipped with the head, injection device and exhaust line of a commercial small engine for two-wheel vehicles, it had the same geometrical characteristics in terms of bore, stroke and compression ratio.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0444
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Keith Snavely, Jason Coryell
Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0269
Adam Bryant, Joseph Beno, Damon Weeks
Battlefield reconnaissance is an integral part of today's integrated battlefield management system. Current reconnaissance technology typically requires land based vehicle systems to observe while stationary or, at best, significantly limits travel speeds while collecting data. By combining current Canadian Light Armored Vehicle based reconnaissance systems with the Center for Electromechanics (CEM) electronically controlled active Electromechanical Suspension System (EMS), opportunities exist to substantially increase cross-country speeds at which useful reconnaissance data may be collected. This report documents a study performed by The University of Texas Center for Electromechanics with funding from L3-ES to use existing modeling and simulation tools to explore potential benefits provided by EMS for reconnaissance on the move.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0441
Olivier Brunel, Rainer Moller
Electrification of the power train will play a key role in the struggle for higher energy efficiencies and reduced emissions of vehicles. Optimized control of modern electric motors requires precise measurement of the rotor position. In most industrial applications optoelectronic or magnetic incremental sensors or inductive resolves are used for the position measurement. Deploying electric drives in cars, however, adds additional requirements concerning robustness, manufacturing costs, integration and operating safety which are difficult to satisfy with traditional sensor technology. The drawbacks of current sensor technologies like high costs or sensibility to EMI will not be acceptable any more when electric power trains go into mass production. Electricfil has developed an Electric Motor Position Sensor (EMPOS) that provides a number of advantages over traditional sensors, including very high robustness to mechanical tolerances, a digital interface and low production costs [1].
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0392
Dongxu Li, Kumaraswamy Hebbale, Chunhao Lee, Farzad Samie, Chi-Kuan Kao
Automobile drivers/passengers perceive automatic transmission (AT) shift quality through the torque transferred by transmission output shaft, so that torque regulation is critical in transmission shift control and etc. However, since a physical torque sensor is expensive, current shift control in AT is usually achieved by tracking a turbine speed profile due to the lack of the transmission output torque information. A direct torque feedback has long been desired for transmission shift control enhancement. This paper addresses a “virtual” torque sensor (VTS) algorithm that can provide an accurate estimate on the torque variation in the vehicle transmission output shaft using (existing) speed sensors. We have developed the algorithm using both the transmission output speed sensor and anti-lock braking system speed sensors. Practical solutions are provided to enhance the accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm has been successfully implemented on both FWD and RWD vehicles.
2010-12-01
Technical Paper
2010-01-1582
Joseph Maiorana, Bruce P. Minaker
In this study the capabilities of a semi-active suspension and an active roll suspension are evaluated for comparison with a passive suspension. The vehicle used is a utility truck modeled as a multi-body system in ADAMS/Car while the ECU (electronic control unit) is built in Matlab/Simulink. Cosimulation is used in linking the vehicle model with the controller by exchanging the input and output values of each sub-system with one another. For the simulation models considered, results indicate that for a fish-hook cornering maneuver the semi-active suspension is limited in increasing vehicle performance while the active roll suspension significantly improves it. Further analysis is needed to confirm these findings.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1672
Ruth Hinrichs, Marcos Vasconcellos, Marcos Roberto Soares
Magnetite and graphite are very common phases present on the surface of polymer-matrix composite (PMC) and cast iron disc/drum couples in run in automotive brakes. Considering that some manufacturers use magnetite as raw material in their products this work investigates the generation of magnetite found in the third body as a process of tribo-reaction. Simplified brake pad and brake linings compositions without magnetite were produced and tested using the Brake Lining Quality Control Test Procedure - SAE J661 . After testing the surfaces were observed with Glancing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Results showed regions containing magnetite on the steel/glass fibers.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0218
Johnson Joseph, S Raja, Y Charles Lu
Piezoelectric materials are smart materials that can undergo mechanical deformation when electrically or thermally activated. An electric voltage is generated on the surfaces when a piezoelectric material is subjected to a mechanical stress. This is referred to as the ‘direct effect’ and finds application as sensors. The external geometric form of this material changes when it is subjected to an applied voltage, known as ‘converse effect’ and has been employed in the actuator technology. Such piezoelectric actuators generate enormous forces and make highly precise movements that are extremely rapid, usually in the micrometer range. The current work is focused towards the realization and hence application of the actuator technology based on piezoelectric actuation. Finite element simulations are performed on different types of piezoelectric actuations to understand the working principle of various actuators.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0217
Danick Gallant, Véronique Savard
Atmospheric pressure plasma sources are new devices for modifying the surface condition of engineering materials such as thermoplastic and thermoset-based composites. Because they operate at ambient conditions, these plasma systems can be used on a production line as a pre-treatment solution prior to painting or adhesive bonding to significantly improve adhesion strength. However, their efficient use requires sound understanding on how they modify the surface state of materials and, by the same token, how these modifications can be detected and quantified as regards their ability to provide high-strength adhesive joints. Polypropylene, since it is one of the most difficult-to-bond thermoplastic polymers and, at the same time, one of the most interesting polymers for the automotive industry (due to low cost, widespread use in the formulation of composites, lightweight and recyclability), was used in this paper as a model polymer.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0134
Shinichiro Hirai, Takuya Kataoka, Tatsumi Kumada, Takaaki Goto
Vehicles have been more required to save energy against the background of the tendency of ecology. As the result of improving efficiency of internal combustion engines and adoption of electric power train, heat loss from engine coolant, which is used to heat the cabin, decreases and consequently additional energy may be consumed to maintain thermal comfort in the passenger compartment in winter. This paper is concerned with the humidity control system that realizes reduction of ventilation heat loss by controlling recirculation rate of the HVAC system by using highly accurate humidity sensor to evaluate risk of fogging on the windshield. As the results of the control, fuel consumption of hybrid vehicles decreases and maximum range of electric vehicles increases.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0097
Elvio Bonisoli, Stefano Tornincasa, Sandro Moos, Francesco Di Monaco, Maurizio Repetto, Fabio Freschi
This paper presents a multi-physic modeling of an electromechanical energy scavenging device able to supply energy inside car tires for wireless sensors. A permanent magnet, connected to the inner liner of a tire, is accelerated along a guide by the tire deformation during car motion; by interacting with coils it generates a power which is conditioned by a proper electronic interfaced to an external load. The original approach implemented in this kind of device is the nonlinear dynamic properties designed and controlled: adaptive resonance in function of car velocity is optimized for increasing its global efficiency. The energy conversion process takes into account the simulation of different phenomena such as: non linear dynamic and adaptive resonant behavior of the seismic mass, electromagnetic and magneto-static coupling between moving mass and coils, transfer of the generated power to an external load by means of a nonlinear circuit interface.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0095
Gurkan Erdogan, Sanghyun Hong, Francesco Borrelli, Karl Hedrick
Intelligent tires are envisioned to be an important part of the future vehicle control systems and the three dimensional wireless MEMS accelerometers embedded inside the tire stand out as a promising candidate for the development of intelligent tires. The first part of the paper focuses on accelerometer based tire sensors for the estimation of slip angle and tire/road friction coefficient. We use a simple tire finite element model to generate lateral, tangential and radial tire accelerations for a fixed load and slip angle. The profiles are validated by using experimental data. The simulated acceleration profiles are used for the estimation of slip angle and tire/road friction coefficient. We present the estimation algorithms, promising simulative results and output sensitivities studies focused on the effects of changes in normal load, tire pressure and vehicle velocity.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0117
Sidharth Gupta
This paper will present the method for activation of exterior and interior lighting system during the vehicle level fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults, ignition switch failure etc. with intelligent light sensor. In vehicle the user safety is very important and exterior lighting system is playing a very important role during night driving condition. By considering the customer safety during any fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults or any other faults condition the vehicle exterior and interior lighting system should not be switched off.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0627
Jim Steppan, Brett Henderson, Kent Johnson, M. Yusuf Khan, Timothy Diller, Matthew Hall, Anthoniraj Lourdhusamy, Klaus Allmendinger, Ronald D. Matthews
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0694
Yue-Yun Wang, Yongsheng He, Sai Rajagopalan
Fuel economy improvement and stringent emission regulations worldwide require advanced air charging and combustion technologies, such as low temperature combustion, PCCI or HCCI combustion. Furthermore, NOx aftertreatment systems, like Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) or lean NOx trap (LNT), are needed to reduce vehicle tailpipe emissions. The information on engine-out NOx emissions is essential for engine combustion optimization, for engine and aftertreatment system development, especially for those involving combustion optimization, system integration, control strategies, and for on-board diagnosis (OBD). A physical NOx sensor involves additional cost and requires on-board diagnostic algorithms to monitor the performance of the NOx sensor.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0582
Christian Fischer, Thomas Fischer, Bernd Tibken
The unattended left behind of children in parked vehicles is one of the major causes of lethal or serious injuries to children in non-traffic accidents in the U. S. For this reason Delphi is interested in the development of a low cost left behind occupant recognition so that its safety division launched the evaluation of different approaches for a reliable detection system in 2008. This contribution discusses the sensor evaluation, experiments under different conditions and the classification via data mining algorithms based on two potential approaches. The first one uses high sensitive analogue accelerometers at the car chassis and the second one is based on a pressure mat in the seat. Occupants inside the vehicle produce vibrations at the car chassis which can be monitored by the accelerometers. The needed electronic and different experimental results are explained in regard to an autonomous left behind recognition. Subsequently the experiments with the pressure mat are discussed.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1337
Naohisa Niimi, Takahiko Yoshida, Toshiki Isogai
Humidity sensors used in automatic windshield defogging controls contribute to the improvement of fuel consumption. The optimum control of air conditioning systems can be realized by adding humidity information to conventional systems which have used only temperature information. While resistive humidity sensors have been widely used, their sensing range and responsiveness are observed as issues. Resistive sensors cannot function at a humidity range of around 100% RH as well as at a low temperature range, and have a low response rate to sudden changes in humidity. It is considered that resistive humidity sensors will be replaced with capacitive ones which have a wide sensing range and high responsiveness.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1334
Olivier Brunel, Frederic Duault, Jacques Lavy, Yann Creff, Bilal Youssef
In the frame of tighter emission requirements and environmental protection, future standards will soon lead to the use of an OBD soot sensor to monitor DPF leakage. Such a sensor will first be introduced in the US by MY 2015 and then in Europe for Euro 6.2 in 2017. The resistive ceramic sensing technology has been selected by most OEM as the most appropriate. The sensor collects the soot in a time cumulative manner and has an internal heater to clean the ceramic before each measurement sequence. The actual challenge of the hardware is to design a wide band collecting system with a high sensitivity and repeatability circuit processing. Electricfil has overcome major drawbacks of the resistive technology with an innovative sensor tip, with filtration features and a boosting electronic scheme. This sensor integrates internal diagnostic capability at power on and during operation.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1217
Masatsugu Inui, Makoto Kobayashi, Kensaku Oowaki, Takayoshi Furukawa, Yuji Mihara, Michiyasu Owashi
Reducing friction in the crankshaft main bearings is an effective means of improving the fuel efficiency of reciprocating internal combustion engines. To realize these improvements, it is necessary to understand the lubricating conditions, in particular the oil film pressure distributions between crankshaft and bearings. In this study, we developed a thin-film pressure sensor and applied it to the measurement of engine main bearing oil film pressure in a 4-cylinder, 2.5 L gasoline engine. This thin-film sensor is applied directly to the bearing surface by sputtering, allowing for measurement of oil film pressure without changing the shape and rigidity of the bearing. Moreover, the sensor material and shape were optimized to minimize influence from strain and temperature on the oil film pressure measurement. Measurements were performed at the No. 2 and 5 main bearings.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1300
Douglas Ball, David Moser, Yonghong Yang, David Lewis
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have finalized regulation that will reduce greenhouse gases and increase fuel economy for model year (MY) 2012-2016 light-duty vehicles. This ruling not only includes a CO₂ standard that will require vehicles to achieve fleet average 35 mpg by MY 2016, but will apply a cap on nitrous oxide (N₂O) and methane emissions to 10 and 30 mg/mile, respectively, however CO₂ emission reductions can be exchanged for either N₂O or methane credit. The work outlined investigates the N₂O emissions of a variety of low emission vehicles per the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure both bag and modal N₂O emissions. N₂O emissions were less than 1 mg/mile for three SULEV vehicles with 6,400 km-aged catalysts.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2453
Essam Oun Al-Zaini, Dean M. Chesterfield
This paper reports the optimisation study of a batch scaled ethanolysis conversion of waste frying oil carried out over aluminium phosphate-potassium bi-functional catalysts. All synthesised catalysts were analysed for their structural and surface chemical properties thereby following N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and CO2 and NH3-temperature programmed desorption techniques respectively. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also adopted for phase identification and atomic quantification studies respectively. Ethanolysis experiments were carried out eliminating reaction rate limitations caused by solid-liquid interfacial mass transport and intraparticle diffusion. Other operating parameters were also examined in the study. These included; reaction temperature, catalyst percentage loading on support, catalyst weight and reactants molar ratio (β).
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0167
Stavros Amanatidis, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Zissis Samaras, Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen
The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) has been earlier presented by Ntziachristos et al. (SAE Paper 2011-01-0626) as a novel small and robust instrument that can be directly installed in the exhaust line to measure exhaust particles without any dilution. The instrument is based on the electrical detection of aerosol. It is increasingly being used to measure exhaust particles from engines and vehicles with different exhaust configurations. In this study, a number of tests have been conducted using two sensors in parallel, one directly installed in the tailpipe and one installed in the CVS, side by side to the PM sampling filter. Aim of the study was to make recommendations on the proper use of the sensor and to check how the sensor signal compares to particulate mass, soot concentration, and particle number. A first finding is that external heating has to be provided to the sensor to avoid condensation.
2013-11-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9074
John Manyala, Massood Atashbar
The lubricant wear and degradation is a major cause of failure in industrial machines such as engines, pumps and gearboxes. This is primarily due to contaminants such as metal debris particles and depletion of the chemical and physical properties. This paper presents a low cost, multi-functional sensor for real-time monitoring of both oil level and the debris particles in oil lubricants for a gearbox application. The sensor system achieves a micrometer-order resolution (37.5 μm), high linearity (< 0.5 mm non-linearity) and insensitivity to viscosity changes due to wide temperature fluctuations from −40 °C to 135 °C, and is designed for ease of manufacturing and application in harsh transmission environment. The synergy from simultaneous data analysis from a multi-functional sensor has been demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively using mathematical analysis, computer simulation and physical experiments.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0146
Riccardo Amirante, Luciano A. Catalano, Carlo Coratella
Since the needle displacement exerts a fundamental influence in the operation of a Common Rail Diesel injection equipment, an accurate measurement of the instantaneous position of the control piston is crucial for a more thorough analysis of the behavior of the injectors, in particular when multiple injections are employed. Moreover, the development of a cheap instrumentation would allow to enlarge the Diesel engine on-board equipment with an instrumentation for the diagnosis of the injector operation. Eddy current sensors have been traditionally used in lab activities to measure the position of the needle inside the injector; apart from its high cost, the scientific literature clearly shows their inadequacy, given the presence of electromagnetic disturbance: the current pulse which controls the opening of the injector nozzles generates electromagnetic fields which strongly affect the acquisition of data.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2344
Daniel Skelton, Shaoping Xiong, John Lumkes, Farid Breidi
This paper introduces a high performance actuation mechanism to enable new systems and improve the performance and efficiency of existing systems. The concept described is based on coupling energy storage mechanisms with translational movement to increase the speed and controllability of linear actuators. Initial development is a high speed linear actuator for hydraulic proportional valves, and the concept can be extended into other applications. With high speed proportional valves, the performance of existing cam phasing systems can be improved or the actuation mechanisms can be applied directly to IC engine valve actuation. Other applications include active suspension control valves, transmission control valves, industrial and commercial vehicle fluid power systems, and fuel injection systems. The stored actuation energy (such as a rotating mass) is intermittently coupled and decoupled to produce linear or rotary motion in the primary actuator.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0477
Jaimoo Yoo, Ki Ho Yeo, Eui Chul Shin, Young Ha Jun
The major obstacle for the application of stainless steel bipolar plates is its high surface electrical resistance. J&L Tech Co. has developed proprietary processing technologies that have been applied on the commercially available thin stainless steel bipolar plates. Conductive carbon film approximately nano scale in thickness is coated on 316L stainless steel bipolar plates by plasma linear ion gun process. The Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy results reveal that the nanolayered conductive carbon coating is dense and compact with a few nano size of strong conductive graphitic crystallites and large number of amorphous carbon particles. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) results show that the surface conductivity of the bare 316L is significantly improved by our proprietary nanolayered conductive carbon coating, with very similar values of the baseline, gold coating on 316L.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3171

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: