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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1802
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0630
Pierre Solard, Alain Maiboom, Xavier Tauzia
Pollutant emissions standards (such like EURO 6 in Europe) are increasingly severe and force a search of new in-cylinder strategies and/or aftertreatment devices / schemes at a reasonable cost. On a conventional Diesel engine an excess of air is usually used to allow very high combustion efficiencies and reasonable levels of soot which can then be after-treated in a diesel particulates filter (DPF). As a consequence, NOx emissions cannot be easily after-treated (lean NOx trap (LNT) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are quite expensive even if effective, solutions), as a result they are generally controlled by means of internal measures such as High Pressure (HP) or Low Pressure (LP) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In light of ever more stringent NOx emissions regulations, NOx aftertreatment devices seem to be becoming unavoidable.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0615
George Karavalakis, Georgios Fontaras, Evaggelos Bakeas, Stamos Stournas
This study investigates the impact of low concentration biodiesel blends on the regulated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from a modern passenger vehicle. The vehicle was Euro 4 compliant fitted with a direct injection common-rail diesel engine and a diesel oxidation catalyst. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed on a chassis dynamometer using constant volume sampling (CVS) technique, following the European regulations. All measurements were conducted over the type approval New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the real-traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. Aiming to evaluate the fuel impact on emissions, a soy-based, a palm-based, and a rapeseed oil-based biodiesel were blended with an ultra-low sulfur diesel at proportions of 10, 20, and 30% by volume. The experimental results revealed that emissions of PM, HC and CO decreased with biodiesel over most driving conditions.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1307
Cheng Tan, Hongming Xu, Shi-Jin Shuai, Akbar Ghafourian, Dai Liu, Jianyi Tian
Transient emissions of a turbocharged three-litre V6 diesel engine fuelled by hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) blends were experimentally investigated and compared with transient emissions of diesel as reference. The transient emissions measurements were made by highly-dynamic emissions instrumentations including Cambustion HFR500, CLD500 and DMS500 particulate analyzer. The HVO blends used in this study were 30% and 60% of HVO in diesel by volume. The transient conditions were simulated by load increases over 5 s, 10 s and 20 s durations at a constant engine speed. The particulate, NO, HC concentrations were measured to investigate the mechanism of emission formation under such transient schedules. The results showed that as the load increased, NO concentrations initially had a small drop before dramatically increasing for all the fuels investigated which can be associated with the turbocharger lag during the load transient.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1348
Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Ryan O'Malley, Christopher Depcik, Edward Peltier
The modeling of emitted hydrocarbons from internal combustion engines for exhaust aftertreatment devices has remained relatively unchanged since the early 1970s. This older model subdivides the hydrocarbon species into fast, slow, and non-oxidizing components. Current and future regulations from the United States Environmental Protection Agency stretch the abilities of this methodology, necessitating the need for more advanced modeling techniques. To this end, this paper provides a review on the different groups of hydrocarbons in order to provide background and contextual information on the different species expected in diesel emissions. Additionally, this work groups these species into different categories, depending on their chemical make-up, impact on human health, reactivity in the environment, and their prevalence within diesel emissions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0121
Gary D. Neely, Shizuo Sasaki, Jeffrey A. Leet
The combination of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and conventional DI diesel combustion was studied on a light-duty diesel engine equipped with EGR and a common rail fuel injection system. This combustion mode is referred to as PCCI-DI combustion. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance and combustion characteristics of the engine operating under various levels of PCCI-DI combustion to determine if this mode of combustion was a viable in-cylinder NOX emissions reduction strategy. The premixed charge was obtained with early pilot injections (up to three) using a custom engine controller. The engine test conditions were limited to light and medium loads and moderate engine speeds. Engine tests consisted of sweeps of pilot injection timing and quantity, and number of pilot injections.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0127
Cheolwoong Park, Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae
Diesel fuel injection system is the most important part of the direct-injection diesel engine and, in recent years, it has become one of the critical technologies for emission control with the help of electronically controlled fuel injection. Common rail injection system has great flexibility in injection timing, pressure and multi-injections. Many studies and applications have reported the advantages of using common rail system to meet the strict emission regulation and to improve engine performance for diesel engines. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies on engine performance and emissions. The study was carried out on a single cylinder optical direct injection diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. Spray and combustion evolutions were visualized through a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0577
Marco Ranalli, Stefan Schmidt, Lee Watts
Simultaneous particulate and NOx reduction represents the next step to the reduction of diesel emissions. One of the most promising concepts to achieve this target involves the combination of two technologies already in use in the after-treatment technology - Diesel Particulate Filter and NOx Storage Catalyst - in the same component. The major issue to be solved is the design of a complex thermal strategy, for the regeneration of NOx emissions, particulate matter and possibly sulfates. For this set-up to function properly the engine must periodically generate a rich spike to induce the NOx desorption process. The system must also increase the exhaust gas temperature to induce the soot oxidation process. Complicating matters further, the regeneration process of the filter must also be controlled to avoid substrate or washcoat damage.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0422
Philippe Moulin, Gilles Corde, Michel Castagné, Grégory Rousseau
On diesel engines, a discrepancy between the air fuel ratio (AFR) of the cylinders can lead to a decrease of full load performances, an increase of pollutant and noise emissions and has an effect on the aftertreatment efficiency. A cylinder individual AFR estimator has been developed using Kalman filter techniques. This estimator is based on a physical model of the exhaust, and intended to be implemented in an engine management system. The time delay of the exhaust system, including the sensor, can be identified online. When applied on testbed acquisitions, the estimator gives good results over the whole operating range of the engine.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1444
Barbara Zelenka, Günter Hohenberg, Wolfgang Thiel, Peter M. Ziegler
This paper reports on the development and testing of a compact and mobile CVS system for the measurement of particulate matter emissions of diesel passenger cars. It consists of the same components as a conventional CVS system but needs much less space. Reducing the size of the CVS system was achieved by the optimization of the turbulent flow in the dilution tunnel by the use of an optimized mixing chamber, in which the engine exhaust gas is diluted with filtered ambient air. The measures taken to improve the turbulence in the dilution tunnel lead to the same effect as a tunnel with dimensions according to the legislative regulations. All the components of the mobile CVS system are arranged in a very compact design, so that the new system has a size of only about (1.70 x 0.80 x 2.10) m. Due to the mobility which is possible with such a design, the new system can be quickly adapted to different engine and vehicle test cells for passenger cars.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1432
Marco Ranalli, Juergen Klement, Markus Hoehnen, Ralf Rosenberger
The key feature of a reliable DPF system is the control over the amount of soot burnt during the regeneration. Since only an overall evaluation of the collected soot is possible on-board, only a DPF-system with homogeneous soot distribution can avoid areas of local overcharging which may lead to disastrous consequences during the filter regeneration. Hence, a system layout optimisation, which can ensure a good soot distribution also in the “worst-case” loading conditions, is necessary. The major problem in the optimisation work is related to the lack of measurement methods which could be standardised for series development. Indirect methods, such as the measurement of the velocity profile, provide only a rough estimation of the soot distribution, while other methods, like Computer Aided Tomography, are too complex and expensive for standard series investigations.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1433
Basel Ismail, Daniel Ewing, James S. Cotton, Jen-Shih Chang
A non-destructive neutron radiography technique was used to measure the thickness of diesel soot deposited in the tubes of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling devices. Measurements were performed to characterize the fouling in single-tube and three-tube devices for laminar and turbulent flows. Measurements were also performed to characterize the effect that the design of the inlet header had on the deposition characteristics in the device. The analysis of the neutron images showed that the soot deposition in the single-tube device occurred at a faster rate for a turbulent flow than for a laminar flow. The deposition thickness decreased along the tubes for both flow regimes. More soot deposited in the center tube of the three-tube bundle for the expansion angle 45° inlet header suggesting there was an uneven distribution of the exhaust gas flow in the tube bundle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1359
Steve D. Arnold
Over the past decade, the dramatic improvements in power density, responsiveness and low emissions in both turbo-diesel passenger vehicle and commercial vehicle engines have demanded significant alterations to the basic architecture of turbochargers. The emissions regulations already enacted worldwide, but not yet in force will demand further reaching changes to the basic concept of turbocharging. This paper explores the complex linkage between the aerodynamic machine (the turbocharger), the positive displacement machine (the engine), their new role as feed-gas generators for aftertreatment devices, and the divergence in requirements between passenger vehicle and commercial vehicle applications. The next generation requirements (2007) for both passenger vehicle and commercial vehicle diesel engines will be driven by the need for increased EGR rates.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1384
Kimiko Imai, Hiroyuki Kato, Tomohide Nishino, Kazuhiro Fukumoto
One of typical outcome of the desire for increasing passenger comfort is that especially for deodorant efficiency. Since customers are becoming so sensitive about cabin odor, development of more effective deodorant filter is strongly required. Out side of vehicle, which most being disliked is diesel odor, therefore, analysis on this diesel gas and investigation to identity the ingredient for the main cause of the strong odor were executed, and found that acetaldehyde gas is the one. Therefore, identification of the chemical that adsorb acetaldehyde gas with being impregnated in activated carbon was required, since activated carbon itself does not have ability of adsorbing acetaldehyde gas, and finally found appropriate chemical, vitamin Bx. At the end of this report, sensory evaluation result by twenty panelists with deodorant type cabin air filter impregnated with vitamin Bx, and its efficiency for deodorant will be shown at the end of this report.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1402
Jean-Paul Hardy, Hamid Lahjaily, Magali Besson, Patrick Gastaldi
Thanks to a high specific torque, associated to a low fuel consumption, the market share of the Diesel engine has not stopped increasing during the last decade. Nevertheless, due to the strong emissions regulations to come, the challenge of the Diesel will be to save its advantage in CO2 and to drastically reduce NOx and particulate emissions, whilst offering the save driving pleasure. Hence new concepts of combustion are in development in order to keep NOx emissions as low as possible at an acceptable cost. The homogeneous combustion, by generating a lower pollutant level directly in the combustion chamber, seems to be a very promising way in this direction. Especially, the NADI™ concept, developed by IFP has already shown a high potential in NOx and particulate simultaneous reduction, but up to now its relative low specific power at full load compared to the next generation of conventional Diesel engines could be a major drawback for a global application.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1399
Lyle M. Pickett, Dennis L. Siebers
Methods of producing non-sooting, low flame temperature diesel combustion were investigated in an optically-accessible, quiescent constant-volume combustion vessel. Combustion and soot formation processes of single, isolated fuel jets were studied after autoignition and transient premixed combustion and while the injector needle was fully open (i.e., during the quasi-steady mixing-controlled phase of heat-release for diesel combustion).The investigation showed that fuel jets that do not undergo soot formation in any region of the reacting jet and that also have a low flame temperature could be produced in at least three different ways during mixing-controlled combustion: First, using a #2 diesel fuel and an injector tip with a 50 micron orifice, a fuel jet was non-sooting in ambient oxygen concentrations as low as 10% (simulating the use of EGR) for typical diesel ambient temperatures (1000 K) and densities.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1942
Ken Nagashima, Yasuyuki Banno, Yasuharu Kanno, Makoto Nagata
Combustion behavior of the SOF (Soluble organic fraction) fraction of diesel particulate by flow-thru type diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) was studied. A two brick DOC system with an air gap showed higher SOF performance than a single brick DOC of the same total volume. Collision frequency of the TPM (total particulate matter) to the catalyst layer was studied by calculation of the turbulence energy in the gas flow channel. No large difference in collision frequency was observed between one brick and two bricks. The front face effect was calculated from the geometric surface and it was confirmed that such an effect was small in the two brick DOC case. The SOF performance advantage for the two brick DOC system separated by an air gap was due to a thermo-mass effect created by reducing the DOC volume.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1910
Salvador M. Aceves, Daniel L. Flowers, Francisco Espinosa-Loza, Joel Martinez-Frias, John E. Dec, Magnus Sjöberg, Robert W. Dibble, Randy P. Hessel
We have conducted a detailed numerical analysis of HCCI engine operation at low loads to investigate the sources of HC and CO emissions and the associated combustion inefficiencies. Engine performance and emissions are evaluated as fueling is reduced from typical HCCI conditions, with an equivalence ratio ϕ = 0.26 to very low loads (ϕ = 0.04). Calculations are conducted using a segregated multi-zone methodology and a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for iso-octane with 859 chemical species. The computational results agree very well with recent experimental results. Pressure traces, heat release rates, burn duration, combustion efficiency and emissions of hydrocarbon, oxygenated hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide are generally well predicted for the whole range of equivalence ratios. The computational model also shows where the pollutants originate within the combustion chamber, thereby explaining the changes in the HC and CO emissions as a function of equivalence ratio.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1912
Hiroyuki Yamada, Masataka Yoshii, Atsumu Tezaki
Applicability of detailed chemical kinetic models to HCCI runs in terms of ignition timings and intermediate species composition has been investigated. An existed n-heptane model and its expansion to n-decane established in this study were particularly concerned. Exhaust gas analysis showing transient composition after cool flames indicated that the unmodified n-decane model overestimates fractions of various grade of aldehydes, whereas it represents experimental ignition timings. The aldehyde yield was found to be sensitive to reactions of aldehyde with OH rather than aldehyde formation reactions. Reactions of QOOH decomposition forming HO2 were also suggested as a candidate to be revised for the model improvement on ignition delays.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1917
Christof Schulz, Joachim Gronki, Sven Andersson
Multi-species laser based imaging measurements have been carried out in a reacting Diesel spray in order to provide a detailed data base for model development and validation. In a high-pressure high-temperature spray chamber the measurements addressed the fuel vapor concentration, ignition and flame development and the soot formation. The fuel vapor distribution was measured quantitatively by Rayleigh scattering and compared to measurements by tracer laser-induced fluorescence. Soot volume fractions were observed by laser-induced incandescence. Fuel vapor and soot distributions were measured simultaneously and provide insight in the ignition and pollutant formation process. Specific digital image processing algorithms were developed to correct for beam steering and laser attenuation.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1966
Daisuke Kawano, Hiroyoshi Naito, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Shigeo Hori, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions from diesel engine. In general, high octane number and volatility fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because very lean mixture must be formed during ignition delay of the fuel. However, it is necessary to improve fuel injection systems, when these fuels are used in diesel engine. The purpose of the present study is the achievement of HCCI combustion in DI diesel engine without the large-scale improvements of engine components. Various high octane number fuels are mixed with diesel fuel as a base fuel, and the mixed fuels are directly applied to DI diesel engine. At first, the cylinder pressure and heat release rate of each mixed fuel are analyzed. The ignition delay of HCCI operation decreases with an increase in the operation load, although that of conventional diesel operation does not almost varied.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1945
Thierry Colliou, Jacques Lavy, Brigitte Martin, Karine Chandès, Guy Pichon, Loys Pierron
To ensure overall optimisation of heavy duty engine performance (with the respect of NOx&PM future European and US emissions standards), the use of a high efficiency NOx after-treatment system such as a NOx trap appears to be necessary. But running in rich conditions, even for a short time, leads to a large increase of particulate emissions so that a particulate filter is required. A first investigation with a NOx-trap only has been carried out to evaluate and optimise the storage, destorage and reduction phases from the NOx conversion efficiency and fuel penalty trade-off. The equivalence ratio level, the fuel penalty and the temperature level of the NOx-trap have been shown as a key parameter. Respective DPF and LNA locations have been studied. The configuration with the NOx-trap upstream provides the best NOx / fuel penalty trade-off since it allows NOx slip reduction and does not disturb the rich pulses.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1863
Mitsuharu Oguma, Shinichi Goto, Tomoko Watanabe
The engine performance and exhaust characteristics of the DME-powered diesel engine with an injection system developed for DME were investigated. The injection pump is an inline type that can inject double amount of DME fuel compared to the base injection pump because the calorific value of DME is about half lower than that of diesel fuel. The effect of injection timing on engine performances such as thermal efficiency, engine torque, and exhaust characteristics were investigated. Maximum torque and power with DME could be achieved the same or greater level compared to diesel fuel operation. Considering over all engine performances, the best dynamic injection timings without EGR were -3, -3, -6 and -9 deg. ATDC in 1120, 1680, 2240 and 2800 rpm engine speeds respectively in this experiment.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1858
Kensuke Nishi, Koji Korematsu, Junya Tanaka
In order to achieve a sustainable society, vegetable oil derived from solar energy is a major topic of interest. Vegetable oils are can potentially be utilized as fuel in applications such as engines, gas turbines, furnaces, boilers and steam power plants. In this paper, rapeseed oil as a fuel for diesel engine was studied. There are seven refinement processes that improve the quality of the oil because the rapeseed oil is mainly produced for food. Rapeseed oil is produced from the raw material through compression, solvent extraction, degumming, deoxidation, bleaching, deodorization and a final-refinement process. However, all of these refinement processes are not necessary if the oil is to be used for diesel fuel. The performance of the engines operated by the tested fuels, which were extracted at the end of each of the seven refinement stages, was investigated. The major findings of this study are as follows.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1864
Byeong-il An, Yoshio Sato, Seang-Wock Lee, Toshimitsu Takayanagi
Recently there has been much interest in Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new fuel for diesel cycle engines. DME combines the advantages of a high cetane number with soot-free combustion, which makes it eminently suitable for compression engines. According to the latest engine test results, however, DME engine energy consumption was inferior to a diesel engine's under a heavy load. DME probably requires strong air-fuel mixing and short fuel injection. Some tests have reported that DME engine performance almost equals a diesel engine's by injecting high rail pressure DME into standard or slightly modified diesel common rail injection equipment. The effect, however, of higher injection pressure on the rates of heat release and spray distribution is unclear. In this study the rail pressure levels examined included 20, 25, 30, and 35 MPa. The results obtained from a single cylinder heavy-duty engine test show that the rate of heat release increases during the premixed combustion phase.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1849
Bruce A. Buchholz, Charles J. Mueller, Ansis Upatnieks, Glen C. Martin, William J. Pitz, Charles K. Westbrook
The effect of oxygenate molecular structure on soot emissions from a DI diesel engine was examined using carbon-14 (14C) isotope tracing. Carbon atoms in three distinct chemical structures within the diesel oxygenate dibutyl maleate (DBM) were labeled with 14C. The 14C from the labeled DBM was then detected in engine-out particulate matter (PM), in-cylinder deposits, and CO2 emissions using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The results indicate that molecular structure plays an important role in determining whether a specific carbon atom either does or does not form soot. Chemical-kinetic modeling results indicate that structures that produce CO2 directly from the fuel are less effective at reducing soot than structures that produce CO before producing CO2.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1877
I. Arsie, F. Di Genova, C. Pianese, M. Sorrentino, G. Rizzo, A. Caraceni, P. Cioffi, G Flauti
The paper deals with the development of a system of phenomenological models for the simulation of combustion and NOx-Soot emissions in Common-Rail Multi-Jet Diesel engines. The system has been built by following a modular modeling approach and is suitable for the implementation in the framework of Hardware In the Loop (HIL) ECU rapid prototyping. A single-zone model simulates the ignition delay and the combustion during a sequence of pilot, pre and main fuel injections for a production 1,9 liters Diesel engine equipped with High Pressure Injection system, electronically controlled. The heat release model is based on the synthetic description of both premixed and diffusive combustion. The Zeldovich mechanism has been used to simulate the formation of NO emissions while the Soot model is based on the approach proposed by Hiroyasu. The models have been tested vs. a wide set of experimental data with a good accuracy in predicting pressure cycle and heat release.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1314
Kiyoshi Suginuma, Hajime Muto, Hiroto Nakagawa, Takeo Yahagi, Tatusya Suzuki
Hino Motors developed J-series 4.7-liter inline-four cylinder and 7.7-liter inline-six cylinder engines for complying with the 2004 U.S. exhaust emissions regulations. Several technologies were incorporated in the development process to accomplish simultaneous reductions in both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while the engine performance, reliability, and durability were maintained at the levels acceptable for truck application. Newly developed technologies include a cooled EGR system, a common-rail fuel injection system, a VNT system, and an engine control system for harmonized control of EGR valve and VNT. This paper reports the development approaches and results.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1315
John Schwoerer, Sotir Dodi, Marty Fox, Shengqiang Huang, Zhou Yang
Internal exhaust gas recirculation (IEGR) with retarded injection timing can provide a 30% reduction in diesel nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions and is an attractive solution to meeting NOx emission levels in the range of 3.4-4.0 g/bkW-hr (2.5-3.0 g/bhp-hr) for heavy-duty diesel engines, especially for off-road and vocational applications. At lower NOx emissions levels, IEGR may be used to supplement cooled EGR or to control HCCI combustion. Alternative valve actuation strategies for IEGR are reviewed. A valve actuation system to provide on-off control of IEGR combined with compression-release braking is presented. System design and simulation results are reviewed. Engine performance predictions and initial test data are discussed, including turbocharger sizing and particulate emission considerations. System reliability is calculated using Weibull data from similar proven components.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1312
Hiroshi Horiuchi, Yoshiki Ihara, Tohru Shimizu, Satoshi Niino, Koji Shoyama
The Hino E13C was developed for heavy-duty truck application to meet Japan's 2003 NOx and 2005 particulate emissions standards simultaneously with significant fuel economy improvement. A combined EGR system consisting of an external EGR system with a highly efficient EGR cooler and an internal EGR system with an electronically controlled valve actuation device was newly developed to reduce NOx emissions for all operating conditions without requiring a larger engine coolant radiator. A Hino-developed DPR was installed to achieve extremely low particulate emissions at the tail pipe. Increased strength of engine structural components and a ductile cast iron piston enabled high BMEP operation at lower engine speeds and reductions of both engine size and weight. This paper describes key technologies developed for the E13C as well as the development results.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0589
Michael Akard, Karl Oestergaard, Richard E. Chase, Joel F. O. Richert, Hirokazu Fukushima, Masayuki Adachi
The regulated level of particulate mass for 2007 heavy duty diesel on-road engines is 0.01 g/bkhp-hr. Measurement of this low level of particulate by weighing is costly and time consuming. The weighing method must measure 100 μg or less of particulate on a filter that weighs about 100 mg with a resolution of ± 2.5 μg or better. This means that the microbalance and sampling handling procedure must be accurate within ±25 ppm by mass or ±1/40,000. It requires a microbalance with 0.1 μg precision housed in a special environment. Moreover, the weighing method involves a lengthy process. The filter must be equilibrated, and then pre- and post-weighed, usually with repeat measurements. An alternative to gravimetric analysis is a thermal mass analyzer that measures the semi-volatile organic fraction (SOF), as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned quartz filter. The calibration of the thermal mass measurement is discussed in detail.
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